A
SEMINAR REPORT
ON
NANOROBOTICS
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
award of the degree
BACHELOR ...
i
A
SEMINAR REPORT
ON
NANOROBOTICS
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
award of the degree
BACHELO...
ii
GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SITAPURA
JAIPUR 302022
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE &ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATE
Certifie...
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to all my
guides for their e...
iv
ABSTRACT
Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose
components are at or close ...
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT iv
LIST OF FIGURES vii
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO.
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. LITERATURE SURVEY 3
3. ROB...
vi
7.4 Application 16
7.4.1 Geomics 16
7.4.2 Proteomics 16
7.4.3 Bio-diagnosis 16
8 FRACTAL ROBOTS 17
8.1 Overview 17
8.2 ...
vii
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO.
1.1 Block Diagram of Nanorobot 1
5.1 Primitive Nanorobot 7
6.1 Nanorobot Design ...
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
“Nanorobotics” is best described as an emerging frontier, a realm in which robots
operate at scal...
2
surface textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations; move, communicate,
and work together conduct molecular as...
3
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
Research began in nano robotics in late 1980„s.Around this time Drexler published his
resear...
4
In year 2000 United States National Nanotechnology Initiative was founded to
coordinate federal research and development...
5
CHAPTER 3
ROBOTICS
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction,
operation, and applica...
6
CHAPTER 4
NANO TECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the
collective t...
7
CHAPTER 5
WHAT ARE NANO ROBOTS?
Nano robots are the result of culmination of two technologies: robotics and Nano
technol...
8
CHAPTER 6
METHODOLOGY
6.1 THE BASIC TECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology as a whole is fairly simple to understand, but developing ...
9
6.2 HARDWARE
The ideal nanobot consist of a transporting mechanism, an internal processor and a
fuel unit of some kind t...
10
6.2.2 Molecular Sorting Rotor
A class of nano-mechanical devices capable of binding/releasing molecules from/to
solutio...
11
nanorobot to take samples of surrounding tissue, analyze them and follow a path of
the right combination of chemicals.
...
12
devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical
instrumentation.
2. The second approach ...
13
CHAPTER 7
BIOCHIPS
7.1 THE IDEA BEHIND BIOCHIP
A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arran...
14
7.2 COMPONENTS OF BIOCHIP
Biochip implant consists of two components:
1. Transponder
2. Reader or scanner
7.2.1 Transpo...
15
Antenna Coil: This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite
or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio...
16
7.3 WORKING
The reader generates a low-power electromagnetic field via radio signals.
Implanted biochip gets activated....
17
CHAPTER 8
SELF RECONFIGURABLE MODULAR ROBOTS
8.1 OVERVIEW
Modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems or self-reconfigur...
18
8.2 INSPIRATION AND MOTIVATION
There are two key motivations for designing modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems.
...
19
8.3 CONSTRUCTION OF NANO FRACTAL ROBOTS
The design of a fractal nanocomputer is not an easy task using conventional
pri...
20
8.4 APPLICATIONS
Due to their self reconstructing properties fractal nano robots have found their
application in many f...
21
CHAPTER 9
NANO ROBOTICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Nanotechnology opens the way towards new production routes, more
efficient, pe...
22
9.2 Electronics
In today‟s world very large scale integration is done on the electronic chips. Each chip
contains milli...
23
9.3.3 Fighting cancer:
Doctors hope to use nanorobots to treat cancer patients. The robots could either attack
tumours ...
24
9.3.8 Removing Kidney Stones:
Kidney stones can be intensely painful -- the larger the stone the more difficult it is t...
25
CHAPTER 10
CHALLENGES
10.1 TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS
Although there is much progress in the nanorobotics .This technolo...
26
CHAPTER 11
CONCLUSION
Nanomedicine will eliminate virtually all common diseases of the 20th century,
virtually all medi...
27
CHAPTER 11
SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK
Teams around the world are working on creating the first practical medical
nanorobot. R...
28
REFERENCES
[1] http://www.academia.edu/2427177/NANOROBOTICS [2/4/2014]
[2] http://nanogloss.com/ [2/4/2014]
[3] http://...
