French Wine Training programJuly 2012 - Made by Yohann AUTRET (Sommelier- Adviser)
The different regions of wine production in France
Wine Regions : BORDEAUX (/bor-dohw/) Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties SEMI-OCEANIC Ideal soil conditions for Red: vines as they encourage - Merlot deep root penetration and - Cabernet-Sauvignon Cold and dry periods a well regulated intake of - Cabernet-Franc in winter or sometimes water. Limestone and clay/ soft and moist. limestone soils on sites in White: Summers are cool. Saint Emilion, Sauternes - Sauvignon-Blanc and the Cotes also have - Semillon speciﬁc characteristics. Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation- Red wine - Oysters 1st. AOC Bordeaux- Dry white wine - Pauillac Lamb 2nd. AOC Bordeaux Supérieur- Sweet white wine - Duck with mushrooms 3rd. AOC (Fronsac, Baye)- Very little sparkling wine- Very little rosé wine 4th. AOC + Classiﬁcation
Wine Regions : Val de Loire/val-duh-war/ Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties Red: OCEANIC The Loire produces wines - Cabernet-Sauvignon from grapes that ripen - Cabernet-Franc more slowly than other Temperatures are mild - Gamay regions. The impact of a in the winter, but vary - Pinot Noir longer ripening as well as from one to another the Atlantic breezes is that day. Summers are cool. White: the wines of this region - Sauvignon are higher in acids and - Melon generally very refreshing. - Chenin Blanc Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation Red :- Red wine - Red meat- Dry white wine - Paté, sausages and salami- Sweet white wine- Rosé white wine White :- Sparkling wine - Shellﬁsh - Fish - Aperitif
Wine Regions : Champagne /Sham-pañ/ Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties The soil is a unique chalk OCEANIC which lies just below the thin, constantly-fertilized - Chardonnay top soil. The cool climate Temperatures are mild is almost marginal for - Pinot Noir in the winter, but vary grape growing, even in from one to another warmer years, dictating - Pinot Meunier day. Summers are cool. the grapes will always be high in acid--not ideal for still wine--but perfect for sparkling. Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation 1st: AOC Champagne.- Brut Zero : 0% 2nd: AOC Champagne + Grd Cru.- Extra Brut : 1,5 - 2,5% - Oysters 3rd: AOC Champagne + 1er. Cru.- Brut : < 2% - Caviar- Sec : 2-4% - Foie gras Vintage: Made from a single harvest.- Demi-Sec : 4-6% - Smoked Salmon Blanc de Blanc: Made only from Chardonnay.- Doux : >6% Blanc de Noir: Made only from Pinots.
Wine Regions : Alsace /al-sas/ Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties Many of its vineyards are MOUNTAIN Red: steeply sloped. The warm - Pinot Noir and dry climate is perfect for the wine. The Vosges White: Moderate summers mountain range blocks the - Gewurztraminer and cold and snowy marine inﬂuence from the - Riesling winters. Atlanticand protects from - Pinot Blanc rain at harvest, allowing the - Muscat grapes to fully mature - Sylvaner before picking in most - Tokay Gris vintages. Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation 1st : AOC Alsace + name of the grape variety.- Majority white wine - Sauerkraut- Sparkling wine - Amuse 2nd : AOC Alsace Grand Cru + name of the grape - Sea food- Very little red wine variety +Name of the city of production. Other : AOC Crémant dAlsace is used only for sparkling wine.
