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  • FINAL DRAFT MALAYSIAN 10A004R0 STANDARD STAGE : FOR SUBM. TO JSM (50.40) DATE: 15/04/2010 GOOD ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PRACTICE - EDIBLE-BIRDNEST SWIFTLET RANCHING AND ITS PREMISES ICS: 65.020.20 Descriptors: edible-birdnest swiftlet, ranching, good husbandry practice © Copyright 2010 DEPARTMENT OF STANDARDS MALAYSIA
  • MS 2273:2010 CONTENTS Page Committee representation.........................................................................................................................ii FOREWORD............................................................................................................................................iii 1 Scope.......................................................................................................................................................1 2 Normative references.............................................................................................................................1 3 Definitions..............................................................................................................................................1 4 General requirements.............................................................................................................................2 5 Minimum requirements..........................................................................................................................8 6 Transportation.........................................................................................................................................9 Annex A ..................................................................................................................................................13 (informative) ...........................................................................................................................................13 Fostering meal formula for chicks..........................................................................................................13 Annex B...................................................................................................................................................15 (informative) ...........................................................................................................................................15 EBN breeding period...............................................................................................................................15 Annex C ..................................................................................................................................................16 (normative)..............................................................................................................................................16 List of reportable diseases.......................................................................................................................16 Annex D ..................................................................................................................................................17 (normative)..............................................................................................................................................17 Transport of birds....................................................................................................................................17 Annex E ..................................................................................................................................................18 (informative)............................................................................................................................................18 Emergency procedures during transportation.........................................................................................18 Bibliography............................................................................................................................................19 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved i
  • MS 2273:2010 Committee representation The Industry Standards Committee on Agriculture (ISC A) under whose authority this Malaysian Standard was developed, comprises representatives from the following organisations: Department of Agriculture Malaysia Department of Fisheries Malaysia Department of Standards Malaysia Department of Veterinary Services Farmers Organization Authority Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority Federation of Livestock Farmers Association Forest Research Institute Malaysia Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia Johor Fish Breeders Association Malaysia Fruit Exporters Association Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Malaysian Association of Standards Users Malaysian Palm Oil Association Malaysian Rubber Board Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry Ministry of International Trade and Industry Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Rubber Industry for Smallholder Development Authority SIRIM Berhad (Secretariat) Universiti Putra Malaysia The Working Group on Ranching of Edible-birdnest Swiftlets which developed this Malaysian Standard consists of representatives from the following organisations: Department of Town Planning Melaka Department of Veterinary Services Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia Ministry of Housing and Local