ECB Planning for Long Term Success


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ECB Planning for Long Term Success

  1. 1. Planning for Long Term SuccessThe Long Term Athlete Development Model for Cricket Guidelines and Principles
  2. 2. ContentsIntroduction 4The Long Term Athlete Development Model for Cricket 5The Player Development Pathway 6Competition Framework 6Enthusing Participation and Following 8A Vibrant Domestic Game 10Successful England Teams 12The 6 Stages of LTAD for Cricket:Fundamentals Stage 14Learning to Train Stage 16Training to Train Stage 17Training to Compete Stage 18Training to Win Stage 19Retirement, Retraining & Retention Stage 20Glossary of Terms 21Where can I find out more? 22 3
  3. 3. IntroductionThis document is intended as a guide for coaches, The LTAD model for cricket delivers on the ECB’s fourmanagers, administrators, parents, teachers and others strategic key pillars as described inwho play a part in the development of young cricketers. “Building Partnerships: Cricket’s Strategic Plan 2005-2009 – from playground to test arena”:It should be viewed as a route map which sets outguidelines and provides player development principlesusing the philosophies of the Long Term AthleteDevelopment model for cricket. Vision “To become and remain the most respected cricket nation in the world”It describes the performance pathway for players atschool, club, district, county, regional and national levelsand identifies the appropriate programme content for eachskill and ability level along a child’s cricketing journeyfrom novice to accomplished performer. If all thoseinvolved in this process understand what is required, Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 1when, how and by whom then we can create the bestenvironment for realising individual potential in the sport. E V E SThis model provides a framework which all thoseinvolved in the development of that individual can use for Effective Vibrant Enthusing Successfulguidance. It should not be viewed as a rigid set of rules Leadership and Domestic Game Following & England Teamsbut more as a guiding set of principles which can inform Governance Participationdecision making. It will and should evolve over time Amongst Youngand be progressively adapted to the specific needs Peopleof the sport.4
  4. 4. Approximate The Long Term AthleteStage Age Range Key PointsFundamentals 6-9 boys • Fun and Participation Development Model for Cricket 6-8 girls • Overall Athletic Development including a wide range of movement activities • Development of the ABC’s – Agility, Balance, Coordination & Speed • Introduction to the basic skills of throwing, catching & striking Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) is about providing the • Introduction to modified and simple games not formal matches player with the right training and practice, competition and • Participation in as many other sports & activities as possible recovery over the course of their career, in particular in relation • Introduction to simple rules & ethics • Well structured and monitored programme to the important early growth and development years of young people.Learn To Train 9-12 boys+* • Introduction to general physical conditioning for cricket 8-11 girls+* • Shaping & patterning of more specific cricket skills • Continue developing athletic skills including ABC’S as part of programme It is also about trying to make all individuals as good as they • Modified games to teach understanding (incl. decision making & game can be. Therefore this model should not be seen as exclusively awareness) with 4:1 Practice:Competition ratio • Participation in at least 3 other complementary sports to cricket about producing elite players but providing everybody with the • Remedial programme support opportunity of realising their potential within the sport. It is just • Development of positive attitudes to self, others and activities engaged in as important to create a positive, dynamic and rewarding cricketTraining To Train 12-16 boys* • Individualised training programmes with special emphasis on developing environment in order to encourage participation and an early 11-15 girls* speed, strength and stamina love of the sport, as producing England cricketers of the future. • Provide Performance Lifestyle support • Development of more specific cricket skills • Extension of mental toughness training (incl. ECB “Winning Mind” research) The model has the potential to assist coaches in responding • Continued participation in other complementary sports with specialisation in cricket towards end of phase to critical and sensitive periods of maturation and trainability. • Remedial Programme support Whilst a training benefit may occur at any time during the • Aim for a minimum 2:1 Practice:Competitiion ratio Fundamentals to Training to Win Stages, it is thought thatTraining To 16-18 boys* • Individually structured physical, technical, tactical & mental skill programmes there are optimal times or Windows of Opportunity whenCompete 15-17 girls* • Cricket specific technical & tactical work in simulated competitive situations accelerated adaptation takes place or a greater likelihood • Mentoring & guidance by elite players • Advanced Mental Skills Training of a particular skill improvement can be predicted. • Performance Lifestyle Support • Ancillary Capacity Support related to Fitness (incl. Diet, Nutrition, Hydration etc) One of the key philosophies of LTAD is ensuring that the • Remedial Programme support model is “player centered” which means that developmentalTraining To Win 18+ men • Maintenance of Physical capacities programmes are appropriate to that individual’s specific needs 17+ women • Further development of match-specific skills • Focus on peaking for particular matches & tours and not just generic to a group of players within a team whom • Focus on team dynamics happen to be the same chronological age. Everybody goes • Regular prophylactic breaks through the same developmental stages from childhood to • Remedial Programme support • Performance Lifestyle support adulthood, although the timing and intensity of those physical, mental and emotional changes vary from individual to individual.Retirement, Various • Comprehensive service of training & supportRetraining & chronological • Involvement of PCA Identifying an individual’s particular stage of growth andRetention ages • Early identification of talent & system for retaining talent within the sport development forms the basis for effective and fulfilling • Performance Lifestyle support programmes for both player and coach.