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  1. 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ON NANOROBOTICS Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Submitted by YOGESH SHARMA: 10EGJCS066 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SITAPURA JAIPUR 302022 APRIL 2014
  2. 2. i A SEMINAR REPORT ON NANOROBOTICS Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Submitted by YOGESH SHARMA: 10EGJCS066 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SITAPURA JAIPUR 302022 APRIL 2014
  3. 3. ii GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SITAPURA JAIPUR 302022 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE &ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE Certified that seminar work entitled “NANOROBOTICS” is a bona fide work carried out in the eighth semester by “YOGESH SHARMA” in partial fulfilment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in “COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING” from Global Institute of Technology, RTU during the academic year 2013-2014, who carried out the seminar work under the guidance and no part of this work has been submitted earlier for the award of any degree. SEMINAR CO-ORDINATOR HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Mr. Kavit Kumar Tanvangiriya Mr. Prakash Ramani Asst. Professor Professor Department of CSE Department of CSE GIT Jaipur GIT Jaipur
  4. 4. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to all my guides for their exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this project. The blessing, help and guidance given by them time to time have been a constant source of inspiration. Firstly, I would like to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Prakash Ramani, HOD, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GIT for his guidance. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Kavit Kumar Tanvangiriya, Mr. Nitin Jain, Mr. Sumit Sharma and Mrs. Ruchi Kulsherstha for their cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completion of the study of the seminar through various stages. Lastly, I thank Almighty, my family and friends for their constant encouragement and their valuable support, without which this project would not have been possible. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my project. Yogesh Sharma 10EGJCS066 B.Tech. VIII Semester Computer Science and Engineering
  5. 5. iv ABSTRACT Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometre (10−9 meters). More specifically, Nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometer & constructed of nano scale or molecular component. The names nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines or nanomites have also been used to describe these devices currently under research and development. Nano machines are largely in the research-and-development phase, but some primitive molecular machines have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nano meters across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nano machines might be in medical technology, which could be used to identify and destroy cancer cells. Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations, in the environment. Since nano robots would be microscopic in size, it would probably be necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform microscopic and macroscopic tasks. These nano robot swarms, both those incapable of replication and those capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment
  6. 6. v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT iv LIST OF FIGURES vii CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO. 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. LITERATURE SURVEY 3 3. ROBOTICS 5 4. NANO TECHNOLOGY 6 5 WHAT ARE NANOROBOTS? 7 6. METHODOLOGY 8 6.1 The Basic Terminology 8 6.2 Hardware 9 6.2.1 Nanosensor 9 6.2.2 Molecular Sorting Rotor 10 6.2.3 Fins 10 6.3 Nanorobot Navigation 10 6.3.1 External Navigation System 10 6.3.2 Onboard System 10 6.4 Power Sources 11 6.4.1 Internal Power Sources 11 6.4.2 External Power Sources 11 6.5 Procedure 11 7 BIOCHIPS 13 7.1 The Idea Behind Biochip 13 7.2 Components Of Biochip 14 7.2.1 Transponder 14 7.2.2 Scanner Or Reader 15 7.3 Working 16
  7. 7. vi 7.4 Application 16 7.4.1 Geomics 16 7.4.2 Proteomics 16 7.4.3 Bio-diagnosis 16 8 FRACTAL ROBOTS 17 8.1 Overview 17 8.2 Inspiration And Motivation 18 8.3 Construction Of Fractal Robots 19 8.4 Applications 20 8.4.1 Space Exploration 20 8.4.2 Medical 20 8.4.3 Electronics 20 9 NANOROBOTICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE 21 9.1 Space Technology 21 9.1.1 Swarms 21 9.1.2 Space Colonization 21 9.2 Electronics 22 9.3 Medical 22 9.3.1 Treating Arteriosclerosis 22 9.3.2 Breaking Up Blood Clots 22 9.3.3 Fighting Cancer 23 9.3.4 Helping The Body Clot 23 9.3.5 Parasite Removal 23 9.3.6 Gout 23 9.3.7 Cleaning Wounds 23 9.3.8 Removing Kidney Stones 24 10 CHALLANGES 25 10.1 Technological Limitations 25 10.2 Security Threats 25 10.3 Manufacturing Cost 25 11 CONCLUSION 26 12 SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK 27 13 REFERENCES 28
  8. 8. vii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO. 1.1 Block Diagram of Nanorobot 1 5.1 Primitive Nanorobot 7 6.1 Nanorobot Design 9 7.1 Components Of Biochip 14 7.2 Biochip Scanner 15 8.1 Self Construction of Fractal Robot 19 9.1 Nanorobot in Kidney Treatment 24
  9. 9. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION “Nanorobotics” is best described as an emerging frontier, a realm in which robots operate at scales of billionths of a metre. It is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometre scale. Viz. we can continue the revolution in computer hardware right down to the level of molecular gates, switches and wires that are unimaginable. We've gotten better at it: we can make more things at lower cost and greater precision than ever before. But at the molecular scale we're still very crude, that‟s where “nanotechnology” comes in, at the molecular level. Nanorobots are the next generation of nanomachines. Advanced nanorobots will be able to sense and adapt to environmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds, Fig 1.1: Block Diagram of Nanorobot Control System of Nanorobot Driller and arm Propeller Sensor Power Unit
  10. 10. 2 surface textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations; move, communicate, and work together conduct molecular assembly; and, to some extent, repair or even replicate themselves. Nanotechnology is the science and application of creating objects on a level smaller than 100 nanometres. The extreme concept of nanotechnology is the "bottom up" creation of virtually any material or object by assembling one atom at a time. Although nanotech processes occur at the scale of nanometres, the materials and objects that result from these processes can be much larger. Large-scale results happen when nanotechnology involves massive parallelism in which many simultaneous and synergistic nanoscale processes combine to produce a large-scale result. Many of the nano robots have very limited processing power with no artificial intelligence as feared by most of us! They have onboard processor which is capable of only up to 1000 operations per second. Therefore, they possess no threat whatsoever regarding Artificial Intelligence. Most cellular repair nanorobots do not need more than 106 -109 operations/sec of onboard computing capacity to do their work. This is a full 4-7 order of magnitude below true human-equivalent computing at 10 teraflops (~1013 operations/sec). Any faster computing capacity is simply not required for most medical nanorobots. There are various ways by which this technology can be implemented in the field of medicine. Particularly robotics, since the use of robots can enhance the way we handle the treatment of ailments or diseases to a level where the life expectancy of our race can be increased.
