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  • 1. ®GRE General TestPractice BookThis practice book contains:Ⅲ one full-length paper-based GRE® General TestⅢ test-taking strategiesⅢ sample verbal and quantitative questions with explanationsⅢ sample analytical writing topics, scored sample essays and reader commentaryNOTE: The test-taking strategies in this publication are appropriate for the paper-based General Test.The strategies in the GRE® POWERPREP® software are appropriate for the computer-based General Test.This book is provided FREE with test registration by the Graduate Record Examinations Board.For additional test preparation information, visit
  • 2. IMPORTANTThe Verbal and Quantitative sections in the GRE General Test in this publication contain questionswritten and administered prior to 1995. For this reason, some of the material covered in the questionsmay be dated. For example, a question may refer to a rapidly changing technology in a way thatwas correct in the 1980s and early 1990s, but not now. In addition, ETS® has revised and updatedits standards and guidelines for test questions so some questions may not meet current standards.Questions that do not meet current ETS standards, and would not appear in GRE tests administeredtoday, are marked with an asterisk (see pages 35 and 44). Note to Test Takers: Keep this practice book until you receive your score report. This book contains important information about scoring. Copyright © 2008 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ® ETS, the ETS logos, LISTENING. LEARNING. LEADING., GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, GRE, POWERPREP, and e-rater are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States of America and other countries throughout the world. ScoreItNow! is a trademark of Educational Testing Service.
  • 3. Table of Contents Purpose of the GREPurpose of the GRE General Test....................... 3 General TestStructure of the GRE General Test .................... 3 The GRE General Test is designed to help graduateScores Reported .................................................. 4 school admission committees and fellowship sponsors assess the qualifications of applicants to their pro-Preparing for the GRE General Test .................. 4 grams. It measures verbal reasoning, quantitativeTest-Taking Strategies ......................................... 5 reasoning, and critical thinking and analyticalReview of the Verbal Section writing skills that you have acquired over a long Overview ................................................................ 6 period of time. How the Verbal Section is Scored.......................... 6 Any accredited graduate or professional school, or Antonyms ............................................................... 6 any department or division within a school, may Analogies ................................................................ 6 require or recommend that its applicants take the Sentence Completions ........................................... 7 GRE General Test. The scores can be used by admis- Reading Comprehension Questions ....................... 7 sions or fellowship panels to supplement undergradu- ate records and other qualifications for graduateReview of the Quantitative Section study. The scores provide common measures for Overview ................................................................ 9 comparing the qualifications of applicants and aid in How the Quantitative Section is Scored ............. 10 the evaluation of grades and recommendations. Quantitative Comparison Questions ................... 10 Problem Solving — Discrete Quantitative Questions .................................... 10 Problem Solving — Data Structure of the GRE Interpretation Questions ................................... 11 General TestReview of the Analytical Writing Section The paper-based GRE General Test contains five Overview .............................................................. 12 sections. In addition, one unidentified pretest section How the Analytical Writing Section is Scored ... 12 may be included and this section can appear in any Present Your Perspective on an Issue Task ........... 13 position in the test after the Analytical Writing Analyze an Argument Task .................................. 20 section. Questions in the pretest section are beingTaking the Practice GRE General Test ............ 27 pretested for possible use in future tests and answers will not count toward your scores.Evaluating Your Performance ........................... 27 Total testing time is up to 33/4 hours. The direc- Verbal and Quantitative Sections ........................ 27 tions at the beginning of each section specify the Analytical Writing Section .................................. 27 total number of questions in the section and the time Additional Preparation......................................... 28 allowed for the section. The Analytical Writing sectionPractice GRE General Test ............................... 29 will always be first. The Verbal and Quantitative sections may appear in any order, including an unidenti-Appendices fied Verbal or Quantitative pretest section. Treat each A – Analytical Writing Scoring Guides and section presented during your test as if it counts. Score Level Descriptions ............................... 51 B – Verbal and Quantitative Interpretive Tables ........................................ 54 C – Analytical Writing Topics, Sample Scored Essay Responses at Selected Score Points, and Reader Commentary .............................. 56Answer Sheets .................................................. 63 3
  • 4. Typical Paper-Based GRE General Test The administrative procedures include registra- Sections tion, date, time, test center location, cost, score- reporting procedures, and availability of special Section Number of Questions Time testing arrangements. You can find out about the 1 Issue task* 45 min. administrative procedures for the paper-based Analytical Writing 1 Argument task* 30 min. General Test at, or by contacting GRE at Verbal 1-609-771-7670 or 1-866-473-4373 (toll free for test 38 per section 30 min. per section takers in the U.S., U.S. Territories*, and Canada). (2 sections) Before taking the practice General Test, it is Quantitative 30 per section 30 min. per section important to become familiar with the content of (2 sections) each of the sections of the test. You can become Pretest** Varies 30 min. familiar with the Verbal and Quantitative sections by * For the Issue task, two essay topics will be presented and you will choose one. The Argument task does not present a choice of topics; instead, one topic will be presented. reading about the skills the sections measure, how the ** An unidentified Verbal or Quantitative pretest section may be included and may appear in any order after the Analytical Writing section. sections are scored, reviewing the strategies for each of the question types, and reviewing the sample questions with explanations. Determine which Scores Reported strategies work best for you. Remember—you can do very well on the test without answering every ques- Three scores are reported on the General Test: tion in each section correctly. 1. a verbal score reported on a 200–800 score scale, Everyone—even the most practiced and confident in 10-point increments, of writers—should spend some time preparing for the 2. a quantitative score reported on a 200–800 score Analytical Writing section before arriving at the test scale, in 10-point increments, and center. It is important to review the skills measured, 3. an analytical writing score reported on a 0–6 how the section is scored, scoring guides and score score scale, in half-point increments. level descriptions, sample topics, scored sample essay If you answer no questions at all in a section (verbal, responses, and reader commentary. quantitative, or analytical writing), that section will To help you prepare for the Analytical Writing be reported as a No Score (NS). section of the General Test, the GRE Program has Descriptions of the analytical writing abilities published the entire pool of topics from which your characteristic of particular score levels are available test topics will be selected. You might find it helpful in the interpretive leaflet enclosed with your score to review the Issue and Argument pools. You can view report, in the Guide to the Use of GRE Scores, and at the published pools at or obtain a copy by writing to GRE Program, PO Box 6000, Princeton, NJ 08541-6000. The topics in the Analytical Writing section relate Preparing for the GRE to a broad range of subjects—from the fine arts and General Test humanities to the social and physical sciences—but no topic requires specific content knowledge. In fact, Preparation for the test will depend on the amount each topic has been field-tested to ensure that it of time you have available and your personal prefer- possesses several important characteristics, including ences for how to prepare. At a minimum, before you the following: take the GRE General Test, you should know what to • GRE test takers, regardless of their field of study expect from the test, including the administrative or special interests, understood the topic and procedures, types of questions and directions, the could easily discuss it. approximate number of questions, and the amount of • The topic elicited the kinds of complex think- time for each section. ing and persuasive writing that university faculty consider important for success in graduate school. • The responses were varied in content and in the way the writers developed their ideas. * Includes American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands4
  • 5. Test-Taking Strategies Test, you may work only on the section the test center supervisor designates and only for the time IMPORTANT NOTE: Test-taking strategies allowed. You may not go back to an earlier section of appropriate for the Verbal and Quantitative the test after the supervisor announces, “Please stop sections of the paper-based General Test are work” for that section. The supervisor is authorized to different from those that are appropriate for dismiss you from the center for doing so. All answers taking the Verbal and Quantitative sections of the must be recorded on your answer sheet. Answers computer-based General Test. Be sure to follow recorded in your test booklet will not be counted. the appropriate strategies for the testing format in Given the time constraints, you should avoid waiting which you will be testing. Paper-based testing until the last five minutes of a test administration to strategies should not be used if you take the record answers on your answer sheet. computer-based test. Some questions on the General Test have only four response options (A through D). All GRE answer sheets for the paper-based test contain response positions for five responses (A through E).Verbal and Quantitative Sections Therefore, if an E response is marked for a four-When taking a Verbal or Quantitative section of the option question, it will be ignored. An E responsepaper-based General Test, you are free, within any for a four-option question is treated the same as nosection, to skip questions that you might have response (omitted).difficulty answering and to come back to them laterduring the time provided to work on that section. Analytical Writing SectionYou may also change the answer to any question you In the paper-based General Test, the topics in therecorded on the answer sheet by erasing it completely Analytical Writing section will be presented in the testand filling in the oval corresponding to your desired book and you will handwrite your essay responses onanswer for that question. the answer sheets provided. Make sure you use the Each of your scores will be determined by the correct answer sheet for each task.number of questions for which you select the best It is important to budget your time. Within theanswer from the choices given. Questions for which 45-minute time limit for the Issue task, you will needyou mark no answer or more than one answer are not to allow sufficient time to choose one of the twocounted in scoring. Nothing is subtracted from a topics, think about the issue you’ve chosen, plan ascore if you answer a question incorrectly. Therefore, response, and compose your essay. Within the 30-to maximize your scores on the Verbal and Quantita- minute time limit for the Argument task, you willtive sections of the paper-based test, it is better for need to allow sufficient time to analyze the argument,you to answer each and every question and not to plan a critique, and compose your response. Althoughleave any questions unanswered. GRE readers understand the time constraints under Work as rapidly as you can without being careless. which you write and will consider your response aThis includes checking frequently to make sure you “first draft,” you still want it to be the best possibleare marking your answers in the appropriate rows on example of your writing that you can produce underyour answer sheet. Since no question carries greater the testing circumstances.weight than any other, do not waste time pondering Save a few minutes at the end of each timed taskindividual questions you find extremely difficult or to check for obvious errors. Although an occasionalunfamiliar. spelling or grammatical error will not affect your You may want to work through a Verbal or Quanti- score, severe and persistent errors will detract fromtative section of the General Test quite rapidly, first the overall effectiveness of your writing and thusanswering only the questions about which you feel lower your score.confident, then going back and answering questions During the actual administration of the Generalthat require more thought, and concluding with the Test, you may work only on the particular writingmost difficult questions if there is time. task the test center supervisor designates and only for During the actual administration of the General the time allowed. You may not go back to an earlier 5
  • 6. section of the test after the supervisor announces, Directions* “Please stop work,” for that task. The supervisor is Each question below consists of a word printed in authorized to dismiss you from the center for doing capital letters followed by five lettered words or so. Following the Analytical Writing section, you will phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is have the opportunity to take a 10-minute break. most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters. Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure Review of the Verbal Section to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best. Overview Sample Question The Verbal section measures your ability to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize infor- DIFFUSE: mation obtained from it, to analyze relationships (A) concentrate among component parts of sentences, to recognize (B) contend relationships between words and concepts, and to (C) imply reason with words in solving problems. There is a (D) pretend balance of passages across different subject matter (E) rebel areas: humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Strategies for Answering The Verbal section contains the following • Remember that antonyms are generally confined question types: to nouns, verbs, and adjectives. • Antonyms • Look for the word that is most nearly opposite to • Analogies the given word. • Sentence Completions • Try to define words precisely. • Reading Comprehension Questions • Make up a sentence using the given word to How the Verbal Section is Scored help establish its meaning. • Look for possible second meanings before Scoring of the Verbal section of the paper-based choosing an answer. General Test is essentially a two-step process. First, a • Use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to raw score is computed. The raw score is the number help define words you don’t know. of questions for which the best answer choice was given. The raw score is then converted to a scaled Answer score through a process known as equating. The The best answer is (A). Diffuse means to permit or equating process accounts for differences in difficulty cause to spread out; only (A) presents an idea that is among the different test editions; thus, a given scaled in any way opposite to diffuse. score reflects approximately the same level of ability regardless of the edition of the test that was taken. Analogies Analogies measure your ability to recognize Antonyms • relationships among words and concepts they Antonyms measure your represent • vocabulary • parallel relationships • ability to reason from a given concept to its Directions* opposite In each of the following questions, a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. * The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test.6
  • 7. Sample Question Sample QuestionCOLOR : SPECTRUM : Early ________ of hearing loss is ________ by the(A) tone : scale fact that the other senses are able to compensate for(B) sound : waves moderate amounts of loss, so that people frequently(C) verse : poem do not know that their hearing is imperfect.(D) dimension : space (A) discovery . . indicated(E) cell : organism (B) development . . preventedStrategies for Answering (C) detection . . complicated (D) treatment . . facilitated • Establish a relationship between the given pair (E) incidence . . corrected before reading the answer choices. • Consider relationships of kind, size, spatial Strategies for Answering contiguity, or degree. • Read the incomplete sentence carefully. • Read all of the options. If more than one seems • Look for key words or phrases. correct, try to state the relationship more • Complete the blank(s) with your own words; see precisely. if any options are like yours. • Check to see that you haven’t overlooked a • Pay attention to grammatical cues. possible second meaning for one of the words. • If there are two blanks, be sure that both parts of • Never decide on the best answer without reading your answer choice fit logically and stylistically all of the answer choices. into the sentence.Answer • After choosing an answer, read the sentence through again to see if it makes sense.The relationship between color and spectrum is notmerely that of part to whole, in which case (E) or Answereven (C) might be defended as correct. A spectrum is The statement that the other senses compensatemade up of a progressive, graduated series of colors, as for partial loss of hearing indicates that the hearinga scale is of a progressive, graduated sequence of tones. loss is not prevented or corrected; therefore, choicesThus, (A) is the correct answer choice. In this (B) and (E) can be eliminated. Furthermore, theinstance, the best answer must be selected from a ability to compensate for hearing loss certainly doesgroup of fairly close choices. not facilitate the early treatment (D) or the early discovery (A) of hearing loss. It is reasonable, how-Sentence Completions ever, that early detection of hearing loss is complicatedSentence completions measure your ability to recognize by the ability to compensate for it. The best answerwords or phrases that both logically and stylistically is (C).complete the meaning of a sentence. Reading Comprehension QuestionsDirections* Reading comprehension questions measure yourEach sentence below has one or two blanks, each ability toblank indicating that something has been omitted. • read with understanding, insight, andBeneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets discriminationof words. Choose the word or set of words for each • analyze a written passage from severalblank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as perspectivesa whole. Passages are taken from the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Directions* The passage is followed by questions based on its content. After reading the passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions* following the passage on the basis of what is stated or The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. implied in the passage. 7