Wine Regions : Bourgogne /boor-gon-yuh/ Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties CONTINETAL The entire Cote lies on a bedrock of limestone, as Red: Very large temperature opposed to the gravels - Pinot Noir differences between and granite of the Médoc, - Gamay winter (-15°C) and making a wine much Summer (35°C). lighter and elegant. White: - Chardonnay Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation Red : 1st : AOC Bourgogne.- Red wine - Game 2nd : AOC Bourgogne +- Dry white wine name of VIllage - Red Meat- Sparkling wine 3rd : AOC Bourgogne + 1er White : Cru - Grilled ﬁsh 4th : AOC Bourgogne + Grand Cru - Oysters
Wine Regions : Cote du Rhone /Kot-du-ron/ Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties CONTINETAL Red: The Southern Rhône - Syrah MEDITERRANEAN valley is host to a complex - Grenache and diverse geological - Carignan Very large temperature structure which explains, - Mourvédre differences between in part, the vast range of winter (-15°C) and different wines that are White: Summer (35°C). produced here. - Grenache Blanc - Ugni Blanc - Clairette Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation 1st : AOC Côtes du Rhône. Red :- Red wine 2nd : AOC Côtes du Rhône - Roasted red meat- Dry white wine Villages - Game beef steak- Sparkling wine 3rd : AOC Côtes du Rhône - Grilled white meat Villages + name of the city 4th : AOC name of the White : Village (Ex: Côte Rôtie, - Grilled ﬁsh Hemitage, Condrieu, etc.)
Wine Regions : Sud Ouest /sud-wes/ Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties Red: SEMI-OCEANIC Due to the prominence - Tannat, Malbec of their next door - Merlot neighbor, Bordeaux , and - Cabernet Sauvignon Cold and dry periods the similarity of soil, in winter or sometimes climate and location, this White: soft and moist, and area generally features - Sauvignon cool summer. the same varietals and - Semillon styles of wine as - Colombard Bordeaux. - Muscadelle - Ugni Blanc Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation Red :- Red wine - Cassoulet- Dry white wine - Roasted duck- Sparkling wine White : - River ﬁsh, - White meat
Wine Regions : Languedoc /ran-ge-dok/ Location Climat Terroir Grape varieties Languedoc is a Red: MEDITERRANEAN powerhouse of table wine - Syrah production. Due to its - Grenache L a r g e t e m p e r a t u re climate, almost anything - Merlot difference between can be, and is, grown - Cabernet Sauvignon summer and winter. Big differences of rainfall here. From the traditional Provencal grape varietals White: spread over the of Syrah, Grenache, to the - Chardonnay months of the year. very marketable Merlot, - Sauvignon Pinot Noir. - Viognier - Marsanne / Roussane Type of wine Food Pairing Bottle shape Classiﬁcation Red :- Red wine - Grilled red meat 1st : Pays d’Oc.- Dry white wine - Paté, sausages & salami 2nd : AOC Languedoc- Sparkling wine - Roasted turkey 3rd : AOC Grand Vin du Languedoc. White : 4th : AOC Grand Cru du - Salad Languedoc. - Onion tart
How to Make a wine? - Vineyard activities - Wine making process
Vineyard Activities December January FebuaryWinter - Cutting plants - Cutting plants - Cutting plants - Tying of fruit branches - Flooding began - Tying of fruit branches - Following the ﬂoods alternating - Following the ﬂoods alternating - Fertilization in late winter March April Mai - End of cutting plants - Weeds in rank - Trellising early (ﬁrst reliever)Spring - Grinding pruning - Spring fertilization - Bud removal (continued) - End of the tying - Trellising - drop the son bullpen - Spring fertilization - Maintenance espaliers - Control of pests and diseases - Control of pests and diseases - Planting, replacement of plants - Spray early spring (late blight) June July AugustSummer - Trellis (second reliever) - HARVEST for the the early - - Debudding - Cropping Chardonnay, Pinot, Sauvignon Blc - Trellising (following the ﬁrst reliever) - Green harvesting - Tillage - Spray (mildew / mildew / berry moths) - Tillage - Tillage (row and between rows) - Control of pests and diseases September October November - HARVEST - Merlot, Syrah,Fall - HARVEST - Cabernet - Inter-row sowing Viognier, Alicante, Grenache, Fertilizer (manure) - Maintenance of hedges Malbec, Colombard. Tillage - Tying of seedlings
Wine Making Process (1)Sugar Alcohol Fermentation + Co2 (gas) Yeasts
Red Wine Making Process (2)
How to describe a wine? 3 major phases : 1 - Visual phase. 2 - Olfactory phase. 3 - Tasting Phase.