  11. 11. 3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY Research began in nano robotics in late 1980„s.Around this time Drexler published his research on nanosystem in which he discussed a field that derives largely from the field of macroscopic robots. From there researched developed along two paths : design and simulation of nano robots and manipulation/assembly of nano scale components with macroscopic components. Richard Feynman, US physicist and Nobel Prize winner, presented a talk to the American Physical Society annual meeting entitled There‟s Plenty of Room at the Bottom. In his talk, Feynman presented ideas for creating nanoscale machines to manipulate, control and image matter at the atomic scale. Prof. Feynman described such atomic scale fabrication as a bottom-up approach, as opposed to the top-down approach that we are accustomed to. Top-down manufacturing it involves the construction of parts through methods such as cutting, carving and moulding. Using these methods, we have been able to fabricate a remarkable variety of machinery and electronics devices. Bottom-up manufacturing would provide components made of single molecules, which are held together by covalent forces that are far stronger than the forces that hold together macro-scale components. Furthermore, the amount of information that could be stored in devices build from the bottom up would be enormous. The first nano device design technical paper was published in 1998 in which all the molecular and medical implications of nanotechnology were collected in one source which is commonly referenced in medicinal applications of nano robots. While Robotics had been used in medical field for a while nano aspect of this recently surfaced in this area. As research progressed, the mechanical components such as nano sized gears made of carbon atoms were constructed. Year 1991 marked the invention AFM (Atomic force microscope) which is a foremost tool for measuring and manipulating the materials on nano scale. Since AFM allowed precision interaction with materials on nano scale it was considered as robot.
  12. 12. 4 In year 2000 United States National Nanotechnology Initiative was founded to coordinate federal research and development in nanotechnology. It marked the start of a serious effort in nanotechnology research. In 2000 The company Nano factory Collaboration was founded. Aim of this was to Develop a research agenda for a nano factory capable of building nano robots for medical purposes. Currently, DNA machines(nucleic acid robots) are being developed. It performs mechanical-like movements, such as switching, in response to certain stimuli (inputs). Molecular size robots and machines paved the way for nanotechnology by creating smaller and smaller machine nano robots.
  13. 13. 5 CHAPTER 3 ROBOTICS Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behaviour, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behaviour, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue research, design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines and exploring shipwrecks. At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source. Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots. They range from lead acid batteries which are safe and have relatively long shelf lives but are rather heavy to silver cadmium batteries that are much smaller in volume and are currently much more expensive. Designing a battery powered robot needs to take into account factors such as safety, cycle lifetime and weight. Generators, often some type of internal combustion engine, can also be used.
  14. 14. 6 CHAPTER 4 NANO TECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nm2).The nanotechnology provides better future for human life in various fields. In future nanotechnology provides economy, eco friendly and efficient technology which removes all difficult predicaments which is faced by us in today life scenario. Nanotechnology is the technology of preference to make things small, light and cheap, nanotechnology based manufacturing is a method conceived for processing and rearranging of atoms to fabricate custom products. The nanotechnology applications have three different categories nanosystems, nano materials and nano electronics. The impact of the nanotechnology occurred on computing and data storage, materials and manufacturing, health and medicine, energy and environment, transportation, national security and space exploration. There are many applications of nanotechnology which are exciting in our life such as nanopowder, nanotubes, membrane filter, quantum computers etc. Nanotechnology is not confined to one industry, or market. Rather, it is an enabling set of technologies that cross all industry sectors and scientific disciplines. Probably uniquely, it is classified by the size of the materials being developed and used, not by the processes being used or products being produced. Nanoscience is inherently multidisciplinary: it transcends the conventional boundaries between physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, information technology, and engineering. Atoms and molecules stick together because they have complementary shapes that lock together, or charges that attract. Just like with magnets, a positively charged atom will stick to a negatively charged atom. As millions of these atoms are pieced together by nanomachines, a specific product will begin to take shape. The goal of molecular manufacturing is to manipulate atoms individually and place them in a pattern to produce a desired structure.