  • 8. Sample Question According to the passage, the two antithetical ideals Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the of photography differ primarily in the objective world and for expressing the singular self. (A) value that each places on the beauty of the Photographs depict objective realities that already exist, finished product though only the camera can disclose them. And they (B) emphasis that each places on the emotional (5) depict an individual photographer’s temperament, dis- covering itself through the camera’s cropping of reality. impact of the finished product That is, photography has two antithetical ideals: in the (C) degree of technical knowledge that each requires first, photography is about the world, and the photogra- of the photographer pher is a mere observer who counts for little; but in the (D) extent of the power that each requires of the (10) second, photography is the instrument of intrepid, photographer’s equipment questing subjectivity and the photographer is all. These conflicting ideals arise from a fundamental (E) way in which each defines the role of the uneasiness on the part of both photographers and view- photographer ers of photographs toward the aggressive component in (15) “taking” a picture. Accordingly, the ideal of a photogra- Strategies for Answering pher as observer is attractive because it implicitly denies • Read the passage closely, then proceed to the that picture-taking is an aggressive act. The issue, of questions. course, is not so clear-cut. What photographers do can- not be characterized as simply predatory or as simply, or (20) and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of Skim the passage, then reread the passage picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered closely as you answer the questions. You may and championed. want to try it both ways with sample questions An important result of the coexistence of these two ideals is a recurrent ambivalence toward photography’s to see what works best for you. (25) means. Whatever the claims that photography might • Answer questions based on the content of the make to be a form of personal expression on a par with passage. painting, its originality is inextricably linked to the pow- • Separate main ideas from supporting ideas. ers of a machine. The steady growth of these powers has • Separate the author’s own ideas from informa- made possible the extraordinary informativeness and (30) imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like tion being presented. Harold Edgerton’s high-speed photographs of a bullet • Ask yourself... hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis – What is this about? stroke. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more – What are the key points? automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm (35) themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, – How does the main idea relate to other ideas preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by in the passage? premodern camera technology because a cruder, less – What words define relationships among ideas? high-powered machine is thought to give more interest- ing or emotive results, to leave more room for creative Answer (40) accident. For example, it has been virtually a point of The best answer to this question is (E). Photography’s honor for many photographers, including Walker Evans and Cartier-Bresson, to refuse to use modern equipment. two ideals are presented in lines 7–11. The main These photographers have come to doubt the value of the emphasis in the description of these two ideals is on camera as an instrument of “fast seeing.” Cartier-Bresson, the relationship of the photographer to the enterprise (45) in fact, claims that the modern camera may see too fast. of photography, with the photographer described in This ambivalence toward photographic means deter- the one as a passive observer and in the other as an mines trends in taste. The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates over time with the wish to return active questioner. (E) identifies this key feature in the to a purer past — when images had a handmade quality. description of the two ideals—the way in which each (50) This nostalgia for some pristine state of the photographic ideal conceives or defines the role of the photogra- enterprise is currently widespread and underlies the pher in photography. (A) through (D) present aspects present-day enthusiasm for daguerreotypes and the work of forgotten nineteenth-century provincial photographers. of photography that are mentioned in the passage, Photographers and viewers of photographs, it seems, need but none of these choices represents a primary (55) periodically to resist their own knowingness. difference between the two ideals of photography.8
  • 9. Review of the Quantitative Math Symbols and Other Information The following information applies to all questions inSection the quantitative sections. • These common math symbols may be used:Overview x < y (x is less than y)The Quantitative section measures your basic math- x‫ס‬y (x is not equal to y)ematical skills, your understanding of elementary (the nonnegative square root of x,mathematical concepts, and your ability to reason where x ≥ 0)quantitatively and solve problems in a quantitative |x| (the absolute value of x, where x is asetting. There is a balance of questions requiring real number)arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and data analysis. n! (n factorial: the product of the first nThese are content areas usually studied in high positive integers)school. m ࿣ n (line m is parallel to line n) m n (line m is perpendicular to line n)Arithmetic AQuestions may involve arithmetic operations, powers, B C (∠ABC is a right angle)operations on radical expressions, estimation, per-cent, absolute value, properties of integers (e.g., • Numbers: all numbers used are real numbers.divisibility, factoring, prime numbers, odd and even • Figures:integers), and the number line. – the positions of points, angles, regions, etc., can be assumed to be in the order shown;Algebra angle measures are positiveQuestions may involve rules of exponents, factoring – a line shown as straight can be assumed to beand simplifying algebraic expressions, understanding straightconcepts of relations and functions, equations and – figures lie in a plane unless otherwiseinequalities, solving linear and quadratic equations indicatedand inequalities, solving simultaneous equations, – do not assume figures are drawn to scalesetting up equations to solve word problems, coordi- unless statednate geometry, including slope, intercepts, and graphs It is important to familiarize yourself with the basicof equations and inequalities, and applying basic mathematical concepts in the GRE General Test.algebra skills to solve problems. The publication Math Review, which is available atGeometry, provides detailed information onQuestions may involve parallel lines, circles, triangles the content of the Quantitative section.(including isosceles, equilateral, and 30°–60°–90° The Quantitative section contains the followingtriangles), rectangles, other polygons, area, perimeter, question types:volume, the Pythagorean Theorem, and angle • Quantitative Comparison Questionsmeasure in degrees. The ability to construct proofs is • Problem Solving – Discrete Quantitativenot measured. Questions • Problem Solving – Data InterpretationData Analysis QuestionsQuestions may involve elementary probability, basic Questions emphasize understanding basic principlesdescriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, range, and reasoning within the context of givenstandard deviation, percentiles), and interpretation of in graphs and tables (line graphs, bar graphs,circle graphs, frequency distributions). 9
  • 10. How the Quantitative Section is Strategies for Answering Scored • Avoid extensive computation if possible. Try to The Quantitative section of the paper-based General estimate the answer. Test is scored the same way as the Verbal section. • Consider all kinds of numbers before deciding. First, a raw score is computed. The raw score is the If under some conditions Column A is greater number of questions for which the best answer choice than Column B and for others, Column B is was given. The raw score is then converted to a greater than Column A, choose “the relation- scaled score through a process known as equating. ship cannot be determined from the information The equating process accounts for differences in given,” and go to the next question. difficulty among the different test editions; thus a • Geometric figures may not be drawn to scale. given scaled score reflects approximately the same Comparisons should be made based on the given level of ability regardless of the edition of the test information, together with your knowledge of that was taken. mathematics, rather than on exact appearance. Answer to Question 1 Quantitative Comparison Questions denotes 10, the positive square root of 100. (For Quantitative comparison questions measure your any positive number x, denotes the positive number ability to: whose square is x.) Since 10 is greater than 9.8, the • reason quickly and accurately about the relative best answer is (B). It is important not to confuse this sizes of two quantities question with a comparison of 9.8 and x where • perceive that not enough information is pro- x2‫ .001ס‬The latter comparison would yield (D) as vided to make such a decision the correct answer because x2‫ 001ס‬implies that Directions* either x‫ 01ס‬or x‫ ,01מס‬and there would be no way Each of the sample questions consists of two quanti- to determine which value x would actually have. ties, one in Column A and one in Column B. There Answer to Question 2 may be additional information, centered above the Since (‫ 4)6מ‬is the product of four negative factors, two columns, that concerns one or both of the and the product of an even number of negative quantities. A symbol that appears in both columns numbers is positive, (‫ 4)6מ‬is positive. Since the represents the same thing in Column A as it does in product of an odd number of negative numbers Column B. is negative, (‫ 5)6מ‬is negative. Therefore, (‫4)6מ‬ You are to compare the quantity in Column A is greater than (‫ 5)6מ‬since any positive number with the quantity in Column B and decide whether: is greater than any negative number. The best (A) The quantity in Column A is greater. answer is (A). It is not necessary to calculate that (B) The quantity in Column B is greater. (‫ 692,1ס 4)6מ‬and that (‫ 677,7מס 5)6מ‬in order to (C) The two quantities are equal. make the comparison. (D) The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Problem Solving — Discrete Note: Since there are only four choices, NEVER Quantitative Questions MARK (E).** Discrete quantitative questions measure Sample Questions • basic mathematical knowledge Column A Column B • your ability to read, understand, and solve a problem that involves either an actual or an 1. 9.8 abstract situation 2. (‫4)6מ‬ (‫5)6מ‬ Directions* Each of the following questions has five answer choices. For each of these questions, select the best of the answer choices given. * The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. ** The answer sheet contains five choices for the Verbal and Quantitative sections.10
  • 11. Sample Question Sample QuestionWhen walking, a certain person takes 16 completesteps in 10 seconds. At this rate, how many complete Number of Graduate Student Applicantssteps does the person take in 72 seconds? at University X, 1982–1991(A) 45(B) 78 1,400(C) 86(D) 90 1,200(E) 115Strategies for Answering 1,000 • Determine what is given and what is being 800 asked. • Scan all answer choices before answering a 600 question. • When approximation is required, scan 400 answer choices to determine the degree of approximation. 200 • Avoid long computations. Use reasoning instead, when possible. 0Answer 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 199172 seconds represents 7 ten-second intervals plus 2/10of such an interval. Therefore, the person who takes In which of the following years did the number of16 steps in 10 seconds will take (7.2)(16) steps in 72 graduate student applicants increase the most fromseconds. that of the previous year? (7.2)(16) ‫)61()2.0( ם )61()7( ס‬ (A) 1985 ‫2.3 ם 211 ס‬ (B) 1986 ‫2.511 ס‬ (C) 1988 Since the question asks for the number of com- (D) 1990plete steps, the best answer choice is (E). (E) 1991 Strategies for AnsweringProblem Solving — Data • Scan the set of data to see what it is about.Interpretation Questions • Try to make visual comparisons and estimateData interpretation questions measure your ability products and quotients rather than perform • to synthesize information and select appropriate computations. data for answering a question • Answer questions only on the basis of data • to determine that sufficient information for given. answering a question is not provided AnswerThe data interpretation questions usually appear in This question can be answered directly by visuallysets and are based on data presented in tables, graphs, comparing the heights of the bars in the graph. Theor other diagrams. greatest increase in height between two adjacent barsDirections* occurs for the years 1985 and 1986. The best answerEach of the following questions has five answer is (B).choices. For each of these questions, select the best ofthe answer choices given.* The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. 11
  • 12. Review of the Analytical organization or poor organization, for example, will be part of the readers’ overall impression of the Writing Section response and will therefore contribute to the score, but organization, as a distinct feature, has no specific Overview weight. The Analytical Writing section tests your critical In general, GRE readers are college and university thinking and analytical writing skills. It assesses your faculty experienced in teaching courses in which ability to articulate and support complex ideas, writing and critical thinking skills are important. All analyze an argument, and sustain a focused and GRE readers have undergone careful training, passed coherent discussion. It does not assess specific con- stringent GRE qualifying tests, and demonstrated tent knowledge. that they are able to maintain scoring accuracy. The Analytical Writing section consists of two To ensure fairness and objectivity in scoring separately-timed analytical writing tasks: • responses are randomly distributed to the readers • a 45-minute “Present Your Perspective on an • all identifying information about the test takers Issue” task is concealed from the readers • a 30-minute “Analyze an Argument” task • each response is scored by two readers • readers do not know what other scores a re- You will be given a choice between two Issue topics. sponse may have received Each states an opinion on an issue of broad interest and • the scoring procedure requires that each re- asks you to discuss the issue from any perspective(s) sponse receive identical or adjacent scores from you wish, as long as you provide relevant reasons and two readers; any other score combination is examples to explain and support your views. adjudicated by a third GRE reader You will not have a choice of Argument topics. The Argument task presents a different challenge The scores given for the two tasks are then averaged from that of the Issue task: it requires you to critique for a final reported score. The score level descriptions, a given argument by discussing how well reasoned presented in Appendix A on page 53, provide infor- you find it. You will need to consider the logical mation on how to interpret the total score on the soundness of the argument rather than to agree or Analytical Writing section. The primary emphasis in disagree with the position it presents. scoring the Analytical Writing section is on critical The two tasks are complementary in that one thinking and analytical writing skills. requires you to construct your own argument by Your essay responses on the Analytical Writing taking a position and providing evidence supporting section will be reviewed by ETS® essay-similarity- your views on the issue, whereas the other requires detection software and by experienced essay readers you to critique someone else’s argument by assessing during the scoring process. In light of the high value its claims and evaluating the evidence it provides. placed on independent intellectual activity within United States graduate schools and universities, ETS How the Analytical Writing Section reserves the right to cancel test scores of any test is Scored taker when there is substantial evidence that an essay response includes, but is not limited to, any of the Each response is holistically scored on a 6-point scale following: according to the criteria published in the GRE • text that is similar to that found in one or more analytical writing scoring guides (see Appendix A on other GRE essay responses; pages 51–52). Holistic scoring means that each • quoting or paraphrasing, without attribution, response is judged as a whole: readers do not separate language that appears in published or unpub- the response into component parts and award a lished sources; certain number of points for a particular criterion or • unacknowledged use of work that has been element such as ideas, organization, sentence struc- produced through collaboration with others ture, or language. Instead, readers assign scores based without citation of the contribution of others; on the overall quality of the response, considering all • essays that are submitted as work of the exam- of its characteristics in an integrated way. Excellent inee when the words have, in fact, been borrowed from elsewhere or prepared by another person.12
  • 13. When one or more of these circumstances occurs, correct position to take. Instead, the readers areyour essay text, in ETS’s professional judgement, does evaluating the skill with which you articulate andnot reflect the independent, analytical writing skills develop an argument to support your position onthat this test seeks to measure. Therefore, ETS must the issue.cancel the essay score as invalid and cannot report Understanding the Context for Writing:the GRE General Test scores of which the essay score Purpose and Audienceis an indispensable part. Test takers whose scores are canceled will forfeit The Issue task is an exercise in critical thinking andtheir test fees and must pay to take the entire GRE persuasive writing. The purpose of this task is toGeneral Test again at a future administration. No determine how well you can develop a compellingrecord of score cancellations, or the reason for argument supporting your own perspective on ancancellation, will appear on their future score reports issue and to effectively communicate that argumentsent to colleges and universities. in writing to an academic audience. Your audience consists of college and university faculty who arePresent Your Perspective on an trained as GRE readers to apply the scoring criteriaIssue Task identified in the scoring guide for “Present Your Perspective on an Issue” (see page 51).The “Present Your Perspective on an Issue” task To get a clearer idea of how GRE readers apply theassesses your ability to think critically about a topic of Issue scoring criteria to actual responses, you shouldgeneral interest and to clearly express your thoughts review scored sample Issue essay responses and readers’about it in writing. Each topic, presented in quota- commentaries. The sample responses, particularly attion marks, makes a claim about an issue that test the 5 and 6 score levels, will show you a variety oftakers can discuss from various perspectives and apply successful strategies for organizing, developing, andto many different situations or conditions. Your task is communicating a persuasive argument. The readers’to present a compelling case for your own position on commentaries discuss specific aspects of analysis andthe issue. Be sure to read the claim carefully and writing, such as the use of examples, developmentthink about it from several points of view, consid- and support, organization, language fluency, and wordering the complexity of ideas associated with those choice. For each response, the commentary points outperspectives. Then, make notes about the position aspects that are particularly persuasive as well as anyyou want to develop and list the main reasons and that detract from the overall effectiveness of the essay.examples that you could use to support that position. The Issue task allows considerable latitude in the Preparing for the Issue Taskway you respond to the claim. Although it is impor- Because the Issue task is meant to assess the persua-tant that you address the central issue, you are free to sive writing skills that you have developed through-take any approach you wish. For example, you might out your education, it has been designed neither to • agree absolutely with the claim, disagree com- require any particular course of study nor to advan- pletely, or agree with some parts and not others tage students with a particular type of training. • question the assumptions the statement seems to Many college textbooks on composition offer be making advice on persuasive writing that you might find • qualify any of its terms, especially if the way you useful, but even this advice might be more technical define or apply a term is important to developing and specialized than you need for the Issue task. You your perspective on the issue will not be expected to know specific critical think- • point out why the claim is valid in some situa- ing or writing terms or strategies; instead, you should tions but not in others be able to use reasons, evidence, and examples • evaluate points of view that contrast with your to support your position on an issue. Suppose, for own perspective instance, that an Issue topic asks you to consider • develop your position with reasons that are whether it is important for government to provide supported by several relevant examples or by a financial support for art museums. If your position is single extended example that government should fund art museums, you mightThe GRE readers scoring your response are not support your position by discussing the reasons artlooking for a “right” answer—in fact, there is no is important and explain that museums are public 13
