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English Skills

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  • 1. English skills
  • 2. Outline
    • Introduction
    • English Linguistics approach
    • The use of English as a second language.
    • English skills
    • The international English assessment systems
    • Conclusion & discussion
  • 3. Introduction
    • The English language is spoken by 750 million people in the world as either the official language of a nation, a second language, or in a mixture with other languages ( pidgins and creoles.)
  • 4. Introduction
    • English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the ANGLOPHONE CARIBBEAN
  • 5. Introduction
    • English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the
    • AUSTRALIA
    • 15,581,334 N.S
  • 6. Introduction
    • English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the
    • CANADA
    • 17,694,830 N.S
  • 7. Introduction
    • English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the
    • NEW-
    • ZEALAND
    • 3,500,000+ N.S (approx)
  • 8. Introduction
    • English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the
    • IRELAND
    • 4,200,000+ N.S (approx)
  • 9. Introduction
    • English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the
    • UNITED
    • KINGDOM
    • 58,200,000 N.S
  • 10. Introduction
    • English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the
    • USA
    • 214,809,000 N.S
  • 11. Introduction
    • Commonwealth C ountries
  • 12. Introduction
    • Commonwealth International
    • Countries organizations
  • 13. Introduction
    • Commonwealth International
    • Countries organizations
    • United Nations
  • 14. Introduction
    • Commonwealth International
    • Countries organizations
    • The Anglosphere
    • United Nations
  • 15. Introduction
    • A native or fluent speaker of English is known as an
    • Anglophone
  • 16. Introduction
    • A native or fluent speaker of English is known as an
    • Anglo phone
    • « English »
  • 17. Introduction
    • A native or fluent speaker of English is known as an
    • Anglo phone
    • « sound, speech »  
  • 18. Introduction
    • Modern English is sometimes described as a linguafranca .
    • English is the dominant language in many fields
    • British Empire is the primary reason for the initial spread
    • Since World War II, United States has accelerated the adoption of English.
    • As a result, over a billion people speak English .
  • 19. Introduction C hanges in English (Demonstration)
    • 1.Old English (ca .500 CE-1100 CE)
  • 20. Introduction C hanges in English (Demonstration)
    • 2.Middle English (ca. 1100 CE -1500 CE )
  • 21. Introduction C hanges in English (Demonstration)
    • 3.Early Modern English (ca. 1500 CE-1800 CE )
  • 22. English linguistics approach
    • Linguistics
    • -Grammar : parts of speech ; Nouns, adj, adv, prepositions,
    • conjunctions, pronouns, verbs,
    • interjections.
    • -Phonology
    • -Phonetics
    • -Morphology
  • 23. English linguistics approach
    • Language theory / Language technology
    • ( Competence & performance )   
    • « Chomsky »
    • « Colourless green ideas sleep furiously »
    • S V Adv
  • 24. English linguistics approach
    • Language theory / Language technology
    • What significance can language technology have for the language theory ?
  • 25. English linguistics approach
    • Language theory / Language technology
    • The problem of ambiguity in relation to the
    • current language processing systems
  • 26. English linguistics approach
    • Language theory / Language technology
    • How can we be able to turn linguistics into
    • a hard science ?
  • 27. English linguistics approach
    • Language theory / Language technology
    • What are the limitations of current
    • language systems ?
  • 28. English linguistics approach
    • Language theory / Language technology
    • What is competence and performance ?
    • « Colourless green ideas sleep furiously »
    • S V Adv
            • Grammar
            • Meaning
  • 29. The use of English as a 2 nd language Meeting Obama was great ! Unfortunately, I couldn’t speak well English…
  • 30. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors
    • What is an error in English ?
  • 31. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors
    • All deviations from the standard use of English as
    • judged by sophisticated users
    • Awareness
    • The aim is
    • Avoid (-) consequences
  • 32. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors
    • Why don’t we cover all important points of grammar ?
  • 33. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors
    • Lack of practice
    • Dealing with other languages backgrounds
    • Insufficient input Listening
    • Reading
    • Unstructured output Speaking
    • Writing
  • 34. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms
    • 1-idiomatic expressions:
    • Confusing an idiomatic expression .
    • Difficulties understanding the meanings.
  • 35. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms
    • 1-Idiomatic expressions:
    • exp : literal meaning
    • «  Before the bartender made the drink,she broke the ice with a small hammer and dropped it into the blender.  »
    • idiomatic meaning
    • «  Before the conference began, the speaker broke the ice with a joke .”
  • 36. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms
    • 1-Idiomatic expressions:
    • broke the ice
    • To make a beginning To get through the
    • 1st difficulties in
    • starting a conversation
  • 37. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms
    • 2-Phrasal verb:
    • Frequently heard in spoken English
    • Phrasal verb is a verb + preposition structure
    • Sometimes referred to as 2-word or 3-word verb.
