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Research methods


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  • 1. Research methods Experimental Analytical Survey Historical
  • 2. Experimental research  Designed to access the effects of particular variable on phenomenon by keeping the other variable constant or controlled.  Determines whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. Variable Dependent Independent
  • 3.  The factors which is influenced by other factors is dependent variable.  And other factors, which influence it are known as independent variable. Daily wage workers’ salary- Hours Rupees per hour Wages 9 200 1800 9 250 2250
  • 4.  Relationship between independent variable and dependent variable is perceived and stated in the form of casual hypothesis. Rupees per hour Wages Rupees per hour Wages
  • 5. Conditions-  Identical group  Should be amendable for experimentation  Dependent & independent variable should be identifiable.
  • 6. Types of experimental design,  After only design  One group before-after design
  • 7.  After only design - The effects on dependent variable is assessed by measuring it in both experimental and control group. Movie budget,  Dependent variable – Movie budget  Independent variable- ticket value  Experimental group – Multiplex & Single theater Ticket value Persons Movie budget Total Multiplex 500 10 5000 Single theater 100 10 1000
  • 8.  Difference : Rupees 4000  The difference is attributed to price of ticket.
  • 9. 2. One group before-after design  Researcher wants to evaluate the effectiveness of a film in changing attitude towards drinking and driving.  Difference- Y2-Y1 Before After Target group Y1 Y2
  • 10.  It applies to quantitative data  It may consist of a system of mathematical model or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data.  Aims at testing hypothesis and, specifying and interpreting relationships.  Used in business and other fields in which quantitative numerical data are generated.
  • 11.  Data published by RBI, NABARD,UNCTAD,WB,IMF on economic development used by many researchers to find out relationship among PCI, GDP, Employment, FDI, Industrial growth & etc.
  • 12.  Study of past records  To reconstruct the origin and development of an institution or movement or system and discovering trends in the past.  Draw explanation and generalization from the past trends in order to understand the present and to anticipate the future.
  • 13.  It’s a fact finding study  Collection of data directly  It requires expert and imaginative planning, careful analysis and rational interpretation of the findings.
  • 14.  Selection of problem  Research design  Operationalisation of concept  Sampling  Construction of tools  Field work and collection of data  Processing of data  Analysis of data  Reporting
  • 15. Social survey –  Social environmental of people  People’s opinion and attitude Economic survey –  Economic condition of people