  • 14. places where art is available to anyone. On the other • Do I need to explain how I interpret certain hand, if your position is that government should not terms or concepts used in the claim? support museums, you might point out that, given • If I take a certain position on the issue, what limited governmental funds, art museums are not as reasons support my position? deserving of governmental funding as are other, more • What examples—either real or hypothetical— socially important, institutions. Or, if you are in favor could I use to illustrate those reasons and of government funding for art museums only under advance my point of view? Which examples are certain conditions, you might focus on the artistic most compelling? criteria, cultural concerns, or political conditions that Once you have decided on a position to defend, you think should determine how—or whether—art consider the perspective of others who might not museums receive government funds. It is not your agree with your position. Ask yourself: position that matters so much as the critical thinking • What reasons might someone use to refute or skills you display in developing your position. undermine my position? An excellent way to prepare for the Issue task is • How should I acknowledge or defend against to practice writing on some of the published topics. those views in my essay? There is no “best” approach: some people prefer to start practicing without regard to the 45-minute time To plan your response, you might want to summarize limit; others prefer to take a “timed test” first and your position and make brief notes about how you practice within the time limit. No matter which will support the position you’re going to take. When approach you take when you practice the Issue task, you’ve done this, look over your notes and decide you should review the task directions, then how you will organize your response. Then write a • carefully read the claim made in the topic and response developing your position on the issue. Even make sure you understand the issue involved; if if you don’t write a full response, you should find it it seems unclear, discuss it with a friend or helpful to practice with a few of the Issue topics and teacher to sketch out your possible responses. After you • think about the issue in relation to your own have practiced with some of the topics, try writing ideas and experiences, to events you have read responses to some of the topics within the 45-minute about or observed, and to people you have time limit so that you have a good idea of how to use known; this is the knowledge base from which your time in the actual test. you will develop compelling reasons and ex- Next, compare your response to the scoring guide. amples in your argument that reinforce, negate, Focus on seeing how your paper meets or misses the or qualify the claim in some way performance standards and what you therefore need • decide what position on the issue you want to to do in order to improve. take and defend—remember you are free to Deciding Which Issue Topic to Choose agree or disagree completely or to agree with Remember that the General Test will contain two some parts or some applications but not others Issue topics from the published pool; you must choose • decide what compelling evidence (reasons and one of these two. Because the 45-minute timing examples) you can use to support your position begins when you first see the two topics, you should Remember that this is a task in critical thinking and not spend too much time making a decision. Instead, persuasive writing. Therefore, you might find it try to choose fairly quickly the issue that you feel helpful to explore the complexity of a claim in one of better prepared to discuss. the topics by asking yourself the following questions: Before making a choice, read each topic carefully. • What, precisely, is the central issue? Then decide on which topic you could develop a • Do I agree with all or with any part of the claim? more effective and well-reasoned argument. In Why or why not? making this decision, you might ask yourself: • Does the claim make certain assumptions? If so, • Which topic do I find more interesting or are they reasonable? engaging? • Is the claim valid only under certain conditions? • Which topic more closely relates to my own If so, what are they? academic studies or other experiences?14
  • 15. • On which topic can I more clearly explain and Strategies for this Topic defend my perspective? This claim raises several related questions: What does • On which topic can I more readily think of strong it mean to be a generalist or a specialist, and what reasons and examples to support my position? value do they have for society? Does society actuallyYour answers to these questions should help you make need more generalists, and are specialists, in fact,your choice. “highly overrated”?The Form of Your Response There are several basic positions you could take on this issue: Yes, society needs more generalists andYou are free to organize and develop your response in places too high a value on specialists. No, the oppo-any way that you think will effectively communicate site is true. Or, it depends on various factors. Or, bothyour ideas about the issue. Your response may, but groups are important in today’s culture; neither isneed not, incorporate particular writing strategies overvalued. Your analysis might draw examples fromlearned in English composition or writing-intensive a particular society or country, from one or more areascollege courses. GRE readers will not be looking for a of society, or from various situations. It might focusparticular developmental strategy or mode of writing; on the role of generalists and specialists in relation toin fact, when GRE readers are trained, they review communications, transportation, politics, informa-hundreds of Issue responses that, although highly tion, or technology. Any of these approaches is valid,diverse in content and form, display similar levels of as long as you use relevant reasons and examples tocritical thinking and persuasive writing. Readers will support your position.see, for example, some Issue responses at the 6 score Before you stake out a position, take a few mo-level that begin by briefly summarizing the writer’s ments to reread the claim. To analyze it, considerposition on the issue and then explicitly announcing questions such as these:the main points to be argued. They will see others • What are the main differences between special-that lead into the writer’s position by making a ists and generalists? What are the strong pointsprediction, asking a series of questions, describing of each?a scenario, or defining critical terms in the quota- • Do these differences always hold in varioustion. The readers know that a writer can earn a high professions or situations? Could there be somescore by giving multiple examples or by presenting a specialists, for example, who also need to havesingle, extended example. Look at the sample Issue very broad knowledge and general abilities toresponses, particularly at the 5 and 6 score levels, to perform their work well?see how other writers have successfully developed • How do generalists and specialists function inand organized their arguments. your field? You should use as many or as few paragraphs as • What value do you think society places onyou consider appropriate for your argument—for specialists and generalists? Are specialistsexample, you will probably need to create a new overvalued in some situations, and notparagraph whenever your discussion shifts to a new in others?cluster of ideas. What matters is not the number of • Does society really need more generalists than itexamples, the number of paragraphs, or the form your has? If so, what needs would they serve?argument takes but, rather, the cogency of your ideasabout the issue and the clarity and skill with which Now you can organize your thoughts into two groups:you communicate those ideas to academic readers. • Reasons and examples to support the claim • Reasons and examples to support an opposingDirections* point of viewPresent your perspective on the issue below, using rel- If you find one view clearly more persuasive than theevant reasons and/or examples to support your views. other, consider developing an argument from thatSample Topic perspective. As you build your argument, keep in“In our time, specialists of all kinds are highly over- mind the other points, which you could argue against.rated. We need more generalists—people who can If both groups have compelling points, considerprovide broad perspectives.” developing a position supporting, not the stated claim, but a more limited or more complex claim.* The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. 15
  • 16. Then you can use reasons and examples from both Not only may over-specialization be dangerous in sides to justify your position. terms of the truth, purity and cohesion of knowledge, Essay Response* – Score 6 but it can also serve to drown moral or universall issues. Generalists and only generalists can see a broad enough In this era of rapid social and technological change picture to realize and introduce to the world the leading to increasing life complexity and psychologi- problems of the environment. With specialization, each cal displacement, both positive and negative effects person focusses on their research and their goals. Thus, among persons in Western society call for a balance industrialization, expansion, and new technologies are in which there are both specialists and generalists. driven ahead. Meanwhile no individual can see the Specialists are necessary in order to allow society wholisitc view of our global existence in which true as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the advancement may mean stifling individual specialists masses of new information and knowledge that have for the greater good of all. come out of research and have been widely dissemi- Finally, over-specialization in a people’s daily lives nated through mass global media. As the head of and jobs has meant personal and psychological Pharmacology at my university once said (and I compartmentalization. People are forced into pigeon paraphrase): “I can only research what I do because holes early in life (at least by university) and must there are so many who have come before me to conciously attempt to consume external forms of whom I can turn for basic knowledge. It is only stimuli and information in order not to be lost in because of each of the narrowly focussed individuals their small and isolated universe. Not only does this at each step that a full and true understanding of the make for narrowly focussed and generally pooprly- complexities of life can be had. Each person can only educated individuals, but it guarantees a sense of loss hold enough knowledge to add one small rung to the of community, often followed by a feeling of psycho- ladder, but together we can climb to the moon.” This logical displacement and personal dissatisfaction. illustrates the point that our societies level of knowl- Without generalists, society becomes inward- edge and technology is at a stage in which there looking and eventually inefficient. Without a society simply must be specialists in order for our society to that recongnizes the impotance of braod-mindedness take advantage of the information available to us. and fora for sharing generalities, individuals become Simply put, without specialists, our society would isolated. Thus, while our form of society necessitates find itself bogged down in the Sargasso sea of infor- specialists, generalists are equally important. Specialists mation overload. While it was fine for early physicists drive us forward in a series of thrusts while generalists to learn and understand the few laws and ideas that make sure we are still on the jousting field and know existed during their times, now, no one individual what the stakes are. can possibly digest and assimilate all of the knowl- edge in any given area. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 On the other hand, Over specialization means This is an outstanding analysis of the issue—insight- narrow focii in which people can lose the larger ful, well reasoned, and highly effective in its use of picture.No one can hope to understand the human language. The introductory paragraph announces the body by only inspecting one’s own toe-nails. What we writer’s position on the issue and provides the context learn from a narrow focus may be internally logically within which the writer will develop that position: coherent but may be irrelevant or fallacious within “In this era of rapid social and technological the framework of a broader perspective. Further, if we change leading to increasing life complexity and inspect only our toe-nails, we may conclude that the psychological displacement . . . .” whole body is hard and white. Useful conclusions and The argument itself has two parts. The first part thus perhaps useful inventions must come by sharing presents a compelling case for specialization, primar- among specialists. Simply throwing out various ily in the field of medicine. The second part presents discovieries means we have a pile of useless discover- an equally compelling, well-organized case against ies, it is only when one can make with them a mosaic overspecialization based on three main reasons: that we can see that they may form a picture. • logical (narrowly trained specialists often fail to understand the whole) * All responses in this publication are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any.16
  • 17. • moral (usually generalists understand what is ments. This is an excellent example of how a needed for “the greater good”) generalied person may not be equipped enough to • personal (specializing/pigeonholing too early can handle something as well as a specialized one can. be psychologically damaging) Another example of a specialist who is neededThe argument’s careful line of reasoning is further instead of a generalist involves teaching. In grammarstrengthened by the skillful use of expert testimony school, children learn all the basic principles of(quotation from a prominent medical researcher) and reading, writing, and arithematic. But as children getvivid metaphor (to inspect only one’s toenails is to older and progress in school, they gain a betterignore the whole body). understanding of the language and mathematical It is not only the reasoning that distinguishes this processes. As the years in school increase, they needresponse. The language is precise and often figurative to learn more and more specifics and details about(“bogged down in a Sargasso sea of information various subjects. They start out by learning basicoverload,” “a pile of useless discoveries,” and “specialists math concepts such as addition, subtraction, division,drive us forward in a series of thrusts, while and multiplication. A few years later, they are readygeneralists make sure we are still on the jousting to begin algebraic concepts, geometry, and calculus.field”). The reader is constantly guided through the They are also ready to learn more advanced vocabu-argument by transitional phrases and ideas that help lary, the principles of how all life is composed andorganize the ideas and move the argument forward. how it functions. One teacher or professor can notThis is an exceptionally fine response to the topic. provide as much in depth discussion on all of these topics as well as one who has learned the specificsEssay Response – Score 5 and studied mainly to know everything that isSpecialists are not overrated today. More generalists currently known about one of these subjects. Gener-may be needed, but not to overshadow the specialists. alized teachers are required to begin molding studentsGeneralists can provide a great deal of information at a very early age so they can get ready for the futureon many topics of interest with a broad range of ahead of them in gaining more facts about the basicideas. People who look at the overall view of things subjects and finding out new facts on the old ones.can help with some of the large problems our society These are only two examples of why specialists arefaces today. But specialists are necessary to gain a not highly overrated and more generalists are notbetter understanding of more in depth methods to necessary to the point of overshadowing them.solve problems or fixing things. Generalists are needed to give the public a broad One good example of why specialists are not understanding of some things. But , specialists areoverrated is in the medical field. Doctors are neces- important to help maintain the status, health, andsary for people to live healthy lives. When a person is safety of our society. Specialists are very necessary.sick, he may go to a general practitioner to find out Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 5the cause of his problems. Usually, this kind of“generalized” doctor can help most ailments with This writer presents a well-developed analysis of thesimple and effective treatments. Sometimes, though, complexities of the issue by discussing the need fora sickness may go beyond a family doctor’s knowledge both the generalist and the specialist.or the prescribed treatments don’t work the way they The argument is rooted in two extended ex-should. When a sickness progresses or becomes amples, both well chosen. The first (paragraph 2)diagnosed as a disease that requires more care than a begins with a discussion of the necessity for medicalfamily doctor can provide, he may be referred to a generalists (the general practitioner) as well asspecialist. For instance, a person with constant specialists and moves into an example within thebreathing problems that require hospitalization may example (breathing problems and the need for anbe suggested to visit an asthma specialist. Since a asthma specialist). This extension from the generalfamily doctor has a great deal of knowledge of medi- to the specific characterizes the example in the nextcine, he can decide when his methods are not effec- paragraph as well. There, the discussion centers ontive and the patient needs to see someone who knows education from elementary to high school, from basicmore about the specific problem; someone who arithmetic to calculus.knows how it begins, progresses, and specified treat- 17
