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  • 1. Research Methodology Assistant Professor-Yogesh. MBA,NET,GDC&A,NCMP and Pursuing PhD.
  • 2. Standard of passing  60% periodic evaluation  40% semester end examination Passing: 50% in each paper
  • 3. Question paper pattern  Attempt any 5 questions out of 8 questions.  Each question carries 8 marks. In each question there will be 5 sub questions and out of which 4 needs to be answer, carrying 2 marks each.
  • 4. Chapters  Research  Research design/ Methods  Data collection/ Processing/ Analyzing  Sampling techniques  Scaling  Hypothesis-testing  Classification / Tabulation  Report writing
  • 5. What comes in your mind?  Research – why, what, where, how, types, when, methods, process, design, etc..  Data- primary/ secondary  Literature review  Analysis of data- statistical  Report writing  Software
  • 6. Example  Want to reach Mumbai University (MU) from Kurla(C) railway station.  ?  Data- Internet, mobile, expert opinion  Hypothesis – Authentic data  Analysis- time. energy, rupees etc..  Solution- auto, taxi, bus, walk, run etc..
  • 7. Research  ?  Purpose is to find answers  Systematic & scientific methods  Formulating hypothesis  Data collection  Analysis  Solution
  • 8. “Young” defines research, ‘ a scientific undertaking which by means of logical & systematic techniques’, aims to,  Discover new facts or verify old facts,  Analyze their sequences, interrelationships and casual explanation,  Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behavior.1 Reference- 1.Young PaulineV, scientific, social surveys and research, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 1937, p. 30.
  • 9. Research is to re-search  from available primary and secondary data into relevant information  to form a substantial knowledge.
  • 10. Research Why what Where When Design Process Methods How New facts Theories Tools Concepts Reliable Information
  • 11. Objectives  To find answers by using systematic & scientific methods.  To find out new facts.  Brings out Hidden Information.  Verify & test existing facts and theories.  Develop new tools, concepts and theories.  Contributes to national development.
  • 12. Example New facts:  Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) was a Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East Hidden information:  CID/ CBI inquires, Special committees, Adarsh scam.
  • 13. Characteristics  Systematic & critical investigation.  Purposive investigation.  Adopts scientific methods.  Objective & logical, applying possible tests.  Observable experience or empirical evidence.  Directed towards finding answers.  Development of principles or theories.
  • 14. General terms in research Scientific methods  Step by step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning.  Mode of investigation.  Systematized form of analysis. Reasoning Induction Deduction
  • 15. Induction:  Studying several individuals, cases & drawing generalizations. Deduction:  Applying a general accepted principles to a specific individual case. Particular General General Particular
  • 16. Theory:  A frustrated person, who is unable or afraid to express his aggression directly towards to perceived source of his frustration, may divert his aggression into another channel.  The standard of living of family is the function of its income, size & life style. It is the gradual outgrowth of constructive study of the accumulated sorted facts.
  • 17. Example  Frustrated manager takes it out on subordinate instead of his boss.  Provides basis for studying consumer behavior and formulating appropriate marketing strategies.
  • 18. Facts:  Empirically verifiable observation.  Process of classification  Example: counting the number of vehicles plying on a road Hypothesis:  Preliminary assumption i.e. guess Relationship:  Research>Assumption>Facts>Theories  (Scientific methods, tools, data , old facts )
  • 19. Theories Facts Assumption Research
  • 20. Research contributes to,  Initiates theory  Test an existing theory  Reformulation Theory contribute to,  Suggest problem for study  Giving hypothesis  Providing conceptual models At the end it is social science, deals with observation & experiments.