  5. 5. The Player Development PathwayThe Player Development Pathway diagram sets out thejourney from “Playground to Test Arena”, from an earlyintroduction and involvement in the sport through to elitelevel. These stepping stones are typically via school, club, Competition Frameworkdistrict, county, regional and national routes, are likely toinclude County Academies and may also includeUniversity or Further Education Institutions. Enthusing Vibrant Domestic Game Successful England Participation and TeamsUnderpinning and supporting the Pathway are the six Followingphases of LTAD which provide guidance and establishprinciples for optimum development at each stage of a Community County Englandplayer’s journey in the sport. Boys, Girls, Men, Women, Disabilities Boys, Girls, Men, Women, Disabilities Boys, Girls, Men, Women, Disabilities Primary & Secondary District, County & England U15, U17 & School Competitions Regional Age Group U19 Competition Cricket Focus & Affiliated National Academy Club Competition Premier Leagues Programme UCCEs England Women’s Development Squad County Academy Competition Disability County & England Women’s Regions Academy Programme Women’s County/ England Men’s, Women’s Super 4s & Disability Competition Minor Counties Competition First Class County Competitions Start Stay Succeed6
  6. 6. Strategic Plan for Cricket 2006–2010: Player Pathway and Programmes England Men, Women, Disabilities England Development Squad Men England Women’s Academy Women National Academy E Effective Leadership & Men Governance Underpinning Programme First Class Counties Men V Vibrant Domestic Game Minor Counties Men County Programme England Women’s Counties/Super 4s Women E Enthusing Participation & U15/17/19 Following Boys Disability Counties/Regions Disabilities Community Programme County Academies S Successful England Teams Boys, Girls, Men, Women England Programme Age Group Cricket UCCEs Men, Women District, County, Region Boys, Girls, Men, Women, Disabilities Premier League Cricket Men Focus Clubs Boys, Girls, Men, Women, Disabilities Affiliated Clubs Boys, Girls, Men, Women, Disabilities Schools Cricket Boys, Girls, DisabilitiesCommercial ICT Competition Coaching Workforce Development Good PracticeCommunications LTAD Facilities Sports Science & Medicine Officials ECB ‘Core’ Support 3. Train to Train 5. Train to Win1. FUN- 2. Learn todamentals Train 4. Train to Compete 6. Retirement and RetentionAge 5yrs 9 11 13 15 18 19 21 35 65+ 7
  7. 7. Enthusing Following and Participation Amongst Young PeopleAt the entry level the children begin their journey Those who are identified as having either a Coaches should always encourage a positiveby being introduced to cricket at school through more genetic disposition to the game or show perception of the activities and of the childrenexposure to the Kwik Cricket game, the Howzat! keenness are introduced to a local accredited themselves.teaching resource, Playground Markings, the club or focus club which will provide the They must create a non-judgemental andCricket Factory and other grassroots opportunity for more targeted development. unthreatening atmosphere where equal praise isinitiatives. During this phase, which lasts The emphasis during this Fundamentals phase given for all forms of effort. It is important thatapproximately 3-4 years, children can try the is on fun and participation. It aims to develop the children have a positive early experience ofsport out and get a basic understanding of crucial physical capacities such as agility, cricket if they are to develop a future love forcatching, striking and throwing skills. balance, co-ordination and speed (ABC’S) the game and continue their participation. alongside basic cricket-specific skills. The children should be encouraged to participate in as many other sports as possible.8
  8. 8. Vibrant Domestic GameAs the players grow and develop they enter the If performance is to be enhanced it is critical that Coaches will need to be positive role models byLearning to Train, Training to Train, Training to appropriate play:practice:rest ratios are in place helping shape the correct values and beliefs asCompete and Training to Win phases. as part of the player’s Individualised Development well as supporting players with appropriate lifeRepresentation will be at District, County and Programme. Coaches should aim for a minimum skills training.Regional level and may also include Premier 1:2/3 ratio of competition to practice/train toLeague, County Academy, UCCE, England avoid the dangers of over competing at theDevelopment Squad and Super 4’s, Disability expense of training and skill development.County and Regional, Minor County and First In the early years programmes shouldClass County. emphasise personal mastery of skills rather thanThe developmental aims of each of the stages performance outcomes and include an elementfocuses on Sport-Specific Skill development of appropriate competition.(L2T), “Building the Engine (T2T), Competition Whilst young children are encouraged to play atand Competitive Development (T2C), and least 3 other sports at junior level with a ratio ofSpecialisation and Performance Development 80% other sports to 20% cricket, towards the(T2W). end of the Training to Train phase it is likely that specialization will take place and that figure will become nearer 80% cricket to 20% other sports.10