  15. 15. 7 CHAPTER 5 WHAT ARE NANO ROBOTS? Nano robots are the result of culmination of two technologies: robotics and Nano technology. A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a few manometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9 meter. Nanorobots have potential applications in the assembly and maintenance of sophisticated systems. Nanorobots might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices, machines, or circuits, a process known as molecular manufacturing. Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-replication. Nanorobots are of special interest to researchers in the medical industry. This has given rise to the field of nanomedicine. It has been suggested that a fleet of nanorobots might serve as antibodies or antiviral agents in patients with compromised immune systems, or in diseases that do not respond to more conventional measures. There are numerous other potential medical applications, including repair of damaged tissue, unblocking of arteries affected by plaques, and perhaps the construction of complete replacement body organs. A major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability. In theory, they can remain operational for years, decades, or centuries. Nanoscale systems can also operate much faster than their larger counterparts because displacements are smaller; this allows mechanical and electrical events to occur in less time at a given speed. Fig 6.6: Nanorobot ig
  16. 16. 8 CHAPTER 6 METHODOLOGY 6.1 THE BASIC TECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology as a whole is fairly simple to understand, but developing this universal technology into a nanorobot has been slightly more complicated. To date, scientists have made significant progress but have not officially released a finished product in terms of a nanorobot that functions on an entirely mechanical basis. Many of the nanobot prototypes function quite well in certain respects but are mostly or partly biological in nature, whereas the ultimate goal and quintessential definition of a nanorobot is to have the microscopic entity made entirely out of electromechanical components. Nanorobots are essentially an adapted machine version of bacteria. They are designed to function on the same scale as both bacteria and common viruses so that they can interact and repel them. Ideal nanobot consist of a transporting mechanism, an internal processor and a fuel unit of some kind that enables it to function. The main difficulty arises around this fuel. The unit, since most conventional forms of robotic propulsion can‟t be shrunk to nanoscale with current technology. Scientists have succeeded in reducing a robot to five or six millimetres, but this size still technically qualifies it as a macro- robot. Since the best way to create a nanrobot is to use another nanobot, the problem lies in getting started. Humans are able to perform one nano-function at a time, but the thousands of varied applications required to construct an autonomous robot would be exceedingly tedious for us to execute by hand, no matter how high-tech the laboratory. So it becomes necessary to create a whole set of specialized machine-tools in order to speed up the process of nanobots construction and designing.
  17. 17. 9 6.2 HARDWARE The ideal nanobot consist of a transporting mechanism, an internal processor and a fuel unit of some kind that enables it to function. The main difficulty arises around this fuel unit, since most conventional forms of robotic propulsion can‟t be shrunk to nanoscale with current technology. Scientists have succeeded in reducing a robot to five or six millimetres, but this size still technically qualifies it as a macro-robot. . 6.2.1 Nanosensor Nanosensors can be any biological, chemical, or surgical sensory points used to convey information about nanoparticles to the macroscopic world. Their use mainly includes various medicinal purposes and as gateways to building other nanoproducts, such as computer chips that work at the nanoscale and nanorobots. Medicinal uses of nanosensors mainly revolve around the potential of nanosensors to accurately identify particular cells or places in the body in need. By measuring changes in volume, concentration, displacement, speed, velocity, gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces, pressure, or temperature of cells in a body, nanosensors may be able to distinguish between and recognize certain cells. Fig 6.1: Nanorobot Design