Government Multiform Food Supply Co Sdn Bhd Perak Bird’s Nest Merchants Association Persatuan Pedagang Sarang Burung Negeri Kelantan Persatuan Pengusaha Sarang Burung Industri Negeri Johor Persatuan Pengusaha Sarang Burung Industri Negeri Perlis Persatuan Sarang Burung Negeri Sarawak Persekutuan Pedagang Sarang Burung Malaysia Persekutuan Pedagang Sarang Burung Terengganu Persekutuan Persatuan Pedagang Sarang Burung Malaysia Sarawak Birds’ Nest Supplier Association SIRIM Berhad (Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre) SIRIM Berhad (Secretariat) Swiftlet Eco Park Group of Companies Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Veterinary Association of Malaysia Walit World Sdn Bhd ii © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 FOREWORD This Malaysian Standard was developed by the Working Group on Ranching of Edible- birdnest Swiftlets established under the authority of the Industry Standards Committee on Agriculture. This standard cancels and replaces MS 2273:2009 (P), Good Animal Husbandry Practice - Edible-birdnest Swiftlet Ranching and Its Premises. Compliance with a Malaysian Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved iii
  • MS 2273:2010 GOOD ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PRACTICE - EDIBLE-BIRDNEST SWIFTLET RANCHING AND ITS PREMISES 1 Scope This Malaysian Standard prescribes requirements in ranching practices of edible-birdnest swiftlet. It relates to the establishment of good animal husbandry practice for continuous improvement and sustainable production of its produce, whilst ensuring health, safety and comfort to both the operators and the birds, with no degradation to the environment. 2 Normative references The following normative references are indispensable for the application of this standard. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative references (including any amendments) applies. Animal Act 1953 (revised 2006) Declaration of Notifiable Diseases 2009 Feed Act 2009 International Air Transport Association (IATA), Life Animals Regulations 2005 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Protection of Wildlife (Amendment) Order 2003 Veterinary Surgeon Act 1974 3 Definitions For the purposes of this standard, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 Batten Perching area for swiftlets. 3.2 Fledging To bring up (a young bird) until it grows feathers and is able to fly. 3.3 Nestlings A young bird not yet old enough to leave the nest. © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 1
  • MS 2273:2010 4 General requirements 4.1 Identification and records 4.1.1 Health and production records should be maintained regularly. Each bird premise should have an easily read and unique identification number. Regulations shall be enforced and monitored by the Department of Veterinary Services. 4.1.2 Useful records may include the following: nest-type, premise/batch number and ownership. The growth rate, harvesting, production rate, mortality rate, disinfectant or medication records can be added on. 4.1.3 Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) of the premises and batches of produce is needed for legal proof of ownership and these should be stored at the Animal Repository Centre, stationed at the Department of Veterinary Services. Annual renewal of the licenses shall be deemed a shall, which goes concurrently with the compulsory random health checks of the birds and premise by veterinary authority and the local government. The Malaysian microchip code is standardised and approved by a recognised certification body, as 15 digits and are as follows: 458 1 __ _________ country code livestock manufacturer's Sequence (Malaysia) code code code 4.2 Animal considerations 4.2.1 Water and feed These edible-birdnest swiftlets are nurtured on insect bolus by their parents to adulthood. Edible-birdnest swiftlets have access to sources like mineral, distilled, potable water, natural streams, from ponds and rainwater mist. If water containers or ponds are provided indoors placed with baits at regular interval, they shall be cleaned regularly to avoid dangerous insect larvae build up. Any water source shall not be stagnant. Alternatively humidifiers can be used for cooling the internal premises. 4.2.1.1 Where environmental, seasonal, or stocking density effects do not allow daily insect feed requirements to be met, supplemented insects bolus feed can be offered (see Annex A). 4.2.1.2 When feeding the birds, ensure their preference of the feed types and mode of eating. 4.2.1.3 Unusual feedstuffs should be offered only when research has shown no adverse effect on bird health or the safety of the final product. Feeds, if any, shall be stored in an appropriate manner to reduce growth of molds/fungi and contamination from rodents, birds and insects. Feed quality, particularly vitamin activity, can deteriorate during storage. 4.2.2 Handling 4.2.2.1 All edible-birdnest swiftlets should be handled with care and patience. Familiarisation of swiftlet handling technique, facilities and management routine for different ages reduces apprehension. 2 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 4.2.2.2 Swiftlets should be handled by a limited number of people. Unusual noises and light should be discouraged. 4.2.2.3 Birds shall be protected against stress or injury caused by other birds and from excessive handling or interference by outsiders. 4.2.3 Restrain 4.2.3.1 Restrain is required for procedures such as administering medication, monitoring and sampling. 