    • S pecial meaning
  • 38. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms
    • 2-Phrasal verb:
    • Exp:
    • Put off –delay............................ postpone
    • Sow up – appear ........................... come
  • 39. English skills
    • The focus on this point is :
    • -To highlight the importance of each skill area.
    • -To illustrate each skill requirements
    • -To gather a global 4-skills-concept in mind
  • 40. English skills
    • What do you have to do before you can
    • speak?
    • What does a child learn before he
    • talks?
    • What do we do before chatting?
  • 41. English skills
    • Listening
  • 42. English skills 1-Listening
    • Children begin listening to their parents
    • Children automatically acquire such language
    • listening can help improve speaking considerably
    • It is neither the easiest nor the most meaningless
  • 43. English skills 1-Listening
    • Why is listening good ?
  • 44. English skills 1-Listening
    • Reviewing a lot of English usage
    • Learning new words and expressions
    • General knowledge
    • We can imitate what we hear
    • Listening can be a good “hobby”
    • To train our attention .
  • 45. English skills 1-Listening
    • How can we listen to English?
  • 46. English skills 1-Listening
    • Radio programmes
    • English broadcaster
  • 47. English skills 1-Listening
    • Some of the most listening skills are :
    • -Listening for gist
    • -Listening for detail
    • -Listening for specific information
    • -Inferential listening
  • 48. English skills
    • Speaking
  • 49. English skills 2 -Speaking
    • How do you become a more confident
    • English speaker ?
  • 50. English skills 2 -Speaking
    • Practice anywhere, anytime.
    • Build confidence
    • Experiment English that you know
    • Try to Respond
    • Avoid translation
    • Avoid being silent
    • Don’t speak too fast
    • Relax
  • 51. English skills 2 -Speaking
    • Remember, when speaking English…
  • 52. English skills 2 -Speaking
    • Be less hesitant
    • Don’t be shy to speak
    • Be polite
  • 53. English skills
    • Reading
  • 54. English skills 3 -Reading
    • Do I read every word in my own language when I am reading a schedule, summary, or other outlining document?
  • 55. English skills 3 -Reading
    • Do I read every word in my own
    • language when I am reading a schedule, summary, or other outlining document?
    • No !
  • 56. English skills 3 -Reading
    • Skimming
    • Scanning
    • Extensive reading
    • Intensive reading
  • 57. English skills 3 -Reading
    • Skimming
  • 58. English skills 3 -Reading
    • Scanning
  • 59. English skills 3 -Reading
    • Extensive reading
  • 60. English skills 3 -Reading
    • Intensive reading
  • 61. English skills
    • Writing
  • 62. English skills 4 -Writing
    • Write with necessary caution…
  • 63. English skills 4 -Writing
  • 64. English skills 4 -Writing
    • Avoid slangs
    • Avoid abbreviations unless necessary
    • Steer away from symbols « & »
    • Becareful with stereotypes (clichés)
    • ( ) to play down words or phrases
    • _ for emphasis
    • Spell names correctly
  • 65. English skills 4 -Writing
    • Numbers < 10 should be expressed as words
    • exp : « Ten years ago,my brother… ».
    • Numbers > 10 are expressed as they are
    • exp « My brother has 13 sandal peers ».
    • (“ ” / ‘ ’) should be placed around speech
    • and titles .
    • Keep short sentences.
  • 66. English skills
    • Remember…
    • Input Output
    • (listening, reading) (speaking, writing)
  • 67. The international English assessment systems
    • Cambridge exams: IELTS, BEC
    • Exams from British examining boards
    • Using British English
  • 68. The international English assessment systems
    • American E xams: TOEFL, TOEIC
    • Exams from U-S examining boards
    • Using American English
  • 69. The international English assessment systems
    • The main levels:
    • Advanced / Proficient / Level 5
    • Upper Intermediate / Higher Intermediate / Level 4
    • Intermediate / Level 3
    • Lower Intermediate /Pre-Intermediate/Primary/ Level 2
    • Elementary / Beginners / Basic / Level 1
  • 70. The international English assessment systems 100 400 _ KET 4.0 Elementary 520 150 470 Preliminary PET 5.0 Lower intermediate 660 200 530 Vantage FCE 6.0 Intermediate 810 250 600 Higher CAE 7.0 Upper intermediate 990 290 670 _ CPE 8.0 Advanced TOEIC TOEFL electro TOEFL paper BEC Cambri- dge IELTS LEVELS
  • 71. The international English assessment systems
    • Abbreviations :
    • IELTS  : International English Language Testing System
    • BEC  : Business English Certificate
    • TOEFL  : Test of English as a Foreign Language
    • TOEIC  : Test of English for International Communication
    • Cambridge exams:
    • KET (Key English Test) PET (Preliminary English Test) FCE (First Certificate in English) CAE (Certificate in Advanced English) CPE (Certificate of Proficiency in English)
  • 72. www.yolyordam.com