  18. 18. 10 6.2.2 Molecular Sorting Rotor A class of nano-mechanical devices capable of binding/releasing molecules from/to solution and transporting these bound molecules against significant gradients. 6.2.3 Fins A fin is a surface used for stability and/or to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. Nanorobot can move with the help of these fins. 6.3 NANOROBOT NAVIGATION There are three main considerations scientists need to focus on when looking at nanorobots moving through the body -- navigation, power and how the nanorobots will move through blood vessels. These can be divided into one of two categories: external systems and onboard systems. 6.3.1 External Navigation Systems External navigation systems are one of these methods is to use ultrasonic signals to detect the nanorobot's location and direct it to the right destination. The signals would either pass through the body; reflect back to the source of the signals, or both. The nanorobot could emit pulses of ultrasonic signals, which could be detected using special equipment with ultrasonic sensors. Using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device, doctors could locate and track a nanorobot by detecting its magnetic field. Doctors might also track nanorobots by injecting a radioactive dye into the patient's bloodstream. Other methods of detecting the nanorobot include using X-rays, radio waves, microwaves or heat. 6.3.2 Onboard Systems Onboard systems, or internal sensors, might also play a large role in navigation. A nanorobot with chemical sensors could detect and follow the trail of specific chemicals to reach the right location. A spectroscopic sensor would allow the
  19. 19. 11 nanorobot to take samples of surrounding tissue, analyze them and follow a path of the right combination of chemicals. 6.4 POWER SOURCES There are mainly two power sources used for nanorobots internal power sources and external power sources. 6.4.1 Internal Power Sources A nanorobot could use the patient's body heat to create power, but there would need to be a gradient of temperatures to manage it. Power generation would be a result of the See beck effect. Capacitor which has a slightly better power-to-weight ratio can also used. 6.4.2 External Power Sources External power sources include systems where the nanorobot is either tethered to the outside world or is controlled without a physical tether. Tethered systems would need a wire between the nanorobot and the power source. The wire would need to be strong, but it would also need to move effortlessly through the human body without causing damage. A physical tether could supply power either by electricity or optically. Experimenting with in Montreal, can either manipulate the nanorobot directly or induce an electrical current in a closed conducting loop in the robot. 6.5 Procedure The basic idea behind nanorobotics is to manipulate objects at scale of nanometers. Nanorobots might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices, machines, or circuits, a process known as molecular manufacturing. There are basically two approaches followed in implementing nanorobots: 1. The first approach is biochip which provides a possible approach to manufacturing nanorobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery. This method for manufacturing on nanotechnology scale is currently in use in the electronics industry. So, practical nanorobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics
  20. 20. 12 devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation. 2. The second approach is self reconfigurable modular robots also known as Fractal robots. Self-reconfiguring robots are also able to deliberately change their own shape by rearranging the connectivity of their parts, in order to adapt to new circumstances, perform new tasks, or recover from damage
  21. 21. 13 CHAPTER 7 BIOCHIPS 7.1 THE IDEA BEHIND BIOCHIP A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. Biochips helped to dramatically accelerate the identification of the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, an ongoing world-wide research collaboration known as the Human genome project . Developing a plat-form incorporates electronics for addressing, reading out, The biochip platform can be plugged in a peripheral standard bus of the analyzer device or communicate through a wireless channel. Biochip technology has emerged from the fusion of biotechnology and micro/nanofabrication technology. Biochips enable us to realize revolutionary new bio analysis systems that can directly manipulate and analyze the micro/nano-scale world of bio molecules, organelles and cells. The development of biochips is a major thrust of the rapidly growing biotechnology industry, which encompasses a very diverse range of research efforts including genomics, proteomics, computational biology, and pharmaceuticals, among other activities. Advances in these areas are giving scientists new methods for unraveling the complex biochemical processes occurring inside cells, with the larger goal of understanding and treating human diseases. At the same time, the semiconductor industry has been steadily perfecting the science of microminiaturization. The merging of these two fields in recent years has enabled biotechnologists to begin packing their traditionally bulky sensing tools into smaller and smaller spaces, onto so-called biochips. These chips are essentially miniaturized laboratories that can perform hundreds or thousands of simultaneous biochemical reactions. Biochips enable researchers to quickly screen large numbers of biological analytes for a variety of purposes, from disease diagnosis to detection of bioterrorism agents.