4.2.3.2 Use of currently available chemical immobilising agents is legally restricted to licensed registered veterinarians and other authorised personnel. 4.2.3.3 Chemical immobilisation should not be used where birds might injure or disorient themselves or become separated from human care, for example near open water, extensive woodland or steep slopes. 4.2.3.4 Following chemical immobilisation, birds should be kept upright in a dark, confine, dry flat area and kept under observation until sufficient recovery has occurred to avoid risks of trauma, regurgitation or accidental injury. It is best to wrap anaesthetised birds with towels to prevent hypothermia. 4.2.4 Breeding 4.2.4.1 Swiftlets usually copulate on the wings. Swiftlets mate for life or until and unless one of them dies. 4.2.4.2 Swiftlets employ a multi-brooded reproductive strategy (they attempt to produce as many clutches and raise as many young as possible within a favourable breeding time). Some species lay two eggs per clutch and others only one. 4.2.4.3 Swiftlets have short breeding seasons at higher latitudes and longer ones at the lower latitudes. Refer Annex B for different species recommended breeding periods. 4.2.5 Nest building 4.2.5.1 Both sexes participate in nest building especially at night. 4.2.5.2 Ensure support battens are parasite free prior to breeding season. 4.2.5.3 Frequent maintenance of battens is recommended to avoid both birds and human casualties. 4.2.5.4 There should be minimum disturbance during egg incubation and nest building seasons. 4.2.5.5 Any nest that comes undone should not be removed as rebuilding of replacement nest commences immediately. 4.2.5.6 Chicks removed from flimsy attached nest shall undergo immediate fostering. Orphaned chicks shall be forced fed every 2 h with mixed insect bolus and kept warm. © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 3
  • MS 2273:2010 4.2.6 Weaning 4.2.6.1 Swiftlet chicks are born blind, featherless and remain so for up to 20 days. 4.2.6.2 The young begin eating solid insects bolus feed at 7 days to 9 days old and drinking at 10 days old. 4.2.6.3 Nestlings occur for 5 weeks. During this time the chicks are fed every 30 min with about 1.7 g insect bolus from both the parents. 4.2.6.4 Fledging occur at around 6 weeks to 7 weeks. 4.2.7 Flock health care 4.2.7.1 All edible-birdnest swiftlet premise operators should be familiar with the signs of diseases that are common in the species in question. 4.2.7.2 Any edible-birdnest swiftlet or fertile eggs offered for sale shall be free from disease and abnormalities. All birds should be checked for external and internal parasites prior to sale (according to the manufacturer's recommendation). 4.2.7.3 Extra care should be taken when mixing newly acquired birds with existing stock, with respect to compatibility and disease. 4.2.7.4 Birds and facilities should be inspected regularly in situ or virtually. 4.2.7.5 Comprehensive flock-health program should be developed in consultation with a veterinarian. When signs of disease or injury are observed, prompt appropriate treatment shall be provided to protect the health of individuals and prevent the spread of disease. 4.2.7.6 Injured and sick birds should be treated promptly. At best sick birds shall be removed from their nest or premise and isolated from the other birds. If appropriate, veterinary attention should be sought when signs of illness are present. 4.2.7.7 Birds if untreatable, are to be humanely destroyed. 4.2.7.8 Birds which die should be disposed of immediately, except where it is necessary to seek veterinary opinion as to cause of death. 4.2.7.9 Questionable mortalities should render post mortem examinations. This is best performed by a veterinarian and finding noted, recorded and reported to the Department of Veterinary Services. 4.2.7.10 Any occurrence of a reportable disease (see Annex C) as defined by the Animal Act (1953) (revised 2006), or suspicion of such disease shall be reported immediately to the Department of Veterinary Services Headquarters. 4.2.7.11 In the case of positive diagnosis, the manager, handler or owner shall immediately execute measures specified by the Department of Veterinary Services Headquarters. 4.2.8 Euthanasia 4 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 4.2.8.1 Where treatment to restore health or repair injury is not possible, practicable or successful, birds shall be humanely destroyed. 4.2.8.2 Veterinary advice should be sought before euthanasia is performed. 4.2.8.3 A veterinary surgeon should be contacted for advice on the most humane method of euthanasia. 4.2.9 Hygiene 4.2.9.1 Edible-birdnest swiftlet premises, their surroundings and any enclosed equipment shall be kept clean so that the birds can remain comfortable and free of disease. 4.2.9.2 All edible-birdnest swiftlet premises should be cleaned and treated with effective and appropriate disinfectants at least once a month after each guano removal. 4.2.9.3 Cleaning materials and disinfectants should be chosen for their suitability, safety and effectiveness (ensure the disinfectant used is not detrimental to both the birds and the eggs). They should only be used in accordance with the manufacturer‘s instructions. 4.2.9.4 Guano should be mined frequently and not allowed to build up even though Effective Microorganism (EM) is applied. 4.2.9.5 All containers in the premises shall be disinfected between guano cleaning. 