Widespread adoption of aluminum in the automotive industry: Sustainability advantage or not?

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Widespread adoption of aluminum in the automotive industry: Sustainability advantage or not?

Widespread adoption of aluminum in the automotive industry: Sustainability advantage or not?

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  • 1. Sustainability advantage or not? By: Alaeddine Mokri (MSE) Karim Mousa (ESM) Yomna Hassan (IT) Course: UCC 501 - Spring 2010 1
  • 2.       Transportation & Environment Existing Solutions Why Aluminum Financial Analysis Environmental Analysis Conclusion 2
  • 3.  The sector contributes to over 30% of U.S. emissions  Emissions expected to grow rapidly  Sector contributes to about 16% of worldwide emissions 3
  • 4. 18.2% Manufacturing & Construction 12.2% Fuel combustion for other uses 15.9% Electricity Generation & Heating Road Transport (Cars, Trucks & Buses) 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6.        Hybrid cars Electric cars Hydrogen Cars Taxing Congestion charges Car pooling Gasoline rationing 6
  • 7.  Existing solutions are future solutions  Expensive  Infrastructure problems  Adaptation difficulties for customer  Policies are found “not very effective” or “moderately effective”. 7
  • 8.  8
  • 9.  Replacing the body-in-white with an aluminum one to reduce weight 9
  • 10. Module of elasticity in N/mm2 Strength N/mm2 Density kg/dm3 Steel 190 000- 220 000 290 – 470 7.85 Aluminum 60 000 – 80 000 260 - 350 2.7  Density of Aluminum is 1/3 of Steel density.  Aluminum rigidity is 1/3 of steel rigidity. To compensate: - Increase wall thickness of the sheet of steel. - Optimize shaping. The Space Frame Concept ( An effective method of manufacturing car bodies which is feasible only when Aluminum is used). maximum rigidity - maximum torsion stiffness - minimum welding spots - flexibility in shaping. [2] [2] D. Carle, G. Blount, ”The sustainability of Aluminium as an alternative material for car bodies,” Materials and Design, pp 267-272, Issue 20, 1999. 10
  • 11. Module of elasticity in N/mm2 Strength N/mm2 Density kg/dm3 Steel 190 000- 220 000 290 – 470 7.85 Aluminum 60 000 – 80 000 260 - 350 2.7  Density of Aluminum is 1/3 of Steel density.  Aluminum rigidity is 1/3 of steel rigidity. To compensate: - Increase wall thickness of the sheet of steel. - Optimize shaping. The Space Frame Concept ( An effective method of manufacturing car bodies which is feasible only when Aluminum is used). maximum rigidity - maximum torsion stiffness - minimum welding spots - flexibility in shaping. [2] [2] D. Carle, G. Blount, ”The sustainability of Aluminium as an alternative material for car bodies,” Materials and Design, pp 267-272, Issue 20, 1999. 11
  • 12. Module of elasticity in N/mm2 Strength N/mm2 Density kg/dm3 Steel 190 000- 220 000 290 – 470 7.85 Aluminum 60 000 – 80 000 260 - 350 2.7  Density of Aluminum is 1/3 of Steel density.  Aluminum rigidity is 1/3 of steel rigidity. To compensate: - Increase wall thickness of the sheet of steel. - Optimize shaping. The Space Frame Concept ( An effective method of manufacturing car bodies which is feasible only when Aluminum is used). maximum rigidity - maximum torsion stiffness - minimum welding spots - flexibility in shaping. [1] [1] D. Carle, G. Blount, ”The sustainability of Aluminium as an alternative material for car bodies,” Materials and Design, pp 267-272, Issue 20, 1999. 12
  • 13. Calculation of the optimum thickness of the sheet of Aluminum so the body has the same mechanical properties as steel: Density of steel: 7.85 g/cm³ Area of panel = 739800 mm² Density of aluminium: 2.7g/cm³ Volume of a 1.2mm thick AA6016 outer door panel = Area x thickness = 739800 x 1.2 = 88760 mm³ Volume of a 0.8mm thick BH210 outer door panel = Area x thickness = 739800 x 0.8 = 591840 mm³ Mass of a 1.2 mm thick AA6016 outer door panel = density of Al x volume = (2.7 x 10^-3) x (88760) = 2397 g = 2.397 kg Mass of a 0.8 mm thick BH210 outer door panel = density of steel x volume = (7.85 x 10^-3) x (591840) = 4646 g = 4.646 kg 50% less The mass calculation shows that the mass of the aluminium panel is around than that of steel, when the thickness of the aluminum panel is 1.5 times the thickness of the steel panel (this shows very good agreement with literature [2]). [2] Masaaki Saito et al, ”Development aluminum bodies for fuel efficient vehicles,” Materials today, pp 30-34, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2001. 13