  22. 22. 14 7.2 COMPONENTS OF BIOCHIP Biochip implant consists of two components: 1. Transponder 2. Reader or scanner 7.2.1 Transponder The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is a passive transponder it contains no battery or energy of its own. In comparison, an active transponder would provide its own energy source, normally a small battery. Because the passive biochip contains no battery, or nothing to wear out, it has a very long life, up to 99 years, and no maintenance overheads. Transponder consists of 4 parts: Computer Microchip: The microchip stores a unique identification number from 10 to 15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is limited, capable of storing only a single ID number. The unique ID number is etched or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly. Fig 7.1 Components of Biochip
  23. 23. 15 Antenna Coil: This is normally a simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner. Tuning Capacitor: The capacitor stores the small electrical charge sent by the reader or scanner, which triggers the transponder. This activation allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. As radio waves are utilized to communicate between the transponder and reader, the capacitor is tuned to the same frequency as the reader. Glass Capsule: The glass capsule holds the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. The capsule is made of biocompatible material such as soda lime glass. After assembly, the capsule is hermetically (air-tight) sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside 7.2.2 Reader or Scanner The reader consists of an coil which creates an electromagnetic field that, via radio signals, provides the necessary energy to "excite" or "activate" the implanted biochip. The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code or ID number sent back from the "activated" implanted biochip. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display. Fig 7.2 Biochip Scanner
  24. 24. 16 7.3 WORKING The reader generates a low-power electromagnetic field via radio signals. Implanted biochip gets activated. Biochip sends ID code back to the reader via radio signals. Reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format and displays it on LCD 7.4 APPLICATIONS Biochips have found their applications all over the world .Some of the applications are listed below. 7.4.1 Genomics Genomics is the study of gene sequences in living organisms and being able to read and interpret them. The human genome has been the biggest project undertaken to date but there are many research projects around the world trying to map the gene sequences of other organisms. 7.4.2 Proteomics Proteome analysis or Proteomics is the investigation of all the proteins present in a cell, tissue or organism. The use of Biochip facilitates High throughput proteomic analysis, Multi-dimensional micro separations (pre LC/MS) to achieve high plate number and Electro kinetic sample injection for fast, reproducible, samples 7.4.3 Bio-diagnostics Bio-diagnostics or bio-sensing is the field of sensing biological molecules based on electrochemical, biochemical, optical, luminometric methods. The use of biochip facilitates development of sensors which involves optimization of the platform, reduction in detection time and improving the signal-to-noise ratio.
  25. 25. 17 CHAPTER 8 SELF RECONFIGURABLE MODULAR ROBOTS 8.1 OVERVIEW Modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems or self-reconfigurable modular robots are autonomous kinematic machines with variable morphology. Beyond conventional actuation, sensing and control typically found in fixed-morphology robots, self- reconfiguring robots are also able to deliberately change their own shape by rearranging the connectivity of their parts, in order to adapt to new circumstances, perform new tasks, or recover from damage. They can contain electronics, sensors, computer processors, memory, and power supplies; they can also contain actuators that are used for manipulating their location in the environment and in relation with each other. A feature found in some cases is the ability of the modules to automatically connect and disconnect themselves to and from each other, and to form into many objects or perform many tasks moving or manipulating the environment. Modular robots are usually composed of multiple building blocks of a relatively small repertoire, with uniform docking interfaces that allow transfer of mechanical forces and moments, electrical power and communication throughout the robot. The modular building blocks usually consist of some primary structural actuated unit, and potentially additional specialized units such as grippers, feet, wheels, cameras, payload and energy storage and generation. Self reconfigurable it means that the mechanism or device is capable of utilizing its own system of control such as with actuators or stochastic means to change its overall structural shape. Having the quality of being "modular" in "self- reconfiguring modular robotics" is to say that the same module or set of modules can be added to or removed from the system, as opposed to being generically "modularized" in the broader sense.
  26. 26. 18 8.2 INSPIRATION AND MOTIVATION There are two key motivations for designing modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems. Functional advantage: Self reconfiguring robotic systems are potentially more robust and more adaptive than conventional systems. The reconfiguration ability allows a robot or a group of robots to disassemble and reassemble machines to form new morphologies that are better suitable for new tasks, such as changing from a legged robot to a snake robot and then to a rolling robot. Since robot parts are interchangeable (within a robot and between different robots), machines can also replace faulty parts autonomously, leading to self-repair. Economic advantage: Self reconfiguring robotic systems can potentially lower overall robot cost by making a range of complex machines out of a single (or relatively few) types of mass-produced modules. The quest for self-reconfiguring robotic structures is to some extent inspired by envisioned applications such as long-term space missions that require long-term self- sustaining robotic ecology that can handle unforeseen situations and may require self repair. A second source of inspiration are biological systems that are self-constructed out of a relatively small repertoire of lower-level building blocks (cells or amino acids, depending on scale of interest). This architecture underlies biological systems‟ ability to physically adapt, grow, heal, and even self replicate – capabilities that would be desirable in many engineered systems.