  • 18. The smooth development is aided by the use of special ed teacher is also trained to work on the appropriate transitions: “but,” “usually,” and “for child’s self-esteem, which has a big part in how suc- instance,” among others. The essay ends by revisiting cessful this child will be. Every child in the United the writer’s thesis. States of America has the right to an equal educa- While the writer handles language and syntax tion. How can a child with a learning disability well, several lapses in clarity keep this otherwise well- receive the same equal education as a general ed argued response out of the 6 category. The problems student if there was no specialist there to help both vary from the lack of a pronoun referent (“When teacher and child? a sickness progresses or becomes diagnosed, . . . he may Another thing to consider is how a committee is be referred to a specialist”) to an error in parallel supposed to work together. Each person has a special structure (“how it begins, progresses and specified task to accomplish and when these people all come treatments”), to loose syntax and imprecise language together, with their tasks finished, every aspect of the (“Generalized teachers are required to begin molding community’s work is completely covered. Nothing is students at a very early age so they can get ready for left undone. In this case there are many different the future ahead of them in gaining more facts about specialists to meet the general goal of the committee. the basic subjects.”) When you take into account that a specialist Essay Response – Score 4 contributes only a small part of the generalist aspect, it seems ridiculous to say that specialists are overrated. Specialists are just what their name says: people who The generalists looks to the specialists any time they specialize in one part of a very general scheme of need help or clarification on their broad aspect. things. A person can’t know everything there is to Specialists and generalists are part of the same system, know about everything. This is why specialists are so if a specialist is overrated, then so is a generalist. helpful. You can take one general concept and divide it up three ways and have three fully developed Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4 different concepts instead of one general concept that This is an adequate analysis of the issue. After a no one really knows about. Isn’t it better to really somewhat confusing attempt to define “specialists” know something well, than to know everything in the introductory paragraph, the writer presents a half-way. pertinent example (the special education teacher) to Take a special ed teacher compared to a general ed illustrate the importance of specialists. The example teacher. The general ed teacher knows how to deal dominates the response and contributes positively to with most students. She knows how to teach a the overall score of 4. subject to a student that is on a normal level. But The second example, how a committee works, is what would happen to the child in the back of the less persuasive. However, it does seem to help clarify room with dyslexia? She would be so lost in that the writer’s definition of “general” as an umbrella general ed classroom that she would not only not term meaning the total collection of what specialists learn, but be frustrated and quite possibly, have low know about a topic. self-esteem and hate school. If there is a special ed Although the writer’s views about the relationship teacher there who specializes in children with between “generalist” and “specialist” are unusual, learning disabilities, she can teach the general ed they do become clear in the conclusion of the essay. teacher how to cope with this student as well as Yet, these ideas are not developed in sufficient depth modify the curriculum so that the student can learn or with enough logical control to earn a score higher along with the others. The special ed teacher can also than 4. take that child for a few hours each day and work The writing is generally error free. There are few with her on her reading difficulty one-on-one, which problems in sentence structure, grammar, and usage, a general ed teacher never would have time to do. although the phrasing is at times imprecise and A general ed teacher can’t know what a special ed wordy. Overall, this response displays clearly adequate teacher knows and a special ed teacher can’t know control of the elements of written English. what a general ed teacher knows. But the two of Essay Response – Score 3 them working together and specializing in their own things can really get a lot more accomplished. The To quote the saying, “Jack of all trades, master of none,” would be my position on the statement. I feel specialists18
  • 19. in all areas of knowledge lead to a higher standard of obscured. The main reasons for the score of 3 areliving for everyone. Specializing in different areas allows the lack of sufficient development and inappropriateus to use each others talents to the highest level and use of examples.maximize potential. As an example, if a person required Essay Response – Score 2brain surgery, would they rather have a brain surgeonor a general practitioner doing the work? Clearly a spe- In the situation of health I feel that specialists arecialist would do the better job and give the patient a very important. For example if a person has heartchance at a better life. problems, choose a heart specialist over a genral A university education starts by laying the medicine Dr. However if a person is having a widegroundwork for general knowledge but then narrows range of syptoms, perhaps choose a Dr. with a widedown to a specific field. General knowledge and a range of experience might be more helpful.broad prospective are important, but if there was no It also depends on the type of problem you arefocus on specific areas, our overall knowledge as a having. For example I would not suggest taking apopulation would be seriously lessened. troubled child to a theorpist who specializes in Another example of specialists not being overated marriage problems. In some cases have a specialistswould be international trade. Not every nation can helps to insure that you are getting the best possiblyprovide for themselves. They need to get products treatment. On the other hand dealing with a personand ideas from other parts of the world because they who has a wide range of experience may be able toare better at providing them. This allows for a find different ways of dealing with a particulargrowing economy if two different nations can provide problem.each other with two different products. If one country Since the quotation did not state exactely whatcan produce oranges better than another, it should type of specialist we are dealing with it is also hardtrade the oranges for the fish that it can not produce. to determine the importance of having a special-If generalizing was the normal thing to do and both ist is. For example the could be health or problemscountries tried to produce all kinds of products, the with a car, or basically anything else. I feel that thiscountries would probably survive, but not have the information should not have been left out. I guess thestandard of living they presently have. bottom line is that I feel sometimes a specialist is very important.Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 3 Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2The writer’s position is clear: specialists are importantand necessary. However, the position is not adequately This is a seriously flawed analysis of the issue. Thesupported with reasons or logical examples. response argues in favor of specialists, but neither the Paragraph 1 presents an appropriate example of reasons nor the examples are persuasive. The examplethe brain surgeon versus the general practitioner. of not taking “a troubled child to see a therapist whoHowever, the example of an increasingly narrow specializes in marriage problems” is both simplisticuniversity education in paragraph 2, contains only and off the mark since it differentiates between twotwo sentences and is seriously undeveloped. It does specialists, not between a generalist and a specialist.little to advance the writer’s position. The sentences are so poorly formed and phrased Paragraph 3 offers yet another example, the most that the argument is at times hard to follow. Never-developed of all. Unfortunately, this example is not theless, this is not a 1 essay: the writer presents aclearly logical. The writer tries to argue that the position on the issue, develops that position with“specialist” country (one that is a better producer of some very weak analysis, and communicates someoranges) is superior to the “generalist” country (pre- ideas clearly.sumably one that produces oranges as well as other Essay Response – Score 1products). This generalist country, the writer tells us, I disagree with the statement about specialists, wewould be inferior to the other. This conclusion does need specialists who take individual areas andnot emerge logically from the writer’s argument, and specialize. A generalists can pinpoint a problem. Heit seems to be at odds with everyday reality. or she cannot determine the magnitude of the Although language is used with some imprecision problem. A specialist can find the root of the prob-throughout the essay, the writer’s meaning is not lem. When he or she has years working in that 19
  • 20. specific field. For example, when i got sick i went to a In addition, you should consider the structure of the doctor. He did blood work, x-ray, talk to me, ect. He argument—the way in which these elements are prescribed me a medicine. I got worst. So i decided to linked together to form a line of reasoning; that is, you go another doctor. Now, i am doing great. A specialist should recognize the separate, sometimes implicit knows the facts right away. Otherwise, it will take steps in the thinking process and consider whether longer or not at all. the movement from each one to the next is logically Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 1 sound. In tracing this line, look for transition words and phrases that suggest that the author is attempting This response presents a fundamentally deficient to make a logical connection (e.g., however, thus, discussion of the issue. therefore, evidently, hence, in conclusion). The first sentence states the writer’s position in An important part of performing well on the support of specialists, but that position is not followed Argument task is remembering what you are not by a coherent argument. Some of the ideas seem being asked to do. You are not being asked to discuss contradictory (e.g., “generalists can pinpoint a prob- whether the statements in the argument are true or lem”) and the example is confusing. If the essay accurate; instead, you are being asked whether explained that the first (unsuccessful) doctor was a conclusions and inferences are validly drawn from the generalist and the second (successful) doctor was a statements. You are not being asked to agree or specialist, the example would be useful. However, as disagree with the position stated; instead, you are written, the example is unclear and even misleading. being asked to comment on the thinking that under- The concluding statement only adds to the confusion. lies the position stated. You are not being asked to Since most of the sentences are short and choppy, express your own views on the subject being discussed the ideas they try to communicate are also choppy. (as you were in the Issue task); instead, you are being The writer needs to provide transitional phrases and asked to evaluate the logical soundness of an argu- ideas to bring logical cohesion to this response. Also, ment of another writer and, in doing so, to demon- basic errors in usage and grammar are pervasive, but strate the critical thinking, perceptive reading, and it is primarily the lack of a coherent argument that analytical writing skills that university faculty con- makes this response a 1. sider important for success in graduate school. Analyze an Argument Task “Analyze an Argument” is primarily a critical thinking task requiring a written response. Conse- The “Analyze an Argument” task assesses your ability quently, the analytical skills displayed in your critique to understand, analyze, and evaluate arguments and carry great weight in determining your score. to clearly convey your analysis in writing. The task consists of a brief passage in which the author makes Understanding the Context for Writing: Purpose a case for some course of action or interpretation of and Audience events by presenting claims backed by reasons and The purpose of the task is to see how well equipped evidence. Your task is to discuss the logical soundness you are to insightfully analyze an argument written by of the author’s case by critically examining the line of someone else and to effectively communicate your reasoning and the use of evidence. This task requires critique in writing to an academic audience. Your you to read the argument very carefully. You might audience consists of college and university faculty want to read it more than once and possibly make who are trained as GRE readers to apply the scoring brief notes about points you want to develop more criteria identified in the scoring guide for the “Ana- fully in your response. In reading the argument, you lyze an Argument” task (see page 52). should pay special attention to To get a clearer idea of how GRE readers apply the • what is offered as evidence, support, or proof Argument scoring criteria to actual essays, you should • what is explicitly stated, claimed, or concluded review scored sample Argument essay responses and • what is assumed or supposed, perhaps without readers’ commentaries. The sample responses, par- justification or proof ticularly at the 5 and 6 score levels, will show you a • what is not stated, but necessarily follows from variety of successful strategies for organizing and what is stated developing an insightful critique. You will also see many examples of particularly effective uses of20
  • 21. language. The readers’ commentaries discuss specific • argument—a claim or a set of claims withaspects of analytical writing, such as cogency of ideas, reasons and evidence offered as support; a linedevelopment and support, organization, syntactic of reasoning meant to demonstrate the truth orvariety, and facility with language. These commentar- falsehood of somethingies will point out aspects that are particularly effec- • assumption—a belief, often unstated ortive and insightful as well as any that detract from the unexamined, that someone must hold in orderoverall effectiveness of the responses. to maintain a particular position; somethingPreparing for the Argument Task that is taken for granted but that must be true in order for the conclusion to be trueBecause the Argument task is meant to assess analyti- • conclusion—the end point reached by a line ofcal writing and informal reasoning skills that you reasoning, valid if the reasoning is sound; thehave developed throughout your education, it has resulting assertionbeen designed so as not to require any specific course • counterexample—an example, real or hypo-of study or to advantage students with a particular thetical, that refutes or disproves a statement intype of training. Many college textbooks on rhetoric the argumentand composition have sections on informal logic and An excellent way to prepare for the “Analyze ancritical thinking that might prove helpful, but even Argument” topic is to practice writing on some ofthese might be more detailed and technical than the the published Argument topics. There is no one waytask requires. You will not be expected to know to practice that is best for everyone. Some prefer tomethods of analysis or technical terms. For instance, start practicing without adhering to the 30-minutein one topic an elementary school principal might time limit.conclude that the new playground equipment hasimproved student attendance because absentee rates If you follow this approach, take all the time youhave declined since it was installed. You will not need to analyze the argument. No matter whichneed to see that the principal has committed the post approach you take, you shouldhoc, ergo propter hoc fallacy; you will simply need to • carefully read the argument—you might want tosee that there are other possible explanations for the read it over more than onceimproved attendance, to offer some common-sense • identify as many of its claims, conclusions, andexamples, and perhaps to suggest what would be underlying assumptions as possiblenecessary to verify the conclusion. For instance, • think of as many alternative explanations andabsentee rates might have decreased because the counterexamples as you canclimate was mild. This would have to be ruled out in • think of what additional evidence might weakenorder for the principal’s conclusion to be valid. or lend support to the claims Although you do not need to know special • ask yourself what changes in the argumentanalytical techniques and terminology, you should be would make the reasoning more soundfamiliar with the directions for the Argument task in Jot down each of these thoughts as a brief note.the Practice Tests and with certain key concepts, When you’ve gone as far as you can with your analy-including the following: sis, look over the notes and put them in a good order • alternative explanation—a possible competing for discussion (perhaps by numbering them). Then version of what might have caused the events in write a critique by fully developing each of your question; an alternative explanation undercuts points in turn. Even if you choose not to write a full or qualifies the original explanation because it essay response, you should find it very helpful to too can account for the observed facts practice analyzing a few of the arguments and sketch- • analysis—the process of breaking something ing out your responses. When you become quicker (e.g., an argument) down into its component and more confident, you should practice writing some parts in order to understand how they work Argument responses within the 30-minute time limit together to make up the whole; also a presenta- so that you will have a good sense of how to pace tion, usually in writing, of the results of this process yourself in the actual test. For example, you will not want to discuss one point so exhaustively or to provide so many equivalent examples that you run out of time to make your other main points. 21
  • 22. Next, compare your response(s) to the scoring but need not, incorporate particular writing strategies guide. Focus on seeing how your paper meets or learned in English composition or writing-intensive misses the performance standards and what you college courses. GRE readers will not be looking for a therefore need to do in order to improve. particular developmental strategy or mode of writing. How to Interpret Numbers, Percentages, and In fact, when faculty are trained to be GRE readers, Statistics in Argument Topics they review hundreds of Argument responses that, although highly diverse in content and form, display Some arguments contain numbers, percentages, or similar levels of critical thinking and analytical statistics that are offered as evidence in support of the writing. Readers will see, for example, some essays at argument’s conclusion. For example, an argument the 6 score level that begin by briefly summarizing the might claim that a certain community event is less argument and then explicitly stating and developing popular this year than it was last year because only the main points of the critique. The readers know 100 people attended this year in comparison with 150 that a writer can earn a high score by analyzing and last year, a 33 percent decline in attendance. It is developing several points in a critique or by identifying important to remember that you are not being asked a central flaw in the argument and developing that to do a mathematical task with the numbers, percent- critique extensively. You might want to look at the ages, or statistics. Instead you should evaluate these as sample Argument responses, particularly at the 5 and 6 evidence that is intended to support the conclusion. score levels, to see how other writers have successfully In the example above, the conclusion is that a developed and organized their critiques. community event has become less popular. You You should make choices about format and organi- should ask yourself: does the difference between 100 zation that you think support and enhance the overall people and 150 people support that conclusion? Note effectiveness of your critique. This means using as that, in this case, there are other possible explana- many or as few paragraphs as you consider appropri- tions; for example, the weather might have been ate for your critique—for example, creating a new much worse this year, this year’s event might have paragraph when your discussion shifts to a new point been held at an inconvenient time, the cost of the of analysis. You might want to organize your critique event might have gone up this year, or there might around the organization of the argument itself, discuss- have been another popular event this year at the ing the argument line by line. Or you might want to same time. Each of these could explain the difference first point out a central questionable assumption and in attendance, and thus would weaken the conclu- then move on to discuss related flaws in the argument’s sion that the event was “less popular.” Similarly, line of reasoning. Similarly, you might want to use percentages might support or weaken a conclusion examples if they help illustrate an important point in depending on what actual numbers the percentages your critique or move your discussion forward (remem- represent. Consider the claim that the drama club at ber, however, that in terms of your ability to perform a school deserves more funding because its member- the Argument task effectively, it is your critical think- ship has increased by 100 percent. This 100 percent ing and analytical writing, not your ability to come up increase could be significant if there had been 100 with examples, that is being assessed). What matters is members and now there are 200 members, whereas not the form the response takes, but how insightfully the increase would be much less significant if there you analyze the argument and how articulately you had been 5 members and now there are 10. Remem- communicate your analysis to academic readers within ber that any numbers, percentages, or statistics in the context of the task. Argument topics are used only as evidence in support of a conclusion, and you should always consider Directions* whether they actually support the conclusion. Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. The Form of Your Response Sample Topic You are free to organize and develop your critique in “Hospital statistics regarding people who go to the any way that you think will effectively communicate emergency room after roller skating accidents indi- your analysis of the argument. Your response may, cate the need for more protective equipment. Within * The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test.22