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  10. 10. Successful England TeamsNational Representation occurs at U15, U17, It is expected that the performers will have Not everybody will enjoy the achievement ofU19 mens, England Disabilities, England Women acquired the critical competencies at each stage playing for their country, but through the LTADand England Men and signifies the pinnacle of of LTAD and that all relevant capacities have Model for Cricket perfomers can be helped toachievement within the sport. been developed. Focus now will be on achieve their genetic potential through a optimising performance and peaking for carefully planned and systematic approach toWhilst those playing for England at junior special events. developing participants.levels are likely to be in the early stages of theirjourney towards elite level, those who arerepresenting England Disabilities, EnglandWomen and England Men are likely to be eliteperformers.12
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  12. 12. Fundamentals Stage “A journey must begin with a single step ” Lao Tzu Key principlesAge Range Of Player The abc’s & specific movement skills Games6-9 boys, 6-8 girls • agility Make them simple and modified to increase • balance understanding and improve game awarenessYears In Stage • coordination • speed Structure games so that tactical awareness and decision3-4 • striking making are key outcomes of a session allowing children • catching with different abilities to succeed.Developmental Phase • throwing Coaches should ensure that:General Athletic Formation Positive attitudes • Endurance, speed and power are developed through • about themselves fun active games.Aims • about others • Any strength work only involves children • about the activities supporting and moving their own body weight.To provide the young • about the sport • The basics of flexibility are introduced through funperformer with overall activities.athletic skills in addition to an • The focus is on developing overall athletic ability andintroduction to basic The learning environment basic striking, catching and throwing in a funthrowing, catching and The programme should: environment rather than grooving cricketstriking skills with the focus on • Be Fun. techniques – that can come later!fun and participation. • Well Structured. • All forms of effort are praised. • Be Regularly Monitored. • They remember development is a long slow processWindows Of Opportunity • Have no formal Competition Schedule at this Stage. and be patient with players and their progress!• General Athletic Formation • Aim to include 3-4 sessions per week of activity.• Speed #1 (Training for the • Include both boys and girls. Central Nervous System) • Encourage involvement in other sports and activities.14
  13. 13. Fundamentals StageSome Appropriate Examples ofCoaching Style“Set up & stand back” Learning Approach• Encourage Discovery Learning by providing minimal instruction.• Create a non-judgemental environment and give praise for all forms of effort.• Allow children to create own play and try out different activities and movement experiences (ensuring that the children and the environment are safe at all times).• Watch and observe movement and monitor progress.• Note which activities the children enjoy and why.• Challenge children to set own goals.• Children are very often creative in their play and may produce drills and activities that the Coach would never have thought of!• Can sometimes produce exciting and unexpected results!“Directed or prescripted” Learning Approach• Create more structured routines such as circuits or regulated games.• Provide appropriate instruction and set rules.• Help children set goals.• Predict session outcomes.• Test understanding, learning and knowledge.• Provision of simple and achievable proficiency tests can create a reward system, increase focus, increase challenge and provide a sense of achievement. 15
  14. 14. Learning to Train Stage “We all love to win, but how many people love to train! ” Mark Spitz - Olympic Swimming Gold Medalist Key principlesAge Range Of Player • Introduction to general physical conditioning including the key9-12 boys, 8-11 girls components of endurance, strength, flexibility and speed. • Encourage participation in 3 other complementary sports i.e. those thatYears In Stage develop complementary energy systems and movement patterns for performance in cricket.3-4 • An introduction to more specific cricket skills including the safe and consistent patterning of movement associated with batting, bowling,Developmental Phase fielding and wicket keeping techniques. • Flexibility programme with particular emphasis on shoulder, elbow,Basic Sport Specific Skill spine, core and ankle stability.Development • Medicine ball, swiss ball & own body weight exercises for strength and power.Aims • An introduction to mental skills and mental toughness training towards the end of the phase.To start developing the • Remedial programme support i.e. help with technical skills or other areaspatterning of movement asso- of skill deficiency.ciated with batting, bowling, • Respecting and understanding the history of the game.fielding and wicket keeping • Positive attitudes and behaviours on and off the pitch.techiniques whilst building • Emphasis on learning to train and practicing rather than performanceupon and further developing outcomes.overall athletic skills learnt dur- • Modified games for increased understanding and match the Fundamentals phaseWindows Of OpportunityMotor Skills and CoordinationDevelopment16