  27. 27. 19 8.3 CONSTRUCTION OF NANO FRACTAL ROBOTS The design of a fractal nanocomputer is not an easy task using conventional principles. However, using fractal nanotechnology principles, the exercise reduces to a fairly simple exercise where you build a fractal nanocomputer at the large scale and providing you followed fractal principles, the computer technology scales downward to whatever resolution limit imposed by the technology you are using. Self repair is an important breakthrough for realizing micro and nanotechnology related end goals. Three different kinds of self repair: Cube replacement Usage of plates to construct the cubes Using smaller fractal machines to affect self repair inside large cubes. Fig 8.1 Self Construction of Fractal Robot
  28. 28. 20 8.4 APPLICATIONS Due to their self reconstructing properties fractal nano robots have found their application in many fields. 8.4.1 Space Exploration One application that highlights the advantages of self-reconfigurable systems is long- term space missions. These require long-term self-sustaining robotic ecology that can handle unforeseen situations and may require self repair. Self-reconfigurable systems have the ability to handle tasks that are not known a prioritise especially compared to fixed configuration systems. In addition, space missions are highly volume and mass constrained. Sending a robot system that can reconfigure to achieve many tasks is better than sending many robots that each can do one task. 8.4.2 Medical Fractal nano robots are used in medical science .They are used in treatment of cancer, kidney stones, blood clotting , detection and elimination of defected cells . 8.4.3 Electronics Fractal Robots can be used in manufacturing of other electronic items with high level of precision as they operate and manipulate objects at nano scale.
  29. 29. 21 CHAPTER 9 NANO ROBOTICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE Nanotechnology opens the way towards new production routes, more efficient, performance and intelligent materials, towards new design of structures and related monitoring and maintenance systems. 9.1 Space Technology There are mainly two applications of nanorobotics in space technology: 1. Swarms 2. Space colonization 9.1.1 Swarms Swarms are nanorobots that act in unison like bees. They theoretically act like flexible cloth material and being composed of what is called Bucky Tubes. This cloth will act as strong as diamond. If a nano computer is added to nanomachine a smart cloth is found. The smart cloth could be used to keep astronauts from bouncing around in their own aircraft while they sleep, a problem that arises when autopilot computer fires course correction rockets. This cloth like material will be able to offset the sudden movements and slowly move the astronauts to their position. 9.1.2 Space Colonization Nanorobots can be used in carrying out construction projects in hostile environments. For example, with a handful of replicating robots, utilizing local material and local energy, it is conceivable that space habitats can be completely constructed by remote control so that habitants need only show up their suitcases. Colonization of space can be done and engineer or group of engineers can check the construction of habitats via telepresents utilizing cameras and sensors created on the surface of the mars by nano bots all form the comfortable confines of earth. Venus could be explored with Nano robots too.
  30. 30. 22 9.2 Electronics In today‟s world very large scale integration is done on the electronic chips. Each chip contains millions of electronic circuits. For a proper functioning each circuitry must be designed with high percesion. As nano robots can operate at nano scale fabrication of such chips can be easily done. 9.3 Medical Potential applications for nanorobotics in medicine include early diagnosis and targeted drug-delivery for cancer, arteriosclerosis, blood clots, kidney stones, wounds biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics monitoring of diabetes and health care. In such plans, future medical nanotechnology is expected to employ nanorobots injected into the patient to perform work at a cellular level. Such nanorobots intended for use in medicine should be non-replicating, as replication would needlessly increase device complexity, reduce reliability, and interfere with the medical mission. 9.3.1 Treating arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis refers to a condition where plaque builds along the walls of arteries. Nanorobots could conceivably treat the condition by cutting away the plaque, which would then enter the bloodstream. 9.3.2 Breaking up blood clots Blood clots can cause complications ranging from muscle death to a stroke. Nanorobots could travel to a clot and break it up. This application is one of the most dangerous uses for nanorobots – the robot must be able to remove the blockage without losing small pieces in the bloodstream, which could then travel elsewhere in the body and cause more problems. The robot must also be small enough so that it doesn't block the flow of blood itself.
  31. 31. 23 9.3.3 Fighting cancer: Doctors hope to use nanorobots to treat cancer patients. The robots could either attack tumours directly using lasers, microwaves or ultrasonic signals or they could be part of a chemotherapy treatment, delivering medication directly to the cancer site. Doctors believe that by delivering small but precise doses of medication to the patient, side effects will be minimized without a loss in the medication's effectiveness. 9.3.4 Helping the body clot: One particular kind of nanorobots is the clottocyte, or artificial platelet. The clottocyte carries a small mesh net that dissolves into a sticky membrane upon contact with blood plasma. According to Robert A. Freitas, Jr., the man who designed the clottocyte, clotting could be up to 1,000 times faster than the body's natural clotting mechanism. Doctors could use clottocytes to treat haemophiliacs or patients with serious open wounds. 9.3.5 Parasite Removal: Nanorobots could wage micro-war on bacteria and small parasitic organisms inside a patient. It might take several nanorobots working together to destroy all the parasites. 9.3.6 Gout: Gout is a condition where the kidneys lose the ability to remove waste from the breakdown of fats from the bloodstream. This waste sometimes crystallizes at points near joints like the knees and ankles. People who suffer from gout experience intense pain at these joints. A nanorobot could break up the crystalline structures at the joints, providing relief from the symptoms, though it wouldn't be able to reverse the condition permanently. 9.3.7 Cleaning Wounds: Nanorobots could help remove debris from wounds, decreasing the likelihood of infection. They would be particularly useful in cases of puncture wounds, where it might be difficult to treat using more conventional methods.