  • 14.  Manufacturability of the body (Aluminum versus Steel): [1, 2] - punch riveting in Aluminum bodies is used: 30% stronger than spot welding. - shielded arc welding in Aluminum bodies is used: economical. - one cast part made of Aluminum can replace several steel panels ( reduction of 15% in the number of parts). - easy shaping and production of Aluminum cast and extruded organs. - fewer parts in the Aluminum body, this results in fewer fixtures ( reduction of welding spot by 24%). - Body rigidity increases. - The amount of weight reduced due to replacing steel with aluminum is enormous ( 47%) This results in less fuel consumption and less emissions. 14
  • 15.  From the properties of aluminum better than steel is that it has the ability to be built in an “ASF” structure (not available in steel), which gives the car more rigidity. Due to plasticity.  One cast part can be shaped in different shapes so it can replace several steel panels, decreasing number of parts by 15%, and number of welding spots by 24%  Easy shaping and production, aluminum is more bendable by 13%.  The amount of weight reduced due to replacing steel with aluminum is enormous ( 47%), which will lead to a good amount of reduction in both cost and CO2 emissions as we will see later. 15
  • 16.  To carry out analysis, we need to consider and calculate several factors      Weight specifications Material Price / Raw Material Costs Distances travelled Fuel Consumption Fuel Costs  3 stages: Pre-manufacture, Manufacture, and Use. 16
  • 17.  17
  • 18.  Here we are discussing how our study will be affected by changing different variables.  Variables we considered through the analysis are: 1. Fuel Cost 2. Aluminum Cost 3. CO2 potential tax 4. Distance covered by car yearly 18
  • 19. 30 25 20 Number of Years to break 15 even in 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fuel cost ($/gallon) 19
  • 20. 30 25 20 UAE Number of Years to break 15 even in 10 USA 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fuel cost ($/gallon) US energy information Administration (EIA) 20
  • 21. 7 6 5 4 Number of years to break even 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Aluminium price ($/kg) 21
  • 22. 7 6 5 2008 2009 4 Number of years to break even 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Aluminium price ($/kg) Using figures from World Bank Commodity Price Data 22
  • 23. 3 2.5 2 Number of years to break 1.5 even 1 0.5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 difference in tax value ( euro per year) 23
  • 24. 3 2.5 2 By implementing the current tax system of UK and going from the band L to band J Number of years to break 1.5 even 1 0.5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 difference in tax value ( euro per year) UK public services governmental website 24
  • 25. 14 12 10 8 Number of years to break even 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Driving rate (Km/day) 25
  • 26. 14 UAE 12 10 USA 8 Number of years to break even 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Driving rate (Km/day) The US Bureau of Transportation Statistics Bener,Crundall; Road traffic accidents in the United Arab Emirates compared to Western countries;2005 26
  • 27.  Although CO2 emissions is higher in pre-manufacturing and manufacturing stage, during the usage, CO2 emissions are reduced by 5-6 % starting the first year of usage 27
  • 28.  On 50, 000 cars, we can save : around 0.3 billion kg of CO2 in 10 years.  0.7 billion in 20 years  If implemented on 62 million cars (registered cars in us, According to the U.S. Department of Transportation Statistical Records Office )  500 million kg =0.5 billion ton 28
  • 29. Paul R. Epstein, William Moomaw, Christopher Walker;Healthy Solutions for the Low Carbon Economy:Guidelines for Investors, Insurers and Policy Makers 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31.  We can remove half of this wedge if we implement our solution on a wide scale 31
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