4.2.9.6 Washing facilities should be provided adjoining to the premise for personal hygiene to prevent the transfer of disease. 4.2.9.7 All premises shall provide a disinfectant facility at all entry and exit points (e.g. footbath/floor mat). 4.2.9.8 The proprietor shall make available fire fighting facilities on each floor in the swiftlet housing. 4.2.10 Surgical procedures and medication 4.2.10.1 Only recommended or approved medication specific to birds shall be used in accordance to the Feed Act 2009. 4.2.10.2 Medical records shall be properly maintained and withdrawal times to be strictly observed. 4.2.10.3 Surgical procedures shall be conducted only by licensed veterinarians. In accordance to the Veterinary Surgeon Act 1974, minor surgery may be performed by non- veterinarians. 4.2.11 Environment and facilities 4.2.11.1 Edible-birdnest swiftlet premises 4.2.11.1.1 Building requirements © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 5
  • MS 2273:2010 Premises of these birds shall be located at least 10 m from any fully residential buildings. The operation of heritage buildings for these swiftlets ranching should be subjected to conditions by relevant authorities. Swiftlet premise should be capable of maintaining an adequate microclimate (as related to humidity, dust level, ammonia and carbon dioxide) over normal weather fluctuations in a given locality. 4.2.11.1.1.1 The ventilation system should be able to maintain the recommended temperature and humidity within reasonable range in order to prevent either overheating or chills to both young and adults. 4.2.11.1.1.2 Premises shall have adequate draught-free ventilation making sure that any nesting area near doors and windows are protected from draughts. 4.2.11.1.1.3 Premise dimensions should ideally be not less than 1.82 m (6 ft) in height, 3.05 m (10 ft) in width and 3.05 m (10 ft) in length. 4.2.11.1.1.4 All edible-birdnest swiftlet premises shall have perch areas, such as battens across the ceiling, for nest building in accordance to the species need. 4.2.11.1.1.5 Ideally, the stocking density should not be less than 0.028 3 m3 (1 ft³) for each pair of birds. 4.2.11.1.2 Pest control 4.2.11.1.2.1 Bird houses need to be pest proof. 4.2.11.1.2.2 New arrivals should be quarantined and left in their new surroundings for a few days with minimal disturbance before and integrated into the existing animal structure with care. 4.2.11.1.3 Operations 4.2.11.1.3.1 The environment should be maintained at a temperature which minimises stress, with heating provided for very young chicks if necessary. 4.2.11.1.3.2 During monsoon seasons, heating shall be provided. The monitoring of temperature and ventilation shall continue throughout. 4.2.11.1.3.3 Birds shall not be exposed to direct sunlight, such as near any openings, unless adequate shade and ventilation are provided. If the birds are showing any signs of distress, they shall be removed immediately. 4.2.11.1.3.4 Emergency lighting equipment should be made available. For night monitoring, diffused light should be provided. 4.2.11.1.3.5 Safety rails around the perimeter of any openings of the premise floor shall be in place. Suitable warning notices shall be displayed where necessary. 4.2.11.1.3.6 Swiftlet premises shall be designed to ease regular cleaning, inspection of the birds and monitoring of organic matter. 6 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 4.2.11.1.3.7 The surfaces of batten area should be preferably made with materials which are impervious and solid. Joints and corners should be properly sealed. The surfaces should be smooth and free from projections which may cause injury to birds. 4.2.11.1.3.8 All electrical equipment should be checked regularly and maintained in good working order. 4.2.11.1.4 Bird calls 4.2.11.1.4.1 In Semenanjung Malaysia, the bird calls should only be played from 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 a.m. during the day and 5.00 p.m. to 8.00 p.m. in the evening whereas in Sabah and Sarawak 6.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Within the premise the bird calls can be played throughout. The speakers should be directed at 60° above horizontal not more than 40 dB. 4.2.11.1.5 Bird entry 4.2.11.1.5.1 The entrance for the swiftlet should be predator free. These openings should be shielded against draught and rain. 4.2.11.1.5.2 Any aperture built for added ventilation should be cleaned at weekly intervals to prevent any blockages. 4.2.11.1.5.3 The periphery drains around the outside of the premise shall always be free flowing. 4.2.12 Specific needs for individual species 4.2.12.1 Birds It is recommended that a hospital cage be provided for isolation and treatment of sick or injured birds. 4.2.12.2 Sign of illness which warrants attention include: a) changes in appearance, i.e. ruffled feathers or tail pumping; b) changes in appearance of droppings; c) changes in weight; d) enlargement or swellings; e) vomiting, injury or bleeding; f) discharges from nostrils, eyes and beak; g) stains or scabs around the feet, eyes or nostrils; h) inflamed eyes and discharge; i) severe diarrhoea, especially if bloodstained; © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 7