  32. 32. 24 9.3.8 Removing Kidney Stones: Kidney stones can be intensely painful -- the larger the stone the more difficult it is to pass. Doctors break up large kidney stones using ultrasonic frequencies, but it's not always effective. A nanorobot could break up a kidney stones using a small laser. Fig 9.1 Nanorobot in kidney treatment
  33. 33. 25 CHAPTER 10 CHALLENGES 10.1 TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS Although there is much progress in the nanorobotics .This technology is still in research and development phase, only few primitive designs have been tested. These machines can‟t be fully relied. It is hard to predict the behaviour of nanorobots. 10.2 SECURITY THREATS With the help of nano robotics more advance weapons can be designed. Atomic weapons can now be more accessible and made to be more powerful and more destructive. These can also become more accessible with the help of nanotechnology. 10.3 MANUFACTURING COST Presently, nanotechnology is very expensive and developing it can cost you a lot of money. It is also pretty difficult to manufacture, which is probably why products made with nanotechnology are more expensive. That is why nanorobots are too expensive. .
  34. 34. 26 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Nanomedicine will eliminate virtually all common diseases of the 20th century, virtually all medical pain and suffering, and allow the extension of human capabilities most especially our mental abilities. Consider that a nanostructure data storage device measuring ~8,000 micron3 , a cubic volume about the size of a single human liver cell and smaller than a typical neuron, could store an amount of information equivalent to the entire Library of Congress. If implanted somewhere in the human brain, together with the appropriate interface mechanisms, such a device could allow extremely rapid access to this information. A single nanocomputer CPU, also having the volume of just one tiny human cell, could compute at the rate of 10 teraflops (1013 floating-point operations per second), approximately equalling (by many estimates) the computational output of the entire human brain. Such a nanocomputer might produce only about 0.001 watt of waste heat, as compared to the ~25 watts of waste heat for the biological brain in which the nanocomputer might be embedded. But, perhaps the most important long-term benefit to human society as a whole could be the dawning of a new era of peace. We could hope that people who are independently well-fed, well-clothed, well-housed, smart, well-educated, healthy and happy will have little motivation to make war. Human beings who have a reasonable prospect of living many "normal" lifetimes will learn patience from experience, and will be extremely unlikely to risk those "many lifetimes" for any but the most compelling of reasons.
  35. 35. 27 CHAPTER 11 SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK Teams around the world are working on creating the first practical medical nanorobot. Robots ranging from a millimetre in diameter to a relatively hefty two centimetres long already exist, though they are all still in the testing phase of development and haven't been used on people. We're probably several years away from seeing nanorobots enter the medical market. Today's microrobots are just prototypes that lack the ability to perform medical tasks. In the future, nanorobots could revolutionize medicine. Doctors could treat everything from heart disease to cancer using tiny robots the size of bacteria, a scale much smaller than today's robots. Robots might work alone or in teams to eradicate disease and treat other conditions. Some believe that semiautonomous nanorobots are right around the corner -- doctors would implant robots able to patrol a human's body, reacting to any problems that pop up. Unlike acute treatment, these robots would stay in the patient's body forever. Another potential future application of nanorobot technology is to re-engineer our bodies to become resistant to disease, increase our strength or even improve our intelligence. Dr. Richard Thompson, a former professor of ethics, has written about the ethical implications of nanotechnology. He says the most important tool is communication, and that it's pivotal for communities, medical organizations and the government to talk about nanotechnology now, while the industry is still in its infancy. Will we one day have thousands of microscopic robots rushing around in our veins, making corrections and healing our cuts, bruises and illnesses? With nanotechnology, it seems like anything is possible.
  36. 36. 28 REFERENCES [1] http://www.academia.edu/2427177/NANOROBOTICS [2/4/2014] [2] http://nanogloss.com/ [2/4/2014] [3] http://www.foresight.org/Conferences/MNT8/Papers/Rubinstein/ [2/4/2014] [4] www.sciencedaily.com/articles/n/nanorobotics [3/4/2014] [5] http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/nanorobot.htm[3/4/2014] [6] http://nanolab.me.cmu.edu/ [3/4/2014] [7] http://www.nanorobotdesign.com/ [3/4/2014]

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