Are you interested in research like Lord Cranbrook? Are you going to contribute to Swiflet Industry?For more information please logon to www,yongkangbirdnest.blogspot.com for
Are you interested in research like Lord Cranbrook? Are you going to contribute to Swiflet Industry?For more information please logon to www,yongkangbirdnest.blogspot.com for detail.
Gathorne Hardy MA PhD PNBS(K) (5 th Earl of Cranbrook) Sarawak Museum (1956 - Yayasan Siswa Lokantara Universiti Malaya Niah cave excavations “Expeditions” (1964 – 92), to Kinabalu, Gn Benom, Vanuatu, Gn Mulu, Belalong (Brunei) Chairman, English Nature (1990-98), Chairman Entrust, Regulator of Environmental bodies under UK Landfill tax regulations (1996)
Two tasks: 1. Sort out swiftlets taxonomy and biology 2. Identify animal remains from Niah excavations.
troglodytes esculenta Plain tailed linchi Glossy swiftlets Two species in Malaysia White spots on tail feathers
Speciation among Glossy swiftlets, Collocalia C. esculenta L. 1758 C. linchi H & M 1834 C. troglodytes Gray 1845 All build self-supporting cup-like nests of strands of plant material, fixed with a basal band of edible nest ‘cement’
Collocalia : glossy swiftlets 1. White-bellied swiftlets C. esculenta
White nests ( ‘vestitus’) Salai cave, Baram, Sarawak Photo Lim Chan Koon
White nests are highest value These nests are composed almost entirely of edible nest-cement, with no more than a few feathers adhering to or incorporated, Raw nests may be worth RM 7000 per kg of ~100 nests
[Sarawak Museum, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity (Singapore), Natural History Museum (London), Naturalis (Leiden), Museum Natl d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), American Museum of Natural History (New York), US National Museum (Washington DC), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia...... ]
There are also two species of “white-nest” swiftlets This is the typical dark-rumped form Aerodramus f. fuciphagus of Java
White-nest swiftlets from Sarawak Aerodramus fuciphagus vestitus
White-nest swiftlet from Gomantong cave , Sabah
AMNH 634703 f Coll. H.C. Robinson, Koh Pennan (Phangan Is) 13 June 1913. L Wing 112 No moult. Grey rumped, or Germain’s swiftlet Aerodramus germani Coasts and islands from Hainan (China) & Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, to Andaman Is Grey rump, with dark shaft streaks
P. Condore Type locality Sembilan Is Satang Island Mantanani Is. Berhala Is. Maratua Is. (ssp. perplexus ) Southern and western limits of Grey-rumped swiftlets Aerodramus germani in Malaysia P. Tioman Gomantong Horsborough lighthouse
Two species of white-nest swiftlets Aerodramus germani Aerodramus fuciphagus A. g. germani A. (f.) vestitus ?? A. (g.?) perplexus A. f. vestitus A. f. fuciphagus A. g. hainaensis A. g. inexpectatus A. f. dammermanni A. fuciphagus micans
Topotype of “ Collocalia fuciphaga amechana” Oberholser from Pulau Jimaja, Anamba Is., Indonesia
House in transition C. linchi > A. fuciphagus Glossy swiftlet nests White nests
New nest house at Bayang Kara, Kaltim. Original wooden house with C. esculenta nests enclosed in concrete shell; eggs imported from W. Java Ventilation holes Cladding, for coolness Javanese technology exported
Spontaneous occupation of buildings by edible/white-nest swiftlets Penang & Butterworth Kuala Terengganu Bintulu Melaka Singapore Java (multiple instances) Banjermasin Since 1890
1. Production of salivary nest cement vs. reproductive effort
2. Moult and replacement of plumage
a. Flight feathers
b. Contour (body) plumage
Malaysia (2-5 o N) Annual breeding cycle and moult All birds
A. (f.) vestitus : breeding & moult *** 1 st primaries moulted Last primaries moulted *** Lim Chan Koon
Black-nest swiftlet at Niah Annual moult of the primary tract
Black-nest swiftlets at Sarang: moult & breeding % nests with eggs Count of shed feathers Lim Chan Koon
Studies of behaviour at the cave mouth shows that swiftlets feed only during daylight hours, and that weather (especially rain) is an important determinant of the birds’ activity. It is likely that prolonged rainy weather is detrimental to their ability to feed
Is the present high rate of increase in house-farmed birds sustainable ?
If there is over-exploitation of the food resource, could this place a local or regional limit on the populations ?
Are house-farmed swiftlets competing for resources with other bird species of similar habit, e.g., migratory swallows Hirundo rustica ?
In the scenario of this newest domestication, with the backing of sound husbandry and good science , rational planning can ensure the perpetuation and sustainable management of this important biological resource.