  • MS 2273:2010 j) inability to grip or defecate; k) weight loss; l) apparent pain; m) fits or staggering; n) patchy or excessive feather loss; o) depression and lethargy; p) shaking of head; and q) changes in the usual pattern of breathing. 4.2.12.3 Perimeter fences should prevent movement of predators into the premise. 4.2.12.4 Appropriate fencing materials and construction techniques that minimise the potential for injury should be used. 4.2.12.5 Barbed wire shall not be used except to discourage predators. For this purpose it should be secured on the outside of the perimeter fence posts or used as a base wire in netting fence construction of the perimeter fence. 4.2.12.6 Fencing wire for perimeter fences should be attached on the inside of the perimeter fence posts. Managers and those in charge of birds shall be conversant with the compatibility of species to minimise stress and prevent injury. Birds will live and breed successfully if their environment is satisfactory. 4.2.12.7 The type of dwellings shall suit the requirement of the bird type. Plan and construct the premise before birds are purchased or called. 5 Minimum requirements 5.1 The proprietor shall provide accommodation and equipment which suit the physical and behavioral requirements of the birds. Bird premises, whether for single or group housing, shall have enough space for each bird to perch and nest comfortably. The premises shall be large enough so bird can fully extend and flap both wings simultaneously. 5.2 The proprietor shall provide necessary protection from adverse natural or artificial conditions, other birds and interference from humans. 5.2.1 During monsoon season, heating shall be provided and maintained at a suitable temperature to prevent chill. 5.2.2 Bird premises shall have adequate, draught-free ventilation to prevent the build up of ammonia, moisture, heat and dust. 5.2.3 Birds shall not be exposed to direct sunlight, unless adequate shade and ventilation are provided. 5.2.4 Lighting shall not generate heat unless specifically intended to do so. 8 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 5.2.5 Internal surfaces shall be free from projections which may cause injury to birds. 5.3 The proprietor shall provide enough appropriate feed and water to maintain good health. 5.4 The proprietor shall protect animals from disease, distress and injury. 5.4.1 Proprietor in charge of the birds shall be conversant with the compatibility of species to minimise stress and prevent injury. 5.4.2 Premises shall be constructed in such a way as to securely house the birds. 5.5 The proprietor shall provide prompt veterinary or other appropriate treatment in cases of disease or injury, where necessary. 5.5.1 All nestling and fertile eggs offered for sale shall be free from disease and abnormalities. 5.5.2 When signs of disease or injury are observed, prompt appropriate treatment shall be provided to protect the health of individual birds and prevent the spread of disease. 5.5.3 Sick birds shall be removed and isolated from the other birds. Veterinary attention may be required. 5.5.4 Where treatment to restore health or repair injury is not possible, practicable or successful, birds shall be humanely destroyed. 5.6 The proprietor shall maintain the hygiene of the premises and the health of the birds held. 5.6.1 Bird premises shall be designed to permit regular cleaning, inspection of the birds. 5.6.2 The internal surfaces of premises with which birds come in contact shall be constructed of impervious, solid washable materials. Joints and corners should be properly sealed. 5.6.3 Bird premises, their surrounds and any enclosed equipment shall be kept clean so that the birds can remain comfortable and free of disease. 5.6.4 If a spray or EM is used to control flies and insect, it shall never be sprayed in or around the vicinity of birds. No banned, highly toxic or carcinogenic pesticide and chemical should be used. Safety instructions and re-entry intervals must be strictly observed and monitored. 5.7 The proprietor shall supervise the daily feeding, watering and inspection of the birds to ensure their welfare. 5.7.1 The proprietor shall supervise the staff, whether working full or part-time and whether or not they are working for a fee or reward. 5.7.2 All proprietors and their staff shall be aware of their responsibilities towards the birds and be competent to carry them out. 6 Transportation 6.1 General © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 9
  • MS 2273:2010 6.1.1 In any new situation or location, normal healthy birds are alert and investigative but may hesitate to move in new surroundings. Abrupt movements, noises or flashes of light should be avoided. 6.1.2 Persons handling or transporting fertile eggs should be properly instructed, and shall be knowledgeable and comply with regulations of the Animal Act 1953 (revised 2006). Shippers are responsible for hiring qualified transporters. In the case of swiftlets’ eggs, they shall be accompanied with a CITES form from the country of origin. Transporters should not be hired unless they: a) have demonstrated responsibility in the handling of fertile eggs; and b) use properly equipped vehicles. 6.1.3 The driver is responsible for the care of and welfare of birds during vehicle operation, and during loading and unloading. 6.1.4 Employers are responsible for ensuring that drivers are adequately trained and knowledgeable of the care and handling of birds and fertile eggs. 6.1.5 Each load should be checked within the first 20 min after loading and every 4 h thereafter. 6.1.6 The transportation of wild birds from point of origin to final destination should be by the most direct and appropriate route and should be completed without delay. 6.1.7 The driver should start, drive and stop the vehicle as smoothly as possible, and should avoid sharp turns. 