  • 23. this group of people, 75 percent of those who had Essay Response* – Score 6accidents in streets or parking lots were not wearing The notion that protective gear reduces the injuriesany protective clothing (helmets, knee pads, etc.) or suffered in accidents seems at first glance to be anany light-reflecting material (clip-on lights, glow-in- obvious conclusion. After all, it is the intent of thesethe-dark wrist pads, etc.). Clearly, these statistics products to either provent accidents from occuring inindicate that by investing in high-quality protective the first place or to reduce the injuries suffered by thegear and reflective equipment, roller skaters will wearer should an accident occur. However, the conclu-greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured in sion that investing in high quality protective gearan accident.” greatly reduces the risk of being severely injured in anStrategies for this Topic accident may mask other (and potentially more signifi-This argument cites a particular hospital statistic to cant) causes of injuries and may inspire people to oversupport the general conclusion that “investing in invest financially and psychologically in protective gear.high-quality protective gear and reflective equip- First of all, as mentioned in the argument, therement” will reduce the risk of being severely injured in are two distinct kinds of gear—preventative geara roller skating accident. (such as light reflecting material) and protective gear In developing your analysis, you should ask (such as helmets). Preventative gear is intended toyourself whether the hospital statistic actually warn others, presumably for the most part motorists,supports the conclusion. You might want to ask of the presence of the roller skater. It works only ifyourself such questions as: the “other” is a responsible and caring individual who • What percentage of all roller skaters goes to the will afford the skater the necessary space and atten- emergency room after roller skating accidents? tion. Protective gear is intended to reduce the effect • Are the people who go to the emergency room of any accident, whether it is caused by an other, the after roller skating accidents representative of skater or some force of nature. Protective gear does roller skaters in general? little, if anything, to prevent accidents but is pre- • Are there people who are injured in roller sumed to reduce the injuries that occur in an accident. skating accidents who do not go to the emer- The statistics on injuries suffered by skaters would gency room? be more interesting if the skaters were grouped into • Were the roller skaters who went to the emer- those wearing no gear at all, those wearing protective gency room severely injured? gear only, those wearing preventative gear only and • Were the 25 percent of roller skaters who were those wearing both. These statistics could provide wearing protective gear injured just as severely skaters with a clearer understanding of which kinds of as the 75 percent who were not wearing the gear are more beneficial. gear? The argument above is weakened by the fact that • Are streets and parking lots inherently more it does not take into account the inherent differences dangerous for roller skating than other places? between skaters who wear gear and those who do not. • Would mid-quality gear and equipment be just If is at least likely that those who wear gear may be as effective as high-quality gear and equipment generally more responsible and/or safety conscious in reducing the risk of severe injury while roller individuals. The skaters who wear gear may be less skating? likely to cause accidents through careless or danger- • Are there factors other than gear and equip- ous behavior. It may, in fact, be their natural cau- ment—e.g., weather conditions, visibility, skill tion and repsonsibility that keeps them out of the of the skaters—that might be more closely emergency room rather than the gear itself. Also, correlated with the risk of roller skating injuries? the statistic above is based entirely on those who are skating in streets and parking lots which are relativelyConsidering possible answers to questions such as dangerous places to skate in the first place. Peoplethese will help you identify assumptions, alternative who are generally more safety conscious (and there-explanations, and weaknesses that you can develop in fore more likely to wear gear) may choose to skate inyour critique of the argument. safer areas such as parks or back yards.* All responses in this publication are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. 23
  • 24. The statistic also goes not differentiate between generally error-free. Sentences are varied and com- severity of injuries. The conclusion that safety gear plex, and diction is expressive and precise. prevents severe injuries suggests that it is presumed In sum, this response exemplifies the very top that people come to the emergency room only with of the 6 range described in the scoring guide. If the severe injuries. This is certainly not the case. Also, writer had been less eloquent or provided fewer given that skating is a recreational activity that may reasons to refute the argument, the paper could still be primarily engaged in during evenings and week- have received a 6. ends (when doctors’ offices are closed), skater with Essay Response – Score 5 less severe injuries may be especially likely to come to the emergency room for treatment. The argument presented is limited but useful. It Finally, there is absolutely no evidence provided indicates a possible relationship between a high that high quality (and presumably more expensive) percentage of accidents and a lack of protective gear is any more beneficial than other kinds of gear. equipment. The statistics cited compel a further For example, a simple white t-shirt may provide the investigation of the usefulness of protective gear same preventative benefit as a higher quality, more in preventing or mitigating roller-skating related expensive, shirt designed only for skating. Before injuries. However, the conclusion that protective gear skaters are encouraged to invest heavily in gear, a and reflective equipment would “greatly reduce.risk of more complete understanding of the benefit provided being severely injured” is premature. Data is lacking by individual pieces of gear would be helpful. with reference to the total population of skaters and The argument for safety gear based on emergency the relative levels of experience, skill and physical room statistics could provide important information coordination of that population. It is entirely possible and potentially saves lives. Before conclusions about that further research would indicate that most serious the amount and kinds of investments that should be injury is averted by the skater’s ability to react quickly made in gear are reached, however, a more complete and skillfully in emergency situations. understanding of the benefits are needed. After all, Another area of investigation necessary before a false confidence in ineffective gear could be just as conclusions can be reached is identification of the dangerous as no gear at all. types of injuries that occur and the various causes of those injuries. The article fails to identify the most Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 prevalent types of roller-skating related injuries. It This outstanding response demonstrates the writer’s also fails to correlate the absence of protective gear insightful analytical skills. The introduction, which and reflective equipment to those injuries. For notes that adopting the topic’s fallacious reasoning example, if the majority of injuries are skin abrasions could “. . . inspire people to over invest financially and closed-head injuries, then a case can be made for and psychologically in protective gear,” is followed by the usefulness of protective clothing mentioned. a comprehensive examination of each of the argument’s Likewise, if injuries are caused by collision with root flaws. Specifically, the writer exposes several vehicles (e.g. bicycles, cars) or pedestrians, then points that undermine the argument: light-reflective equipment might mitigate the • that preventive and protective gear are not the occurences. However, if the primary types of injuries same are soft-tissue injuries such as torn ligaments and • that skaters who wear gear may be less prone to muscles, back injuries and the like, then a greater accidents because they are, by nature, more case could be made for training and experience as responsible and cautious preventative measures. • that the statistics do not differentiate by the Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 5 severity of the injuries • that gear may not need to be high-quality to be This strong response gets right to the work of critiquing beneficial the argument, observing that it “indicates a possible relationship” but that its conclusion “is premature.” It The discussion is smoothly and logically organized, raises three central questions that, if answered, might and each point is thoroughly and cogently developed. undermine the soundness of the argument: In addition, the writing is succinct, economical, and • What are the characteristics of the total popula- tion of skaters?24
  • 25. • What is the usefulness of protective or reflective Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4 gear in preventing or mitigating roller skating- This adequate response targets the argument’s vague related injuries? and inconclusive “statistics.” The essay identifies and • What are the types of injuries sustained and critiques the illogical reasoning that results from the their causes? misguided use of the argument’s statistics:The writer develops each of these questions by • that non-use of equipment may be “automati-considering possible answers that would either cally” assumed to be the cause of injurystrengthen or weaken the argument. The paper does • that “accidents” may refer to minor injuriesnot analyze the argument as insightfully or develop • that injuries may result from other causes —the critique as fully as required for a 6 paper, but the skating in the dark, failure to train or warm-upclear organization, strong control of language, and properly, failure to recognize one’s physicalsubstantial degree of development warrant more than limitationsa score of 4. The writer competently grasps the weaknesses of theEssay Response – Score 4 argument. The ideas are clear and connected, but theAlthough the argument stated above discusses the response lacks transitional phrases. Development,importance of safety equipment as significant part of too, is only adequate.avoiding injury, the statistics quoted are vague and Control of language is better than adequate. Theinconclusive. Simply because 75 percent of the people writer achieves both control and clarity and ablyinvolved in roller-skating accidents are not wearing the conforms to the conventions of written English.stated equipment does not automatically implicate the Overall, though, this 4 response lacks the morelack of equipment as the cause of injury. The term thorough development that would warrant a score of 5.“accidents” may imply a great variety of injuries. The Essay Response – Score 3types of injuries one could incur by not wearing the The arguement is well presented and supported, buttypes of equipment stated above are minor head inju- not completely well reasoned. It is clear and conciselyries; skin abrasions or possibly bone fracture of a select written. The content is logically and smoothlyfew areas such as knees, elbows, hands, etc. (which are presented. Statistics cited are used to develop supportin fact most vulnerable to this sport); and/or injuries for the recommendation, that roller skaters whodue to practising the sport during low light times of the invest in protective gear and reflective equipmentday. During any physically demanding activity or sport can reduce their risk of severe, accidental injuries.people are subjected to a wide variety of injuries which Examples of the types of protective equipment arecannot be avoided with protective clothing or light- described for the reader. Unfortunately, the author ofreflective materials. These injuries include inner trauma the argement fails to note that merely by purchasing(e.g., heart-attack); exhaustion; strained muscles, gear and reflective equipment that the skater will beligaments, or tendons; etc. Perhaps the numbers and protected. This is, of course, falacious if the skaterpercentages of people injured during roller-skating, even fails to use the equipment, or uses it incorrectly orwithout protective equipment, would decrease greatly inappropriately. It is also an unnecessary assumptionif people participating in the sport had proper training, that a skater need purchase high-quality gear for thegood physical health, warm-up properly before begin- same degree of effectiveness to be achieved. Thening (stretching), as well as take other measures to argument could be improved by taking these issuesprevent possible injury, such as common-sense, by into consideration, and making recommendations forrefraining from performing the activity after proper education and safety awareness to has ceased and knowing your personal limita-tions as an individual and athlete. The statistics used in Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 3the above reasoning are lacking in proper direction The first half of this generally well-written butconsidering their assertions and therefore must be limited response merely describes the argument. Thefurther examined and modified so that proper conclu- second half of the paper identifies two assumptions ofsions can be reached. the argument: • that people who purchase protective gear will use the gear 25
  • 26. • that high-quality gear is more effective than Essay Response – Score 1 other gear the protective equipment do help to reduce the risk These points are sufficient to constitute some analysis of being severyly injuryed in an accident since there and thus warrant a score of 3. However, neither of are 75% Of those who had accidents in streets or these analytic points is developed sufficiently to merit parking lots were not wearing any protectivel cloth- a score of 4. ing. such as hemlets, kenn pads, etc. or any light-re- Essay Response – Score 2 flecting materials such as clip-on lights, glow-in-the- dark wrist pads ets. if they do have protective eqip- To reduce the accidents from roller skating we should ment that only a quarter accident may happen, also consider about it causes and effects concurrently to that can greatly reduce their risk ofbeing severyly find the best solution. Basically the roller-skating injuryed in an accident, that can save some lives and players are children, they had less experiences to a lot of energy and money for the treatment. the protect themselves from any kind of dangerous. protective equipment do help to reduce the risk of Therefore, it should be a responsible of adult to take being severyly injuryed in an accident since there are care them. Adult should recommend their child to 75% Of those who had accidents in streets or parking wear any protective clothing, set the rules and look lots were not wearing any protectivel clothing. such after them while they are playing. as hemlets, kenn pads, etc. or any light-reflecting In the past roller-skating is limited in the skate materials such as clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark yard but when it became popular people normally wrist pads ets. if they do have protective eqipment play it on the street way) Therefore the number of that only a quarter accident may happen, also that accidents from roller-skating is increased. The skate can greatly reduce their risk ofbeing severyly injuryed manufacturer should have a responsibility in produc- in an accident, that can save some lives and a lot of ing a protective clothing. They should promote and energy and money for the treatment. the protective sell them together with skates. The government or equipment do help to reduce the risk of being state should set the regulation of playing skate on the severyly injuryed in an accident since there are 75% street way like they did with the bicycle. Of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots To prevent this kind of accident is the best were not wearing any protectivel clothing. such as solution but it needs a coorperation among us to have hemlets, kenn pads, etc. or any light-reflecting a concious mind to beware and realize its dangerous. materials such as clip-on lights, glow-in-the-dark Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2 wrist pads ets. if they do have protective eqipment This seriously flawed response, rather than critiquing that only a quarter accident may happen, also that the argument, suggests ways for adults and skate can greatly reduce their risk ofbeing severyly injuryed manufacturers to ensure that children wear protective in an accident, that can save some lives and a lot of clothing. In essence, the writer is uncritically accept- energy and money for the treatment. ing the argument. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 1 The response exhibits serious and frequent This fundamentally deficient response uncritically problems in sentence structure and language use. accepts the reasoning of the topic: “the protective Errors—word choice, verb tenses, subject-verb equipment do help to reduce the risk of being agreement, punctuation—are numerous and some- severyly injuryed in an accident.” There is no evi- times interfere with meaning, e.g., “. . . it needs a dence, though, that the writer is able to understand cooperation among us to have a concious mind to or analyze the argument; what follows, except for a beware and realize its dangerous.” few additional words, merely copies the topic. This This essay earns a 2 because it demonstrates both two-sentence response is repeated—verbatim—two serious linguistic weaknesses and failure to construct more times. a critique based on logical analysis. Language and usage are equally problematic. The few words that have been added, in combination with the words of the topic, result in incoherence. In sum, this essay fits all of the scoring guide descriptors for a 1.26