  15. 15. Age Range Of Player Training to Train Stage12-16 boys, 11-15 girlsYears In Stage Key principles3-4 • Emphasis on general physical conditioning including the key fitness components of endurance, flexibility, strength and speed.Developmental Phase • Special window of opportunity for developing speed and strength. • Increased technical work on front foot and back foot offensive and defensiveCritical Skill and Physical techniques; pace and spin bowling techniques; enhanced keeping and fieldingDevelopment skills; effective practice techniques; raising awareness and increasing responsibility.(“Building the Engine”) • Introduce Individualised Training Programmes dependent on specific needs associated with roles within the game and stage of growth and development.Aims • Split squads into early, average and late maturers for physical conditioning and training work.Further develop cricket • Fitness test protocols established to benchmark and monitor developmentspecific skills and focus on of physical capacities.“Building the Engine” of physi- • Monitored flexibility programme 5-6 times per week if flexibility to be conditioning for sporting • Onset of PHV (Peak Height Velocity i.e. beginning of growth spurt) is an importantperformance reference point and determines extent and frequency of training. Seek expert advice to ensure appropriate training and for optimum benefit.Windows Of Opportunity • Extension of mental skills and mental toughness training. • Remedial programme support i.e. help with technical skills or other areas of• Onset of PHV (Peak Height skill deficiency. Velocity) i.e. Growth Spurt - • Monitoring of growth and development including regular height checks to identify important reference point in key periods for appropriate training. programming • Reinforce positive attitudes and behaviours on and off the pitch.• Speed #2 • Teaching of Performance Lifestyle Skills including the important ancillary areas• Strength - immediately after such as health and nutrition, communication skills, media, balancing study PHV for females & 12-18 and play, time management etc. months post PHV for males • Continued participation in complementary sports although towards end of phase moving towards specialisation. 17
  16. 16. Training to Compete Stage “The fight is won and lost far away from witnesses… behind the lines, in the gym, and out on the road, long before Key principles I dance under those lights ”Age Range Of Player • Creating the optimum environment for learning to take place including Muhammad Ali16-18 men, 15-17 women the development of autonomy, independence and individual responsibility.Years In Stage • Cricket specific technical and tactical work in competitive situations replicating the opportunity to make key decisions; decide on methods;2-3 make judgements; assess risks; learn from mistakes; create pressure; recognising key match moments etc.Developmental Phase • Coaches manage and engineer environment rather than managing every action.Competition and Competitive • Mentoring and guidance from elite players.Development • More specific Performance Lifestyle advice and support including future training and skill needs; managing touring; financial advice, drugAims education, career advice, education guidance and support. • Continue Individualised Training Programmes dependent on specificEnhancement of Cricket needs associated with roles within the game.Specific skills and focus on • Fitness test programme to benchmark and monitor development ofGame Awareness and physical capacities.Competitive Development • Integrated sport science support to ensure appropriate and individualised programmes.Windows Of Opportunity • Maintenance flexibility programme. • Remedial programme support i.e. help with technical skills or otherStrength - immediately after areas of skill deficiency.PHV for females & 12-18 • Specialisation in cricket during this phase with other sport activity tomonths post PHV for males provide training variety and interest. • Potential for double periodised year through overseas tour i.e. 2 competition phases during the year which will influence timing, intensity and volume of training.18