6.1.8 Fumigation of fertile eggs should be done prior to storage. The temperature of the storage shall be 15 ºC to 18 ºC and relative humidity of 70 % to 75 % for not more than 10 days. 6.1.9 The driver is responsible for the care of fertile eggs during vehicle operation, and during loading and unloading. 6.2 Long distance translocation Transportation from hatcheries to permanent premises should be initiated properly. Although healthy nestlings are capable of fasting, the transport should be swift and should not extend beyond 48 h. 6.2.1 Stressed birds 6.2.1.1 Prior to transport, birds should be in good physical condition and health. Birds that are sick, injured, disabled, fatigued or that cannot be moved without causing them avoidable suffering, are unfit for transportation. 6.2.1.2 Care and common sense are essential when forced movement of stressed birds is necessary. Each bird should be treated with extreme patience and should be allowed to rest when necessary to avoid exertion. 6.3 Loading and unloading 10 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 6.3.1 Bird should be loaded and unloaded in a way to prevent injury or suffering. Properly designed and maintained loading facilities should be provided for easy and safe movement of birds (see Annex D). 6.3.2 Vehicle doors and internal gates should be sufficiently wide to permit bird to pass through readily without bruising or injury. 6.3.3 Fertile eggs should be loaded and unloaded in a way to prevent damages or breakage. Properly designed and maintained loading facilities should be provided for easy and safe movement of fertile eggs. 6.4 Vehicles and containers 6.4.1 Vehicles used to transport birds should permit easy loading and unloading and provide for the safety of the birds and personnel during transport. 6.4.2 Birds should be loaded only into vehicles that are clean and sanitised. 6.4.3 Vehicles and containers used to transport birds and fertile eggs shall be fully enclosed with sides, floors and ceilings that are strong and secure and free from projections or sharp edges. 6.4.4 Floors should provide secure footing. The flooring should be of non-slip material. Provision shall be made for drainage and absorption of droppings. 6.4.5 The vehicle shall be constructed to ensure that no part of a bird can project from the vehicle. 6.4.6 Vehicles shall have doors which close firmly and securely with a tamper-proof locking system. 6.4.7 Vehicles shall be constructed to provide birds with adequate ventilation at all times, while avoiding draughts. Care shall be taken to prevent entry of the exhaust from the vehicle into the area containing the birds. 6.4.8 Vehicles and containers should be cleaned and disinfected after each shipment. 6.4.9 The vehicle used to transport swiftlets and fertile eggs should be in excellent condition and shall be in full compliance with provincial highway traffic legislation. 6.4.10 Containers should be suitably designed, constructed and labelled with full details including species, and should have clear instructions for feeding and management. Containers shall be secured to vehicles to prevent movement during transit. Containers that hold the birds or fertile eggs should be tilted as little as possible during all stages of loading and unloading. 6.4.11 Transportation of birds or fertile eggs by air shall also be in compliance with existing International Air Transport Association (lATA), Live Animals Regulations 2005. 6.4.12 Fertile eggs should be loaded only into vehicles that are clean and sanitised. 6.5 Space requirements 6.5.1 Birds shall be provided with sufficient floor space in the cage in the vehicle or container to ensure that they are not crowded in a way that is likely to subject them to injury or suffering. © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 11
  • MS 2273:2010 6.5.2 Each swiftlet should be able to perch in its natural position, allowing for comfortable head movements without touching the cage deck or roof. 6.5.3 All swiftlets should be able to perch comfortably at the same time. 6.5.4 Calculate length x width x height of the space occupied by each bird when wings are spread out, then divide the loadable surface area of the lorry or container by that figure to calculate the number of birds to be loaded. Reduce that number somewhat on longer trips or in hot weather. 6.6 Segregation 6.6.1 Birds should be segregated according to species, size, gender, age, social group and/or compatibility. 6.6.2 When the vehicle is not full, birds should be securely partitioned in smaller areas to provide stability for the birds and the vehicle. 6.7 Food, water and rest 6.7.1 Birds should be given anti-stress drinks before loading for transport. 6.7.2 Where transport time will exceed 24 h, carriers should transport birds in vehicles that are equipped to provide adequate resting space, water and feed. 6.7.3 Birds shall be protected from draught during transport. Special care should be taken with chicks less than 1 month old by providing clean, dry enclosure. 6.7.4 When the ambient temperature exceeds 30 °C, birds should not be transported unless special provisions are made for cooling the bird (e.g., regular hosing down, air conditioning or ice positioned where air flow cools the container). Handling should be kept to a minimum and loading density should be reduced. Adequate air flow which is exhaust free should be provided at all times to keep the birds comfortable. 