  • 27. Taking the Practice GRE The score conversion table also allows you to compare your scaled scores with those of others whoGeneral Test have taken the General Test. The table providesAfter you have become familiar with the three for each scaled score, the percent of examinees whosections of the General Test, it is time to take the earned lower scores, and is based on those examineespractice test in this book to see how well you do. Not who took the Verbal and Quantitative sections on theonly will this help you become familiar with the General Test between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2007.directions and types of questions, it will help you For example, the column next to the verbal scaleddetermine how to pace yourself during an actual test. score 460 indicates 50 percent. This means thatThe practice General Test begins on page 29. The 50 percent of the examinees tested between July 2004total time that should be allotted for this practice test and June 2007 earned verbal scores below 460. Foris 31/4 hours. The time that should be allotted for each each score you earned on this practice test, note thesection appears at the beginning of the section. The percent of GRE examinees who earned lower scores.answer sheets are provided on pages 63–72. This is a reasonable indication of your rank among GRE General Test examinees if you have taken the practice test under standard timing conditions.Evaluating Your It may be helpful to compare your score to scores of examinees whose intended graduate school majorPerformance field is similar to your own. The mean scores table onAfter you have taken the practice General Test in page 55 shows you the average scores of people inthis book, it is time to evaluate your performance. various categories of intended graduate major fields who took the General Test between July 2004Verbal and Quantitative Sections and June 2007. You can evaluate your scores byAppendix B on pages 54-55 contains information to finding the major field category most closely relatedhelp you evaluate your performance on the Verbal to your career goals and see how your performanceand Quantitative sections. A table of the correct compares with others who are striving for similaranswers to the questions in the Verbal and Quantita- goals.tive sections is provided on page 54. Compare your Analytical Writing Sectionanswer to each question to the correct answer givenin the list, crossing out questions you answered One way to evaluate your performance on the Issueincorrectly or omitted. You can also evaluate your and Argument topics you answered on the practiceperformance by looking at how you performed on test is to compare your essay responses to the scoredeach test question compared to others who answered sample essay responses for these topics and review thethe questions at an actual administration. In the table reader commentary for these sample essay responses.on page 54, there is a number to the right of each Scored sample essay responses at selected score levelscorrect answer, P‫ .ם‬The P‫ ם‬is the percent of and reader commentary are presented in Appendix Cexaminees who answered the question correctly and on pages 56-62 for the two Issue topics and oneis based on the examinees who took that edition of Argument topic presented in the Analytical Writingthe test. This information enables you to see how section of the test.other examinees performed on each question. It can The final scores on each of the two essays (Issuealso help identify content areas in which you need and Argument) are averaged and rounded up to themore practice and review. nearest half-point interval. A single score is reported Next, add the number of correct answers in Sec- for the Analytical Writing section. You should reviewtions II and IV to obtain your raw verbal score. Add the score level descriptions on page 53 to betterthe number of correct answers in Sections III and V understand the analytical writing abilities character-to obtain your raw quantitative score. Once you have istic of particular score levels.obtained your raw scores, you can look up your scaledscores on both sections. The score conversion tableon page 55 provides the scaled scores that correspondto the raw scores on each section. 27
  • 28. Additional Preparation GRE ScoreItNow!™ Online Writing Once you have evaluated your performance on the Practice practice General Test in this book, you can determine what type of additional preparation you might want This online service lets you test your analytical to do for the test. writing skills using authentic GRE analytical writing Services and products available from ETS and the topics. It provides you with immediate scores on your GRE Board include: essay responses, general suggestions for improving Enhanced Diagnostic Service your writing skills, and sample essay responses on the topics you select. The essays are scored by e-rater®, ETS’s automated scoring system. Two options are If you are preparing to take the General Test and available: you want feedback on your verbal and quantitative • Practice Option. Purchase two topics and skills, you can answer a series of questions and receive specify which type you want, “Present Your immediate feedback on your performance on each Perspective on an Issue” or “Analyze an Argu- question, an assessment of your strengths and weak- ment.” Write your responses online or offline nesses in the verbal and quantitative skill areas, and and submit for scoring. You will receive a score much more. To learn more about the GRE Diagnostic and feedback for each response submitted. Service, visit • Test Experience Option. Purchase one GRE GRE: Practicing to Take the General General Test Analytical Writing section. You will receive one “Argument” task and can select one Test—10th Edition of two “Issue” tasks presented. Write your responses online using the same word processing This test preparation book contains Verbal and Quan- features as the GRE General Test and within titative sections from seven actual GRE General the same time allowed (75 minutes). You will Tests (different from those in POWERPREP®), in- receive a score and feedback for each response cluding one test complete with explanations, test-tak- as well as a total score. ing strategies, and score conversion tables. It also includes a math review for the Quantitative section. GRE Website The Analytical Writing section contains two tests, two sample questions, test-taking strategies, scoring criteria, Visit the GRE website regularly for the most up-to- sample essay responses, and reader commentary. date information about GRE tests, products, and ser- Order online or call 1-609-771-7243 or vices. The site contains information about registra- 1-800-537-3160. The book is also available in many tion, test centers, test preparation, and score reports. bookstores. You can also find a complete listing of test prepara- tion materials that can be downloaded for free.28
  • 29. The following instructions appear on the back cover of the test book. NOTE: To ensure prompt processing of test results, it is important that you fill in the blanks exactly as directed.I GENERAL TEST A. Print and sign PRINT: ___________________________________________________________________________ your full name (LAST) (FIRST) (MIDDLE) in this box: SIGN: ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. TITLE CODE Copy this code in box 6 on 4 4 01 6 Copy the Test Name and TEST NAME your answer sheet. Then fill Form Code in box 7 on FORM CODE S3-K-3SGR2-V2 0 0 0 0 0 in the corresponding ovals 1 1 1 1 1 your answer sheet. exactly as shown. 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS GENERAL TEST B. You will have 3 hours and 15 minutes in which to work on this test, which consists of two writing tasks and four multiple-choice sections. During the time allowed for one section, you may work only on that section. The time allowed for each section is printed at the top of the first page of the section. Your scores for the multiple-choice sections will be determined by the number of questions for which you select the best answer from the choices given. Questions for which you mark no answer or more than one answer are not counted in scoring. Nothing is subtracted from a score if you answer a question incorrectly. Therefore, to maximize your scores it is better for you to guess at an answer than not to respond at all. Please work as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on questions that are too difficult for you. Go on to the other questions and come back to the difficult ones later. There are several different types of questions; you will find special directions for each type in the test itself. Be sure you understand the directions before attempting to answer any questions. FOR THE ISSUE AND ARGUMENT WRITING TASKS, YOU MUST WRITE YOUR RESPONSE IN THE SEPARATE ANSWER BOOKLETS. YOU MUST INDICATE YOUR ANSWERS FOR THE FOUR MULTIPLE-CHOICE TEST SECTIONS ON THE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET. You may write in the test book as much as you wish to work out your answers. After you have decided on your response to a question, fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. BE SURE THAT EACH MARK IS DARK AND COMPLETELY FILLS THE OVAL. Mark only one answer to each question. No credit will be given for multiple answers. Erase all stray marks. If you change an answer, be sure that all previous marks are erased completely. Incomplete erasures may be read as intended answers. Do not be concerned if your answer sheet provides spaces for more answers than there are questions in each section. Example: Sample Answer BEST ANSWER What city is the capital of France? A B C D E PROPERLY MARKED (A) Rome A B C D E (B) Paris A B C D E (C) London IMPROPER MARKS A B C D E (D) Cairo A B C D E (E) Oslo Some or all of the passages for this test have been adapted from published material to provide the examinee with significant problems for analysis and evaluation. To make the passages suitable for testing purposes, the style, content, or point of view of the original may have been altered in some cases. The ideas contained in the passages do not necessarily represent the opinions of the Graduate Record Examinations Board or Educational Testing Service. DO NOT OPEN YOUR TEST BOOK UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. ® EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE, ETS, and the ETS logo are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. The modernized ETS logo is a trademark of Educational Testing Service. Educational Testing Service Princeton, New Jersey 08541 29
  • 30. SECTION 1 THE GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS® Analytical Writing 1 PRESENT YOUR PERSPECTIVE ON AN ISSUE 45 minutes You will have a choice between two Issue topics. Each topic will appear as a brief quotation that states or implies an issue of general interest. Read each topic carefully; then decide on which topic you could write a more effective and well-reasoned response. You will have 45 minutes to plan and compose a response that presents your perspective on the topic you select. A response on any other topic will receive a zero. You are free to accept, reject, or qualify the claim made in the topic you selected, as long as the ideas you present are clearly relevant to the topic. Support your views with reasons and examples drawn from such areas as your reading, experience, observations, or academic studies. GRE readers, who are college and university faculty, will read your response and evaluate its overall quality, based on how well you do the following: • consider the complexities and implications of the issue • organize, develop, and express your ideas on the issue • support your ideas with relevant reasons and examples • control the elements of standard written English You may want to take a few minutes to think about the issue and to plan a response before you begin writing. Because the space for writing your response is limited, use the next page to plan your response. Be sure to develop your ideas fully and organize them coher- ently, but leave time to reread what you have written and make any revisions that you think are necessary.30
  • 31. Present your perspective on one of the issues below, using relevant reasons and/or examples to support your views.TopicNo:C100. “Both the development of technological tools and the uses to which humanity has put them have created modern civilizations in which loneliness is ever increasing.”C101. “Our declining environment may bring the people of the world together as no politician, philosopher, or war ever could. Environmental problems are global in scope and respect no nation’s boundaries. Therefore, people are faced with the choice of unity and cooperation on the one hand or disunity and a common tragedy on the other.” Write the topic number of the issue you choose on the line at the top right corner of the answer booklet labeled “Analytical Writing 1: Issue.” Plan your response on this page. This page will not be scored. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE IN THE ANSWER BOOKLET LABELED “Analytical Writing 1: Issue.” STOP IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. DO NOT TURN TO ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.Unauthorized copying or reuse ofany part of this page is illegal. 31
  • 32. THE GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS® Analytical Writing 2 ANALYZE AN ARGUMENT 30 minutes You will have 30 minutes to plan and write a critique of an argument presented in the form of a short passage. A critique of any other argument will receive a score of zero. Analyze the line of reasoning in the argument. Be sure to consider what, if any, questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and, if evidence is cited, how well it supports the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what additional information might help you better evaluate its conclusion. Note that you are NOT being asked to present your views on the subject. GRE readers, who are college and university faculty, will read your critique and evaluate its overall quality, based on how well you • identify and analyze important features of the argument • organize, develop, and express your critique of the argument • support your critique with relevant reasons and examples • control the elements of standard written English Before you begin writing, you may want to take a few minutes to evaluate the argument and plan a response. Because the space for writing your response is limited, use the next page to plan your response. Be sure to develop your ideas fully and organize them coherently, but leave time to reread what you have written and make any revisions that you think are necessary.32
  • 33. Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. Topic No: C103. Six months ago the region of Forestville increased the speed limit for vehicles traveling on the region’s highways by ten miles per hour. Since that change took effect, the number of automobile accidents in that region has increased by 15 percent. But the speed limit in Elmsford, a region neighboring Forestville, remained unchanged, and automobile accidents declined slightly during the same six-month period. Therefore, if the citizens of Forestville want to reduce the number of automobile accidents on the region’s highways, they should campaign to reduce Forestville’s speed limit to what it was before the increase. Write the topic number of the argument on the line at the top right corner of the answer booklet labeled “Analytical Writing 2: Argument.” Plan your response on this page. This page will not be scored. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE ON THE ANSWER BOOKLET LABELED “Analytical Writing 2: Argument.” STOPIF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.Unauthorized copying or reuse of DO NOT TURN TO ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.any part of this page is illegal. 33
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  • 51. Appendix A Score 3 A 3 paper demonstrates some competence in itsGRE Scoring Guide: Present Your analysis of the issue and in conveying meaning but is obviously flawed.Perspective on an Issue A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics:Score 6 • is vague or limited in presenting or developing aA 6 paper presents a cogent, well-articulated analysis position on the issueof the complexities of the issue and conveys meaning • is weak in the use of relevant reasons or examplesskillfully. • is poorly focused and/or poorly organizedA typical paper in this category • has problems in language and sentence structure• presents an insightful position on the issue that result in a lack of clarity• develops the position with compelling reasons • contains occasional major errors or frequent minor errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that can and/or persuasive examples interfere with meaning• sustains a well-focused, well-organized analysis, connecting ideas logically Score 2• expresses ideas fluently and precisely, using A 2 paper demonstrates serious weaknesses in effective vocabulary and sentence variety analytical writing.• demonstrates facility with the conventions A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR (i.e., grammar, usage, and mechanics) of standard MORE of the following characteristics: written English but may have minor errors • is unclear or seriously limited in presenting or devel- oping a position on the issueScore 5 • provides few, if any, relevant reasons or examplesA 5 paper presents a generally thoughtful, well- • is unfocused and/or disorganizeddeveloped analysis of the complexities of the issue • has serious problems in the use of language andand conveys meaning clearly. sentence structure that frequently interfere withA typical paper in this category meaning• presents a well-considered position on the issue • contains serious errors in grammar, usage, or• develops the position with logically sound reasons mechanics that frequently obscure meaning and/or well-chosen examples• is focused and generally well organized, connecting Score 1 A 1 paper demonstrates fundamental deficiencies in ideas appropriately analytical writing.• expresses ideas clearly and well, using appropriate vocabulary and sentence variety A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR• demonstrates facility with the conventions of MORE of the following characteristics: standard written English but may have minor • provides little or no evidence of the ability to un- errors derstand and analyze the issue • provides little or no evidence of the ability to de-Score 4 velop an organized responseA 4 paper presents a competent analysis of the issue • has severe problems in language and sentence struc-and conveys meaning adequately. ture that persistently interfere with meaningA typical paper in this category • contains pervasive errors in grammar, usage, or• presents a clear position on the issue mechanics that result in incoherence• develops the position on the issue with relevant reasons and/or examples Score 0 Off topic (i.e., provides no evidence of an attempt to• is adequately focused and organized respond to the assigned topic), in a foreign language,• expresses ideas with reasonable clarity merely copies the topic, consists of only keystroke• generally demonstrates control of the conventions characters, or is illegible, or nonverbal. of standard written English but may have some errors NS Blank 51