First step : Visual Phase (1) Fluididy Limpidity “Legs” Color & Intensity Effervescence
First step : Visual Phase (2) colors nuance Degree of evolution White wine Rosé wine Red wine Young wine Green reﬂects Raspberry rose nuance Violet reﬂects Mature wine Straw reﬂects Strawberry nuance Cherry nuance Aged wine Golden brown Onion skin nuance Tile or brick reﬂects Worn out wine Amber reﬂects Orange reﬂects Brown nuance
Third step : Tasting Phase- Sensory savors description- Post tasting Phase
Wine and food pairing suggestions
Basic principles food & wine pairing Type of food Type of wine exemplePoaching stream, Poached Beef Fillet With Baby Lignt, non-tannic wine smoking Vegetables and a Port Jus Grilling roasting Fruity, oak barrel matured red wine Grilled Filet Mignonsauteing, braising Frying White wine Frying ﬂour tortillas Work stir frying Light bodied white wines Thai Stir-fried Vegetables Saucy dishes Pair wine with dominant sauce Saucy chicken thighs
The differents type of food & wine matching Type Explaination Recommandation Use the dominate ﬂavour of a dish, often - Grilled white ﬁsh with heavier oak Balance the sauce, as your guide in pairing. aged white wine or light-bodied red. Opposites attract, therefore sweet wine - Sweet wine with goat chease Contrast goes with sour or acidic food. - late harvest wine with Fois gras. Dry before sweet; white before red;Multiple wine young before old; simple before courses complex... - Grilled Fish with Chablis. Cooking Poached white ﬁsh -> light white wine. - Braised beef with Barolo. methods Grilled white ﬁsh -> oaked white wine. - Grilled chicken and Beaujolais. Regional Regional wines generally match well - Cassoulet with Pinot Noir pairing with the regional cuisines. - Red Bordeaux and lamb.
Food Pairings Viognier Tasting : Serving temperat color. u re Eyes: Straw yellow se of d very complex no Serve between 12-1 Nose: Intense an pricots. cold, and let the w 3°C, not too pineapple, lic hees, peaches and a ine breathe or decant it before se rving. n the Mouth: Full-bodied and ﬁavorful o palate. Food & Wine Matching Goes well with spicy and exotic cooking and can also stand alone as a cocktail wine.
Food Pairings Chardonnay Tasting : Serving temperat Eyes: Straw yellow color. u re ose of Nose: Intense a nd very complex n Serve between 12-1 ots. 3°C, not too peaches and apric pineapple, lichees, te. cold, and let the w ine breathe or Full-bodied and ﬁavorful on the pala decant it before se rving. the d and ﬁavorful on Mouth: Full-bodie palate. Food & Wine Matching Goes well with spicy and exotic cooking and can also stand alone as a cocktail wine.
Food Pairings Sauvignon Tasting : green Eyes: Light ye llow color with Serving temperat u re highlights. uvignon Nose: An exp ressive, typical Sa Serve between 12-1 3°C, not too and of tropical fruit cold, and let the w nose with scents ine breathe or decant it before se grapefruit. rving. with s ant on the palate Mouth: Very plea it ﬂavors. citrus and white fru Food & Wine Matching Goes well with smoked salmon, salmon eggs, warm goat cheese salads and seafood.
Food Pairings Grenache-Gris Tasting : iguing Serving temperat Eyes: Pale salm on color with intr u re grey highlights. of red Serve between 12-1 Nose: Clean an d expressive nose cold, and let the w 3°C, not too rry. ine breathe or fruit such as raspbe decant it before se rving. e fruit Mouth: Good balance between th ine. and th e character of the w Food & Wine Matching Drinks well on its own and has plenty of structure to pe paired with cold meats, exotic dishes, grilled meat and salads.