  17. 17. Training to Win Stage Key principlesAge Range Of Player • Maintaining the optimum environment for learning to take place18+ men, 17+ women including the development of autonomy, independence and individual responsibility.Years In Stage • Cricket specific technical and tactical work in competitive situations replicating the opportunity to make key decisions; decide on methods;Variable make judgements; assess risks; learn from mistakes; create pressure; recognising key match moments; dominating situations etc.Developmental Phase • Coaches manage and engineer environment rather than managing every action.Specialisation and • Continue Individualised Training Programmes dependent on specificPerformance Development needs associated with roles within the game. • Integrated sport science support to ensure appropriate andAims individualised programmes. • Maintenance flexibility programme.The maintenance of physical • Focus on team dynamics.capacities and the develop- • Maintenance of physical capacities.ment of elite performer attrib- • Importance of planned rest breaks to avoid injury and burn oututes • Remedial programme support i.e. fine tuning technical work • Potential for double periodised year through overseas tour i.e. 2Windows Of Opportunity competition phases during the year which will influence timing, intensity and volume of training.Maintenance of key • Extension of Performance Lifestyle programme but with a focus onperformance components: flex- career development and education guidance.ibility, speed, endurance,strength and skills. 19
  18. 18. Retirement, Retraining & Retention Stage Key principlesAge Range Of Player • To provide a comprehensive service of training and support resourcesVariable within and outside of cricket. • Early identification of talented individuals and skill sets that can benefitYears In Stage other areas within cricket e.g. umpires, coaches, scorers, administration, management, ground staff etc.Ongoing • To provide welfare and social support for those players who have had to retire early through injury or ill health.Developmental Phase • To provide a clearly defined support structure for players from the “playground to test arena” through a comprehensive PerformanceOngoing Career Development Lifestyle Advisory service which includes transitional support, education guidance, career advice and work experience opportunities.AimsTo provide training and supportat the end of a playing careerto remain either within thesport in a different capacity orprepare for a change of careerdirection20
  19. 19. Glossary of TermsKey principles Peak Height Velocity (PHV) The onset of the period of most rapid physical growth and maturationThe Player Development Pathway during the early years of a young persons life - often referred to as theThe developmental journey that a young player undertakes from “growth spurt”.“Playground to Test Arena” which provides them with the bestopportunity of realising their potential within the sport. ABCS Agility, Balance, Coordination & Speed. The building blocks of anyStages of Growth and Development sporting movement.The phases of LTAD which relate to the physical, mental andemotional maturation of the individual. Growth The measurable changes in body size.Optimal PerformanceThe balance of play, practice, train and rest over a players career which Maturationprovides the best opportunity for successful performance. The development of body organs and systems.Play:Practice:Rest ratios DevelopmentThe weekly, monthly and annual balance between play, practice and rest The interrelationship between growth and maturation over time.experienced by players. Windows of OpportunityChronological Age The time during a persons physical maturation when they have aThe age of a child by date of birth. greater opportunity for accelerated adaption of certain skills than at other times.Biological AgeAge gauged by the physiological development of the organs and Periodisationsystems in the body. A players programme of training periods, each of which will have different goals and training methods. The periods are designed to maximise gains inRemedial Support the different components of performance and are normally split into MacrosProgrammes designed to correct any shortcomings in skill at a time cycles (a few months to several years); Meso cycles (usually 2-6 weekslater than they would normally have been acquired. duration); and Micro cycles (usually 7 days duration). 21
  20. 20. Where can I find out more?LTAD References Coaching, Coach Education, Further Information on LTAD Coaching Courses On-lineSchmidt, R.A. & Wrisberg, C.A. (2000). MotorLearning and Performance. Human Kinetics. www.sportengland.orgGalvin, B & Ledger, P. (1999). A Guide to ECB Coach Education Office & ECB Coaches Coaching Programmes. National Association Office, Index.htmCoaching Foundation. Warwickshire County Cricket Ground, Edgbaston,Bompa, Tudor O. (2000). Total Training for Young Birmingham Performance LifestyleChampions. Human Kinetics. B5 7QX., B. (1985). Developing Talent in Young Tel: 0121 440 4332. www.cricnet.comPeople. New York: Ballantine Books. Equipment & Resources MCC University Centres of ExcellenceWhitmore, J. (1996). Coaching for Performance.Nicholas Brealey Publishing Ltd. Canada Alpin & The Canadian Ski www.1st4sport.comCoaches Association. (1999). Alpine IntegrationModel (AIM). ACA High Performance AdvisoryCommittee, Canada.22
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  22. 22. England and Wales Cricket BoardLord’s Cricket Ground, London NW8 8QZ.Telephone: 020 7432 1200 Fax:020 7289 Playground to Test Arena©2005 ECB
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