  • 52. GRE Scoring Guide: Analyze A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics: an Argument • does not identify or analyze most of the important Score 6 features of the argument, although some analysis of A 6 paper presents a cogent, well-articulated critique the argument is present of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully. • mainly analyzes tangential or irrelevant matters, or reasons poorly A typical paper in this category • is limited in the logical development and organiza- • clearly identifies important features of the tion of ideas argument and analyzes them insightfully • offers support of little relevance and value for points • develops ideas cogently, organizes them logically, of the critique and connects them with clear transitions • lacks clarity in expressing ideas • effectively supports the main points of the critique • contains occasional major errors or frequent minor • demonstrates control of language, including errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics that can appropriate word choice and sentence variety interfere with meaning • demonstrates facility with the conventions (i.e., grammar, usage, and mechanics) of standard Score 2 written English but may have minor errors A 2 paper demonstrates serious weaknesses in analyti- cal writing. Score 5 A typical paper in this category exhibits ONE OR A 5 paper presents a generally thoughtful, well- MORE of the following characteristics: developed critique of the argument and conveys mean- ing clearly. • does not present a critique based on logical A typical paper in this category analysis, but may instead present the writer’s own views on the subject • clearly identifies important features of the argument • does not develop ideas, or is disorganized and and analyzes them in a generally perceptive way illogical • develops ideas clearly, organizes them logically, and • provides little, if any, relevant or reasonable support connects them with appropriate transitions • has serious problems in the use of language and in • sensibly supports the main points of the critique sentence structure that frequently interfere with • demonstrates control of language, including meaning appropriate word choice and sentence variety • contains serious errors in grammar, usage, or • demonstrates facility with the conventions mechanics that frequently obscure meaning of standard written English but may have minor errors Score 1 A 1 paper demonstrates fundamental deficiencies in Score 4 analytical writing. A 4 paper presents a competent critique of the argument and conveys meaning adequately. A typical paper in this category exhibits MORE A typical paper in this category THAN ONE of the following characteristics: • identifies and analyzes important features of the • provides little or no evidence of the ability to un- argument derstand and analyze the argument • develops and organizes ideas satisfactorily but may • provides little or no evidence of the ability to de- not connect them with transitions velop an organized response • supports the main points of the critique • has severe problems in language and sentence struc- • demonstrates sufficient control of language to ex- ture that persistently interfere with meaning press ideas with reasonable clarity • contains pervasive errors in grammar, usage, or • generally demonstrates control of the conventions mechanics that result in incoherence of standard written English but may have some errors Score 0 Off topic (i.e., provides no evidence of an attempt to Score 3 respond to the assigned topic), in a foreign language, A 3 paper demonstrates some competence in its merely copies the topic, consists of only keystroke critique of the argument and in conveying meaning characters, or is illegible, or nonverbal. but is obviously flawed. NS Blank52
  • 53. Analytical Writing Section Score SCORES 4 and 3.5 – Provides competent analysis ofLevel Descriptions complex ideas; develops and supports main points with relevant reasons and/or examples; is adequatelyAlthough the GRE Analytical Writing measure organized; conveys meaning with reasonable clarity;contains two discrete analytical writing tasks, a single demonstrates satisfactory control of sentence struc-combined score is reported because it is more reliable ture and language usage but may have some errorsthan is a score for either task alone. The reported that affect clarity.score, the average of the scores for the two tasks,ranges from 0 to 6, in half-point increments. SCORES 3 and 2.5 – Displays some competence in The statements below describe, for each score analytical writing, although the writing is flawed in atlevel, the overall quality of analytical writing demon- least one of the following ways: limited analysis orstrated across both the Issue and Argument tasks. development; weak organization; weak control ofBecause the test assesses “analytical writing,” critical sentence structure or language usage, with errors thatthinking skills (the ability to reason, assemble often result in vagueness or lack of clarity.evidence to develop a position, and communicate SCORES 2 and 1.5 – Displays serious weaknesses incomplex ideas) weigh more heavily than the writer’s analytical writing. The writing is seriously flawed incontrol of fine points of grammar or the mechanics of at least one of the following ways: serious lack ofwriting (e.g., spelling). analysis or development; lack of organization; seriousSCORES 6 and 5.5 – Sustains insightful, in-depth and frequent problems in sentence structure oranalysis of complex ideas; develops and supports main language usage, with errors that obscure meaning.points with logically compelling reasons and/or SCORES 1 and .5 – Displays fundamental deficien-highly persuasive examples; is well focused and well cies in analytical writing. The writing is fundamen-organized; skillfully uses sentence variety and precise tally flawed in at least one of the following ways:vocabulary to convey meaning effectively; demon- content that is extremely confusing or mostly irrel-strates superior facility with sentence structure and evant to the assigned tasks; little or no development;language usage but may have minor errors that do not severe and pervasive errors that result in incoherence.interfere with meaning. SCORE 0 – The examinee’s analytical writing skillsSCORES 5 and 4.5 – Provides generally thought- cannot be evaluated because the responses do notful analysis of complex ideas; develops and supports address any part of the assigned tasks, are merelymain points with logically sound reasons and/or attempts to copy the assignments, are in a foreignwell-chosen examples; is generally focused and well language, or display only indecipherable text.organized; uses sentence variety and vocabulary to SCORE NS – The examinee produced no textconvey meaning clearly; demonstrates good control whatsoever.of sentence structure and language usage but mayhave minor errors that do not interfere with meaning. 53
  • 54. Appendix B Interpretive Data for the Verbal and Quantitative Sections Answer Key and Percentages* of Examinees Answering Each Question Correctly VERBAL ABILITY QUANTITATIVE ABILITY Section II Section IV Section III Section V Number Answer P‫ם‬ Number Answer P‫ם‬ Number Answer P‫ם‬ Number Answer P‫ם‬ 1 A 90 1 A 84 1 A 85 1 C 94 2 B 82 2 E 86 2 C 84 2 A 80 3 B 81 3 B 87 3 B 79 3 C 85 4 E 77 4 C 80 4 D 76 4 B 76 5 D 70 5 A 74 5 C 57 5 A 64 6 C 62 6 B 71 6 D 70 6 B 67 7 C 28 7 C 68 7 B 69 7 B 72 8 D 96 8 C 98 8 D 52 8 D 69 9 C 85 9 D 76 9 B 52 9 A 34 10 C 46 10 C 70 10 A 50 10 C 38 11 A 46 11 B 63 11 A 42 11 D 19 12 D 46 12 A 60 12 D 26 12 D 59 13 A 39 13 B 48 13 C 57 13 C 42 14 E 36 14 B 48 14 B 52 14 D 28 15 E 35 15 D 26 15 A 35 15 B 40 16 A 26 16 D 35 16 E 75 16 B 88 17 C 63 17 A 58 17 E 86 17 E 80 18 B 63 18 D 97 18 D 81 18 B 77 19 A 64 19 B 89 19 A 83 19 A 74 20 C 75 20 D 51 20 B 63 20 C 71 21 E 64 21 B 66 21 B 92 21 B 84 22 D 46 22 A 33 22 C 90 22 D 58 23 D 51 23 B 48 23 B 71 23 D 54 24 B 62 24 C 74 24 E 58 24 E 63 25 A 59 25 D 70 25 D 71 25 A 34 26 E 52 26 A 51 26 C 47 26 D 51 27 B 66 27 C 48 27 D 32 27 C 52 28 E 89 28 E 89 28 E 44 28 B 32 29 A 86 29 B 87 29 A 19 29 E 49 30 E 76 30 E 69 30 E 47 30 D 57 31 B 78 31 E 58 32 C 41 32 E 30 33 E 37 33 C 44 34 D 36 34 A 25 35 C 35 35 E 31 36 A 29 36 D 36 37 A 18 37 D 25 38 D 21 38 E 19 * Estimated P‫ ם‬is based on those examinees who took the General Test between October 1, 1989 and September 30, 1992.54
  • 55. Score Conversions and Percents Below* for the Verbal and Quantitative Sections VERBAL QUANTITATIVE VERBAL QUANTITATIVE Raw Scaled % Scaled % Raw Scaled % Scaled % Score Score Below Score Below Score Score Below Score Below 74-76 800 99 39 430 41 610 51 73 790 99 38 420 38 600 48 72 780 99 37 410 35 580 44 71 760 99 36 400 33 570 42 70 750 99 35 390 30 560 40 34 380 27 550 37 69 740 99 33 380 27 540 35 68 730 99 32 370 25 530 33 67 720 98 31 360 22 520 32 66 710 98 30 350 20 500 28 65 700 97 64 680 96 29 340 17 490 26 63 670 95 28 340 17 480 24 62 660 94 27 330 14 470 23 61 650 93 26 320 12 450 20 60 640 91 800 94 25 310 9 440 18 24 310 9 420 16 59 630 90 800 94 23 300 7 410 14 58 620 89 800 94 22 290 5 390 12 57 600 85 800 94 21 280 4 380 11 56 590 83 790 92 20 280 4 370 10 55 580 81 780 90 54 570 79 770 88 19 270 2 350 8 53 560 77 760 86 18 260 2 340 7 52 550 74 740 81 17 260 2 320 6 51 540 71 730 79 16 250 1 300 4 50 540 71 720 76 15 240 1 290 4 14 230 1 270 3 49 530 68 710 74 13 220 1 260 2 48 520 66 700 72 12 210 1 240 1 47 510 64 690 69 11 210 1 220 1 46 490 58 680 67 10 200 1 200 1 45 480 55 670 65 44 470 53 660 63 9 200 1 200 1 43 460 50 650 60 8 200 1 200 1 42 460 50 640 58 7 200 1 200 1 41 450 47 630 55 6 200 1 200 1 40 440 44 620 53 5 200 1 200 1 0-4 200 1 200 1 * Percent scoring below the scaled score is based on the performance of all examinees who took the General Test between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2007.Verbal and Quantitative Mean Scores Classified by Broad Intended Graduate Major Field (Based on the performance of seniors and nonenrolled college graduates** who tested between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2007) Approximate Broad Intended Graduate Number of Verbal Quantitative Major Field Examinees Ability Ability Life Sciences 140,800 457 575 Physical Sciences 53,700 484 692 Engineering 55,500 468 717 Social Sciences 107,900 488 560 Humanities and Arts 52,900 545 561 Education 44,700 449 530 Business 9,700 441 594 ** Limited to those who earned their college degrees up to two years prior to the test date. Note that this table does not include summary information on the approximately 51,790 examinees whose response was invalid (misgrids, blanks, etc.) or the approximately 13,600 examinees whose response was “undecided.” Most of the standard deviations of the score distribution represented by the means in this table are between 90 and 125. 55
  • 56. Appendix C the well-documented expense of today’s pollution- control measures will be stacked against the unknown long-term effects of polluting actitivities. “Why Analytical Writing Topics, should I spend millions of dollars a year, which causes Sample Scored Essay Responses* me to have to raise the cost of my goods or eliminate at Selected Score Points, and Reader jobs, if no one really knows if air pollution is all that Commentary harmful? Show me the proof,” an air polluting company may demand. Issue Topic 1 Realistically, it won’t be until critical mass is achieved that the hoped for “choice of unity and “Our declining environment may bring the people of cooperation” will be a viable one. Only when the the world together as no politician, philosopher, or earth as a whole is so polluted that life itself becomes war ever could. Environmental problems are global in increasingly difficult for a majority of the world’s scope and respect no nation’s boundaries. Therefore, people will there likely be the political will to force people are faced with the choice of unity and coop- global environmental laws on governments world- eration on the one hand or disunity and a common wide. But the optimists (read: environmental activ- tragedy on the other.” ists) among us continue to believe that the world can Essay Response – Score 6 be shown the error of its ways. They continue to point out that the sky is probably falling—or at least Cooperation—or Tragedy? developing a big hole. The world, as a whole, ignores The solution to the world’s growing environmental them. problems may have to wait awhile. It has been said One would hope, however, that governments, that “environmental problems are global and respect perhaps through a strengthened U.N., could some- no nation’s boundaries.” Unfortunately, pollution and how be forced to realize that when the Earth reaches its consequences still fall to large measure on those the critical mass of pollution, it may be too late to do least likely to do anything about it: poor countries anything about it. That would be a “common tragedy” willing to sacrifice anything in order to sit at the indeed. table with the world’s wealthy. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 As far as the industrialized nations of the world are concerned, the world is a big place. Environmen- This excellent response displays an in-depth analysis tal destruction taking place outside their borders may of the issue, conveyed through the skillful use of sometimes be fodder for government pronouncements language. of concern, but few concrete actions. Deforestation of While acknowledging that environmental prob- the Amazon, for instance, is of vital concern to all lems are serious and of global dimensions, the discus- those who wish to continue breathing. But the only sion explores the complexity of international coop- effective deterrent to this activity, the restriction of eration. Such cooperation, the paper argues, runs into international aid money to those countries showing a variety of problems, and the writer offers persuasive net deforestation, has been stalled in the United examples to support that point: Nations by those unwilling to “interfere” in the • the unwillingness of nations to “interfere” with internal politics of other nations. other nations through political measures such as Because of the differential impact of polluting restriction of foreign aid activities around the world, and even in different • inadequate environmental regulations, which regions of a single country, many governments will are caused both by “the differential impact of undoubtedly continue to promulgate only modest polluting activities” between countries and environmental regulations. Costs to polluting compa- regions and by the difficulty of comparing the nies will continue to carry as much weight as the “long-term effects of polluting actitivities” with benefit of a pollution-free environment. Particularly the more easily documented, short-term costs of in the current political climate of the United States, reducing pollution. * Responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any.56
  • 57. The paper distinguishes itself in part by its excellent People of the world need to understand theorganization. The first paragraph analyzes the claim situation our generation and generations to come areand announces the writer’s position; the second and faced with. This understanding needs to come fromthird paragraphs provide clear examples supporting education. The United States has always been athat position. The skillful use of a quotation from a forerunner in wars, peace talks, etc. It is now time forbusiness person vividly illustrates the economic impact the United States to be the leader in solutions toof pollution controls. The last two paragraphs bring a environmental concerns. The greatest barrier in anysense of closure to the essay by continuing the theme situation is communication. If we communicate withannounced in the first paragraph—that cooperation each other and work together instead of apart resultsmust wait until more dire circumstances produce the would be seen. Education is another great concern,political will necessary to reduce pollution. especially in underdeveloped countries and third Transitional phrases—“because,” “however,” “for world nations. There is a lack of education in manyinstance”—help guide the reader through the argu- of these countries. Education is the key to success.ment. Also, effective sentence variety and the use of In summary I would like to emphasize the impor-precise vocabulary help clarify meaning and confirm tance in unity and cooperation on global concernsthe score of 6. such as the environment. Also education is veryEssay Response – Score 4 important in making headway. I also believe the government should get more involved in these issues.Our declining environment may bring the people ofthe world together as no politician, philosopher, or Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4war ever could. Environmental issues are a growing This paper presents and supports an adequate analysisconcern in our country today. It is an issue that of the issue. After stating the need for cooperation onconcerns every person, no one is excluded. the environment, the writer proposes several very Facing and solving environmental issues calls for specific remedies for environmental problems:unity and cooperation. Prejudices should be put aside recycling, emissions testing, research, education, andin this time of need. Without unity our world as we communication. The detailed description of emis-know it will not exist in twenty-five years. People as a sions testing is useful; however, the other remedieswhole need to take action. Without unity and coop- (recycling, research, etc.) are not developed fully oreration little will be accomplished. persuasively. There are many environmental issues we are In some areas the response suffers from needlessfacing today. For example, recycling is a simple and repetition. Paragraph six, for example, moves fromeffective way to help the environment. If everyone education to communication and back to education.did a small part the results would be enormous. The conclusion, moreover, adds little, merely repeat-Recycling is a good example because it is something ing earlier statements.every single person is capable of doing. The control of grammar and usage is generally There are many ways people of any age, race, or competent, but the sentences tend to be can contribute to help the environment. Emis- Although most of the ideas are stated clearly, thesions testing for exhausts on automobiles is one way relationship between the ideas is not always madeto help keep unnecessary pollutants from contaminat- clear: “Also education is very important in makinging the air. Very few cities require emissions testing headway. I also believe the government should getfor automobiles. Columbus, for example, does not more involved in these issues.”require emissions testing. My small hometown of Essay Response – Score 2Amherst, Ohio does require this test. I believe the government needs to implement Environmental problems will require a joint efferctstricter regulations regarding environmental issues amoung people to solve, however, environmentaland also increase the funding that is allotted for it. problems may not cause people to come together.Mandatory recycling laws with a stiff penalty for Should the problems continue for an extended periodbreaking the law is one solution. Funding for groups of time before any effert is made to solve them, theyto do research is imperative. Without research there will reach a point of no return no matter how peopleis very little we would know about anything includ- come together to work on it. When this happens thereing diseases and microorganisms. will be increased shortage in our natural resouses. 57
  • 58. As supply of our resouces goes down and demand descendants come to question the benefits of tech- remains the same or goes up there will be increased nology. The Industrial Revolution introduced and presure to claim what resouces remain. So instead of spread technologies that mechanized many tasks. As people working together to solve the problem, they a result of the drive toward more efficient production will be fighting for what’s left by the problem. and distribution (so the ever larger cities would be To solve this, people need to come together before supported), people began to act as cogs in the techno- the problem reaches a state of no return. This may be logical machine. Clothing was no longer produced by hard to do since the effects of environmental prob- groups of women sewing and gossiping together, but lems are not yet felt by a large degree (if felt at all) by by down-trodden automation’s operating machinery everyone. At this point in time many feel it is not in grim factories. there problem to worry about since it does not The benefits of the new technology of today, immediatly effect them. To remidy this people should computers and the internet, are particularly ambigu- become more aware of their current environment. ous. They have made work ever more efficient and Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2 knit the world together in a web of information and phone lines. Some visionaries speak of a world in This response is seriously flawed. Its strongest feature which Erg need not check in to his office; he can just is a fairly clear position: it agrees with the claim that dial in from home. He won’t need to go to a bar to environmental problems will require cooperation pick up women because there are all those chat and presents a scenario for what will happen if rooms. Hungry? Erg orders his groceries from an there is no cooperation—conflict over diminishing online delivery service. Bored? Download a new resources. However, the writer offers little support for game. And yet... that position. Threatened “resources” and the “effects Many people, myself included, are a little queasy of environmental problems” are mentioned but not about that vision. Erg may be doing work, but is it specified, and the paper provides no examples of how real work? Are his online friends real friends? Does people might “come together” to address the problem anything count in a spiritual way if it’s just digital? or how they might “become more aware of their Since the Industrial Revolution, we have been current environment.” haunted by the prospect that we are turning into Some of the sentences are worded clearly (“So our machines: efficient, productive, souless. The instead of people working together . . .”), but others newest technologies, we fear, are making us flat are so flawed by imprecise word choice that the as our screens, turning us into streams of bits of meaning is difficult to understand: “. . . not yet felt by interchangable data. We may know a lot of people, a large degree (if felt at all) by everyone.” but we have few real friends. We have a lot of things Also, run-on sentences (the first sentence, for to do, but no reason to do them. In short, the new example) and unclear pronoun references add to the technology emphasizes a spiritual crisis that has been confusion, reinforcing the score of 2. building for quite some time. Issue Topic 2 As I try to unravel which I believe about the relative merits of technology, I think it is instructive “Both the development of technological tools and to remember technology’s original result. A better the uses to which humanity has put them have plow meant easier farming, more food, longer lives, created modern civilizations in which loneliness is and more free time to pursue other things such as art. ever increasing.” Our newest technology does not give us more free Essay Response – Score 6 time; it consumes our free time. We are terminally Technology, broadly defined as the use of tools, has a distracted from confronting ourselves or each other. long history. Ever since Erg the caveman first conked We stay safe, and lonely, in our homes and offices an animal with a rock, people have been using rather than taking the risk of meeting real people or technology. For thousands of years, the use of tools trying new things. allowed people to move ever closer together. Because While I am certainly not a Luddite, I do believe fields could be cultivated and the technology to store we need to look for a bit more balance between food existed, people would live in cities rather than technology and life. We have to tear ourselves away in small nomadic tribes. Only very lately have Erg’s from the fatal distractions and go out into the world.58