Food Pairings Merlot Tasting : ing to Eyes: A garnet color slowly turn Serving temperat u re amber. Serve at 15 °-16°C ies and . Nose: Aromas of red fruit cherr gooseberry. e palate Mouth: Soft and full of fruit on th ell- ins, elegant and w with reﬁned tann balanced. Food & Wine Matching The wines structure, its distinctive aromas and ﬁne tannins make this an excellent wine for heginners; a friendly wine for drinking before and during meals. Goes well with red and white meat barbecues and mild cheeses.
Food Pairings Cabernet Sauvignon Tasting : ing to Serving temperat Eyes: Ruby red color siigntnr turn u re amber. Serve at 15°-15°C. grape Nose: A nose th at is typical for this erry. variety ,blackberry and bilb well- A ro unol elegant and Mouth: palate. balanc ed delicacy on the Food & Wine Matching with color meats, especially smoked. Perfect with cows milk cheese.
Food Pairings Malbec Tasting : Serving temperat color is deep and c rimson. u re Eyes: The Serve at 15°-16°C. f plum, Nose: Perfectly integrated notes o tmeg. currant, cherry and nu mas are Mouth: Cher ry and tobacco aro late. conﬁrmed in the pa Food & Wine Matching W i t h s a u s a g e , m i xe d - g r i l l e d barbecue, poultry and softripened cheese.
Food Pairings Marselan Tasting : Serving temperat color. u re Eyes: Straw yellow Serve between 1 2-13°C, not nose of Nose: Intense and very complex too cold, and le t the wine apricots. breathe or decan pineapple, li chees, peaches and t it before serving. on the Mouth: Full-bodied and ﬁavorful palate. Food & Wine Matching Goes well with spicy and exotic cooking and can also stand alone as a cocktail wine.
Food Pairings Syrah-Viognier Tasting : purple Serving temperat Eyes: Deep rub y red color with u re highlights. Serve at 18°C. forest Nose: An initial nose of violets then undergrowth. d and Mouth: The win e is round, fullbodie long on the palate. Food & Wine Matching With meats in sauce or game.
Food Pairings Pinot Noir Tasting : lor. Serving temperat red almost violet co Eyes: Bright ruby u re e ve r y Serve at 18°C. N o s e : F re s h cherr y notes ar notes. forward w ith spicy and cumin a ro u n d M o u t h : F in e s il k y t a n n in s ine has expressive red fr uits. All in all the w a great balance. Food & Wine Matching Goes well with leg of lamb studded with garlic, duck, veal, mild cheeses ; also goes well with desserts such as shortbread with red fruits.
Food Pairings Prestige Blanc Tasting : f g r ap e s Nose: The three varieties o in which Serving temperat compose an a romatic symphony u re owers fresh almond s and white ﬂ mas Serve at 13°C. n ey and intense aro harmonise with ho of exotic ﬂowers. a brush of Mouth: Fre sh on the palate, of scents citrus fruits is heightened by eing of roasted nuts du e to the barrel ag rapes. wines produ ced from Viognier g Food & Wine Matching Serve fresh as an aperitif. Also ideal with white meats, roasted poultry, ﬁsh dishes and cooked seafood.
Food Pairings Prestige Rouge Tasting : st violet color. Eyes: B right ruby red almo Serving temperat u re ed berr y N o s e : B la ckcurrant and r Serve at 18°C. ﬂavours. ith d rich, harmonise w Mouth: warm an off with reﬁned and so ft tannins rounded uch of notes of wood an d a ﬁnal roasted to . coffee and chocolate Food & Wine Matching The structure, its simple aromas and reﬁned tannins make this wine easy to appreciate and well adapted to modern lifesyles. lt will be perfect with grilled meats, coq au vin, fruit tarts and chocolate deserts.
Printing document : The different steps to describe a wine