6.7.5 During hot and humid periods, the transporter should attempt to schedule transport at night and in the early dawn. The driver should plan the route to avoid traffic congestion, and to minimise the time that the vehicle is stationary. Vehicles should not be parked in direct sunlight. 6.7.6 In the event of unforeseen delays, prescribed emergency procedures should be followed (see Annex E). In addition, the shipper or consignee should be contacted. The owner is responsible for determining potential emergency off-loading sites and assistance. 6.8 Handling Animal should be moved through facilities patiently and as quickly as possible to reduce stress and risk of injury and to make the job safer and more efficient. 6.9 Holding facilities 6.9.1 Sufficient cages should be provided to prevent overcrowding, to permit necessary segregation of species, and to enable all birds to perch comfortably. 6.9.2 Holding facilities should protect swiftlets adequately from the elements. 12 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 6.9.3 Every holding cage should be adequately ventilated to minimise distress to the birds and excessive accumulation of odour and condensation. 6.9.4 Holding cages should provide birds with access to clean water. Water heaters should be provided with adequate feed in a bedded area that has sufficient room to allow all birds to perch at the same time and in which the feed cannot become contaminated. 6.10 Special handling of injured, sick and disabled birds 6.10.1 Birds that are sick, injured, or disabled should immediately be separated from healthy birds. 6.10.2 Equipment should be provided for the conveyance of non-injured birds within the premises without causing undue suffering. 6.10.3 Priority shall be given to the euthanasia of injured or disable birds. 6.11 Protected species Edible-nest Swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus) or Black-nest Swiftlet (Aerodramus maximus) are protected species under Protection of Wildlife Act, 1972 and therefore any exportation or importation of Swiftlet bird’s nest from these species requires a license from the Department of Wildlife and National Parks. This requirement is in accordance to the Protection of Wildlife (Ammendment) Order 2003 which stipulates a payment of RM 0.10 per gram of RM 100 per kilogram for the import or export license. 7.0 Environmental management Farm operators shall follow requirements stated in MS 2027:2006. Annex A (informative) Fostering meal formula for chicks © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 13
  • MS 2273:2010 A1 Food Mixture of milk, dry biscuits (Marie®), hard boiled eggs and/or Kerangga eggs. All these are mashed and fed every 3 h. A2 Water 1 ml to 4 ml mixture of glucose, water, vitamins and minerals. 14 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 Annex B (informative) EBN breeding period 93.8 % breeding 59.7 % breeding 96.1 % breeding Average egg produced/pair = 1.49 Average egg produced/pair = 0.77 Average egg produced/pair = 1.88 Average nestling raised/pair = 0.97 Average nestling raised/pair = 0.44 Average nestling raised/pair = 1.32 Replacement egg = NA Replacement egg = (108 ±14) days Replacement egg = (47 ± 10) days January February March April May June July Augus September Octobe November December t r January February March April May June July Augus September Octobe November December t r Replacement egg = (17 ± 3) days Replacement egg = (82 ± 20) days Replacement egg = (19± 6) days Average nestling raised/pair = 0.68 Average nestling raised/pair = 0.57 Average nestling raised/pair = 0.79 Average egg produced/pair = 1.22 Average egg produced/pair = 0.95 Average egg produced/pair = 1.35 91.6 % breeding 77.8 % breeding 91.6 % breeding Second breeding bout Third breeding bout First breeding bout (halfway of breeding season) (period intense moult) (start of annual breeding season) © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 15
  • MS 2273:2010 Annex C (normative) List of reportable diseases C1 Reportable diseases For the purpose of the Section 2 of the Declaration of Notifiable Diseases 2009 the following are reportable diseases which may affect the birds concerned. C2 List of Avian diseases Highly pathogenic avian influenza Newcastle disease Avian infectious bronchitis Avian infectious laryngotracheitis Avian tuberculosis Duck virus hepatitis Duck virus enteritis Fowl cholera Fowl pox Fowl typhoid Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) Marek's disease Avian mycoplasmosis Avian chlamydiosis Pullorum disease Salmonella enteridis Salmonella typhimurium [Source: Year 2002 OlE International Animal (Health Code)] 16 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 Annex D (normative) Transport of birds D1 Transporting birds Transport of birds within, or out, or into Malaysia is subject to the following recommendations. This annex is a convenient summary of the regulations as they apply to birds that you can keep in your vehicle at all times. It is not an official document. D2 You shall not: a) transport a sick or injured birds where undue suffering will result continue to transport a bird that is injured, becomes ill, or is otherwise unfit to travel; b) load or unload birds in a way that would cause injury or undue suffering; c) crowd birds to such an extent as to cause injury or undue suffering; d) transport birds if injury or suffering is likely to be caused by inadequate construction of the vehicle, insecure fittings, undue exposure to the weather or inadequate ventilation; e) use cages that are inadequately constructed or maintained which would be likely to cause injury or undue suffering to the animals; f) confine birds in a motor vehicle for longer than 48 h unless they can reach their final destination in 52 h making sure that feed and water is provided on the vehicle during the trip; and g) load a bird for a trip of more than 24 h without first providing food and water within 5 h before loading. D3 You shall: a) segregate birds of different species, of substantially different weights and ages, or if incompatible by nature; b) allow birds to roost in a natural position; and c) provide for drainage and absorption of any droppings. © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 17