  • 59. Technology has given us long lives and endless the company may be getting better production, thesupplies of information. Now we need to apply that question that needs to be ask is at what cost to theirinformation, use the time we’re not spending conking employees.our dinner with a club, and find our reasons for It is not only the management of big factories thatliving. are responsible for this isolation. This lonliness canReader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 be seen in many other settings. With the growing popularity of the television, the nation is seeing aThis outstanding response displays cogent reasoning, decline in families talking and an increase in watch-insightful, persuasive analysis, and superior control of ing the television. Not only can this result in alanguage. The response immediately identifies the generation of “coach potatoes”, it is also causes lesscomplexities of the issue and then playfully explores communication and a feeling of isolation fromboth the benefits and the drawbacks of technological everyone that a person cares about.developments over the course of human history. The So far technology has entered the work place andwriter maintains that a “balance between technology the home, it has also entered the social relm. Whenand life” is necessary if humans are going to abate the you go to order food in the drive-thru, who is orloneliness that is part of modern existence. better yet what is it that you talk to? It is a machine, In contrasting the intended purpose of technology although there is a person on the other end, you areat the beginning of the Industrial Revolution with still reciting your order to a machine. If it is ten o’clockthe end result of the use of today’s technology, the at night and you need money, there are ATM’s. Allwriter skillfully expands the initial position and of these gadgets may be very nice and convient, butmakes a sound point: While technological develop- they result in lack of human contact.ments have helped society in a practical way, they Although it might be easy to blame technolgy forhave contributed to a spiritual crisis that has been our feelings of loneliness, it is just a cop out. Bybuilding for quite some time. looking at all the ways technology causes isolation, it The analysis is tightly organized. With well- is still people who choose to use these convenientchosen examples and a character called Erg, the methods. If a person wants to have human contact,response moves well beyond a listing of examples, all they have to do is go inside to the bank or godeveloping the analysis over five focused paragraphs, inside the resturaunt to order. What it basically boilseach building on the previous one. The conclusion— down to, is that it is our choice whether or not we usethat as a result of technology the individual begins to technology. It is a scary thought to think maybe onelose sight of the need to connect with fellow citizens day we might live in a society where you will neverin a meaningful way—follows directly from the have to leave your house. That by using FAX ma-preceding paragraphs, while adding substantive analysis. chines, computers, modems, and the telephone a This writer is clearly in command of language and person would never have to have human contact tosyntax, varying the sentence structure to express get their job done. The thing is that if that is notconcepts succinctly. Word choice is generally precise what we as a society wants, we are the ones to speakand often highly effective, as in the following exam- out and change the outcome.ples: “down-trodden automation,” and “haunted bythe prospect that we are turning into our machines: Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4efficient, productive, soulless.” This is a competent discussion of the issue. TheEssay Response – Score 4 position presented in the first paragraph—that “there are many ways that society has used the advancedLooking at the above statement, I see a lot of truth to technology in order to isolate themselves”—isthe statement. There are many ways that society has adequately sustained, but the examples are not alwaysused the advanced technology in order to isolate clearly relevant (e.g., in the case of paragraph one’sthemselves. It may or may not be a consious move, “computerizing” of factories, the decision to use thebut the results are all the same. The isolation occurs technology is not made by the individual worker.)in a variety of ways and in all different areas. By Also, the reasoning is not developed as fully as itcomputerizing factories, there are more and more would be in a response at the score level of 6 or 5.people working long hours by themselves, with thereonly companion as a computer monitor. Although 59
  • 60. While organization is adequate, the response lacks Argument Topic the organized coherence of ideas that exemplify a 5 “Six months ago the region of Forestville increased essay. Transitions, within and between paragraphs, the speed limit for vehicles traveling on the region’s are not always logical. The last paragraph could be highways by ten miles per hour. Since that change much more clearly focused: since several sentences took effect, the number of automobile accidents in repeat the same idea—that “it is our choice that region has increased by 15 percent. But the whether or not we use technology”—and the speed limit in Elmsford, a region neighboring purpose or meaning of others (e.g., the last) is not Forestville, remained unchanged, and automobile immediately clear. accidents declined slightly during the same six-month In general, ideas are presented clearly, although period. Therefore, if the citizens of Forestville want awkward phrasing sometimes contributes to vague- to reduce the number of automobile accidents on ness (e.g., “By looking at all the ways technology the region’s highways, they should campaign to causes isolation, it is still people who choose to use reduce Forestville’s speed limit to what it was before these convenient methods”). Lack of sentence variety the increase.” seems to inhibit the communication of ideas (e.g., many short sentences are often used where one or Essay Response – Score 6 two compound ones could make the points more The agrument is well-presented, but not thoroughly effectively). Overall, however, this is an adequate well-reasoned. By making a comparison of the region response to the topic. of Forestville, the town with the higher speed limit Essay Response – Score 2 and therefore automobile accidents, with the region of Elmsford, an area of a lower speed limit and Computers of all shapes and sizes, p.c.’s, laptops, subsequently fewer accidents, the argument for faxes, phones, the list never ends. All considered by reducing Forestville’s speed limits in order to decrease our society as great technological advances. Not accidents seems logical. many would argue that the development of these However, the citizens of Forestville are failing to tools has not advanced our world in some ways. How- consider other possible alternatives to the increasing ever they certainly seem to be making our world one car accidents after the raise in speed limit. Such in which contact with our fellow man is less and less alternatives may include the fact that there are less necessary. Though some may be more comfortable reliable cars traveling the roads in Forestville, or that not having to engage in direct contact, it is question- the age bracket of those in Elmsford may be more able whether this is beneficial to society as a whole. conducive to driving safely. It is possible that there The very least result could in fact be a very lonely are more younger, inexperienced, or more elderly, world, but it may result in more significant problems. unsafe drivers in Forestville than there are in Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2 Elmsford. In addition, the citizens have failed to This response is seriously flawed. The analysis of the consider the geographical and physical terrain of the issue is extremely limited, and there are serious two different areas. Perhaps Forestville’s highway is in problems in sentence structure. The writer’s position, an area of more dangerous curves, sharp turns, or has never clearly stated, seems to be that as a result of many intersections or merging points where accidents technological developments, “contact with our fellow are more likely to occur. It appears reasonable, man is less and less necessary.” However, the implica- therefore, for the citizens to focus on these trouble tions of this statement (and others) are never spots than to reduce the speed in the entire area. explored or developed. Furthermore, the list of Elmsford may be an area of easier driving conditions technological advancements does not support or where accidents are less likely to occur regardless of clarify the writer’s already tenuously held position. the speed limit. Each new sentence could serve as a springboard to a A six-month period is not a particularly long time thoughtful analysis but instead takes the response frame for the citizens to determine that speed limit further from the apparent premise. has influenced the number of automobile accidents in This response received a score of 2, not because of the area. It is mentioned in the argument that language problems, but because reasoning, analysis, Elmsford accidents decreased during the time period. and development are extremely thin and insubstantial. This may have been a time, such as during harsh60
  • 61. weather conditions, when less people were driving on Transitions together with interior connections createthe road and therefore the number of accidents a smoothly integrated presentation. For the mostdecreased. However, Forestville citizens, perhaps part, the writer uses language correctly and well andcoerced by employment or other requirements, were provides excellent variety in syntax. The minor flawsunable to avoid driving on the roads. Again, the (e.g., using “less” instead of “fewer”) do not detractdemographics of the population are important. It is from the overall high quality of the critique. This ispossible that Elmsford citizens do not have to travel an impressive 6 paper.far from work or work from their home, or do not Essay Response – Score 4work at all. Are there more people in Forestville thanthere were sic months ago? If so, there may be an At first look, this seems to be a very well presentedincreased number of accidents due to more arguement. A logical path is followed throughout theautomobiles on the road, and not due to the increased paragraph and the conclusion is expected. However,speed limits. Also in reference to the activities of the upon a second consideration, it is apparent that allpopulation, it is possible that Forestville inhabitants possibilities were not considered when the authorwere traveling during less safe times of the day, such presented his conclusion (or at least that s/he did notas early in the morning, or during twilight. Work or present all of the possibilities). There are numerousfamily habits may have encouraged citizens to drive potential explanations for why the number of accidentsduring this time when Elmsford residents may not in Elmsford decreased while the number inhave been forced to do so. Forestville increased. Although it seems logical to Overall, the reasoning behind decreasing assume that the difference in the percentage ofForestville’s speed limit back to its original seems accidents was due to the difference in whether or notlogical as presented above since the citizens are the speed limit had been increased during the speci-acting in their own best interests and want to protect fied month, this does not necessarily mean that thetheir safety. However, before any final decisions are speed limit should be reduced back to what it origi-made about the reduction in speed limit, the citizens nally was in Forestville. The author does not stateand officials of Forestville should evaluate all possible two specific pieces of information that are importantalternatives and causes for the increased number of before a conclusion such as the one the author madeaccidents over the six-month period as compared to is sound. The first is that it is not expressed whetherElmsford. the speed limits in the two neighboring regions had had the same speed limit before Forestville’s speedReader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 limit had been increased. If they had originally beenThis outstanding response begins by noting that the same, then it is reasonable to conclude thatthe argument is “well presented.” It then proceeds to Forestville’s speed limit should be reduced back todiscuss possible alternative explanations for the what it was before the increase. However, if the twoincrease in car accidents and provides an impressively region’s speed limits were initially different, thenfull analysis. Alternatives mentioned are that such a conclusion can not be made. The second piece • the two regions might have drivers of different of information that is necessary for the present ages and experience; argument is the relative number of accidents in each • Forestville’s topography, geography, cars, and/or of the areas prior to the increase in speed limit. For roads might contribute to accidents; the author to make the presented conclusion, the • six months might be an insufficient amount of number of accidents should have been approximately time for determining that the speed limit is equal prior to the increase in the speed limit in linked to the accident rate; Forestville. If the two missing pieces of information • demographics might play a role in auto accidents; had been presented and were in the author’s favor, • population and auto density should be consid- then the conclusion that the author made would ered; and have been much more sound than it currently is. In • the times of day when drivers in the two regions conclusion, the argument is not entirely well reasoned, travel might be relevant. but given the information that was expressed in theThe points are cogently developed and are linked in paragraph, it was presented well, and in a logical order.such a way as to create a logically organized critique. 61
  • 62. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4 the speed limit. It remained unchanged and auto- This competent critique claims that there are mobile accidents declined slightly during the same “numerous potential explanations for why the six-month period. The argument may appeal to those number of accidents in Elmsford decreased while who have been effected by the increase in accidents, the number in Forestville increased.” However, the but it does not give an emotional appeal overall. We author discusses only two points: are relying on the authors statistics but we don’t • whether the speed limits in the two regions were know where they came from and if they are reliable. originally the same; and The argument needs more examples and illustrations • the number of accidents in each region prior to to get his point across to more people. It is suggested Forestville’s raising the speed limit. that the citizens of Forestville campaign to reduce Forestville’s speed limit to what it was before the Although the response appears at first to be well increase, but it is usually hard to start a campaign. developed, there is much less analysis here than the One person needs to take action. If the author is a length would suggest. The first third and last third of citizen of Forestville, maybe he should take the the essay are relatively insubstantial, consisting initiative. mainly of general summary statements (e.g., “A logical path . . . conclusion is expected” and “If the Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2 two . . . more sound than it currently is”). The real This seriously flawed critique presents only one heart of the critique consists of minimal development idea relevant to an analysis of the argument: “The of the two points mentioned above. Therefore, argument needs more examples and illustrations to although two important features of the argument are get his point across to more people.” Everything else analyzed and the writer handles language and syntax in the essay is either summarizing the argument, adequately, the lack of substantial development keeps speculating, or offering advice. The result is a this critique from earning a score higher than 4. response that is clearly on topic but that provides no Essay Response – Score 2 analysis of the line of reasoning in the argument. In addition to the lack of analysis, the writing The argument gives statistics of increases in auto- is weak. The organization is loose, although not mobile accidents since the speed limit increased six illogical, and intended meaning is sometimes unclear months ago on the highways of Forestville. The (e.g., “. . . but it does not give an emotional appeal argument also gives a statement of how the neighbor- overall.”). For these reasons, the response deserves a ing region of Forestville, did not increase or decrease score of 2 according to the scoring guide.62
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  • 79. Increase Your Chances for Success with GRE® Test Prep Products.ScoreItNow! Online Writing Practice — TMGet a snapshot of your writing ability and practice for the Analytical Writing section of the GRE® General Testat your convenience online! Respond to authentic GRE analytical writing tasks and receive an immediateconfidential score and general suggestions for improving writing skills. ®GRE Enhanced Diagnostic Service — grediagnostic.ets.orgAnswer a series of interactive questions in 10 different skill areas on the Verbal and Quantitative sections of theGRE General Test. You will receive immediate feedback on your performance, including information about thequestions that you answered correctly and incorrectly, and an assessment of your strengths and weaknessesin the skill areas. ®Practicing to Take the GRE General Test, 10th Edition — acquainted with the structure and content of the GRE General Test. This book contains seven actualretired GRE Verbal and Quantitative sections, explanations for many answers, sample analytical writing topicsand responses with reader commentary, test-taking strategies and more! 746680 72029-14614 • WEBPDF68 • 8184