WhatCulture IsHistory of CultureTeachingThe Purposes of IncorporatingCulture in EFLCurriculumCulture in EFL ClassroomProblem inTeaching Culture
What is Culture?Taylor (1954, cited in Finocchiaro & Bonomo, 1973) defines culture as acomplex whole which include knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, customs,and other habits acquired by man as a member of society.Chastain (1988) Low CultureHighCulture
Hinkel (2001) makes a distinction between visible culture andinvisible cultureCultureVisible CultureInvisible Culture
As Stem (1983) states, an anthropological and sociological view oflanguage in connection with culture and society began toinfluence language teaching theory to a limited extent in thefifties and sixties A review of language teaching methods reveals the role of culturallearning For EFL1. GTM (GrammarTranslation Method)2. The Audio Lingual Method3. Communicative LanguageTeaching
Mirshani (2003) reveals that in 1960s and 70s : an attempt was made to provideopportunities for rehearseal life situation and communicative aspects of language.Stern (1983) states thatIn the post world war, the idea of a study of languagecombined with a study of culture and society was familiar enough to most theoriesMoreover, Stern states that in 1970s an emphasis on sociolinguistics resulted ingreater emphasis on the role of culture in the EFL curriculum.Between the late 1970s and 1980sIt was realized that to communicate effectively , one should addapt with theproperties of the language and social variables in which he interact with others.
• It was realized that to communicate effectively , one should addaptwith the properties of the language and social variables in which heinteract with others.Between the late 1970s and 1980s• There were some works including culture teaching for ESL and EFLclass.In 1980s• The cultural syllabus has been supported by researchers and itsimportance of was reaffirmed in Stern’s book.In 1990
Communication that lacks appropriatecultural content often results in humorousincidents, or worse, is the source of seriousmiscommunication and misunderstanding.(Chlopek, 2008:10)
As a teacher, it is a must to understand how theknowledge of language and the knowledge ofculture are originated. The nature of teaching culture in EFL is to getintercultural awareness rather thanacculturation or assimilation This intercultural awareness helps students inhaving better understanding of target language. Understanding of target language also developtolerance
IncorporatingCulture in EFLCurriculumInterculturalAwarenessBetterUnderstandingofTargetLanguage Tolerance
Richard (2001: 23) states that need andsituation analysis are the requirements tocompose curriculum. In incorporating culture in EFL curriculum, itis a must to conduct need and situationanalysis.
What are the objectives andcommunication situations? With members of what cultures arelearners likely to encounter?
When?All Levels1.Young Beginners2.AdvanceOne of the mostimportant componentsof a culture is itslanguage.Withlanguage, people notonly expeditiouslycommunicate; they alsoexpress their values,beliefs, and worldviews. ( Barfield andUzarski, 2009: 2)
What?Emphasizing similaritiesamong people and thenmove to a discussion ofdifferences betweencultures (Chastain,1988)
All of the topic and sub topics in this power point presentation isinspired by Marzich Sharifi in his article entitled Incorporating Cultureinto the EFL Curriculum Barfield. Susan C. and Uzarski, Joelle. 2009. Integrating IndigenousCultures into English LanguageTeaching. EnglishTeaching Forum 50(1): 2-9 Chlopek, Zofia. 2008.The InterculturalApproach to EFLTeaching andLearning. EnglishTeaching Forum 47 (4):10-27 Finocchiaro, K., &Bonomo, M.1973.The Foreign Language Learner.NewYork:Regents PublishingCompany, Inc.
Hinkel, E.2001.Building Awareness and PracticalSkills to FacilitateCross-CulturalCommunicaton (3rd Ed.). In M. Celce-Murcia-TeachingEnglish as a second or Foreign Language (442-458).Boston:Heinle andHeinle. Mirhassani, A.2003.Theories, Approaches, & Methods inTeachingEnglish as A Foreign Language.Tehran:Zabankadeh. Richard, Jack C. 2001. Curriculum Development in LanguageTeaching.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press Stern, H.H.1983.FundamentalConcepts of LanguageTeaching.Oxford:Oxford University Press.