  • MS 2273:2010 Annex E (informative) Emergency procedures during transportation E1 Posted in transport vehicles Emergency procedures to be followed by drivers in the event of a breakdown, an accident or any other delay during transit: a) Telephone home office immediately to report the emergency situation. b) During business hours telephone the nearest veterinarian as well the manager of the receiving premise or shipper and receiver. c) Telephone the premise or other destination. d) If necessary, arrange for the use of another vehicle to move the load to a sheltered area or to the plant. e) During extremely hot or cold weather condition, seek shelter for the load until the emergency situation is over. f) Seek the advice of a veterinarian in the event of distressed or seriously injured birds. g) Do something. Use common sense. The comfort of the bird comes first. 18 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 Bibliography (1) MS 2027:2006, Good Animal Husbandry Practice (GAHP) (2) Good Animal Husbandry Practice for edible-nest swiftlets Aerodermus species ranching and its premises. Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia, 2005. (3) Good Farm Practice Scheme (SALT) 2003. Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia. © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 – All rights reserved 19
  • Acknowledgements Members of Industry Standards Committee on Agriculture Mr Chan Han Hee (Chairman) Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Ms Maria Christina Stephensons/Irma Munirah SIRIM Berhad (Secretary) Ms Norma Othman/Mr Arifin Abdul Latif Department of Agriculture Malaysia Mr Ismail Abu Hassan/Mr Ahmad Hazizi Aziz Department of Fisheries Malaysia Ms Siti Raikhan Aina Bogal Department of Standards Malaysia Dr Hj Muhmad Kamarulzaman Hj Muhmad Department of Veterinary Services Malaysia Sarif/Dr Hj Idris Kadir Mr Sharifudin Jamaludin/ Farmers Organization Authority Mr R. Renganathan Mr Ishak Abbas Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority Dr Ong Hwee Keng Federation of Livestock Farmers Association Dr Hashim Mohd Noor Forest Research Institute Malaysia Mr Rusli Hj Tahir Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia Mr Cheah Wan Leong/Mr Martin Ng Johor Fish Breeders Association Dr A Sivapragasam/ Malaysian Agricultural Research and Dr Mohamad Roff Mohd Noor Development Institute Mr Cheah Chee Ho Malaysian Association of Standards Users Mr Ricky Yong/Mr S H Lim Malaysian Fruit Exporters Association Mr Ong Kim Pin/Mr Chew Jit Seng Malaysian Palm Oil Association Dr Ramli Othman/ Malaysian Rubber Board Dr Mohd Nasaruddin Mohd Aris Mr Cheah Hock Kooi/Ms Ainul Radziah Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry Zamhuri Mr Syahril Syazil Ghazali/ Ministry of International Trade and Industry Ms Salizan Abdul Aziz Mr Ab Rahman Awang/ Ministry of Plantation Industries and Mr Mohd Abdul Kadir Darail Commodities Dr Hassan Mat Daud/Datin Dr Asiah Ahmad Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Mr Mohammad Puat Yahaya/ Rubber Industry for Smallholder Development Mr Zainee Yahya Authority Associate Prof Dr Mohd Said Saad/ Universiti Putra Malaysia Prof Dr Zainal Aznam Jelan Members of Working Group on Ranching of Edible-Birdnest Swiftlets Dr Fadzilah A’ini Abdul Kadir (Chairman) Department of Veterinary Services Ms Maria Christina Stephensons/Irma SIRIM Berhad Munirah (Secretary) Mr Suhaimi Sarpan/Mr Haslan Hamzah Department of Town Planning Melaka Dr Zurina Ramli/Dr Yahasmida Yaacob/ Department of Veterinary Services Dr Lim Khun Hiong Mr Azman Hj Othman Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia Ir Fong Tian Yong Ministry of Housing and Local Government Mr Chen Vun Wo Multiform Food Supply Co Sdn Bhd Mr Tan Yoke Tian Perak Bird’s Nest Merchants Association Mr Ooi Siong Hwa Persatuan Pedagang Sarang Burung Negeri Kelantan © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2009 – All rights reserved
  • MS 2273:2010 Acknowledgements (continued) Dr Tan Boon Siong Persatuan Pengusaha Sarang Burung Mr Tiong Sui Jin Industri Negeri Johor Persatuan Sarang Burung Negeri Sarawak Dato’ Tok Teng Sai Persekutuan Pedagang Sarang Burung Terengganu Dato’ Beh Heng Seong/Mr Ku Teng Choon Persekutuan Persatuan Pedagang Sarang Burung Malaysia Mr Jesse Tang Yu Hang Sarawak Birds’ Nest Supplier Association Ms S. Thavamanithevi/Ms Sarifah Rejab SIRIM Berhad (Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre) Dato’ Seri Dr Abdullah Fadzil Che Wan/ Swiftlet Eco Park Group of Companies Mr Loke Yeu Loong Mr Lee Ting Hun Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Dato Dr Vincent Ng/Dr W. Sasindran Dass Veterinary Association Malaysia Mr Nik Zulkifli Nik Omar Walit World Sdn Bhd © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 All rights reserved