Yoga for diabetes and obesity 2010
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Yoga for diabetes and obesity 2010 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Yoga for Diabetes and Obesity
  • 2. What is Diabetes?  Diabetes is a lifelong condition that occurs when the blood sugar (glucose) is too high.  Most of the food we eat is changed into glucose.  Your body uses glucose for energy.  Your blood carries glucose to all cells in the body.  Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas.  It is needed to move glucose from the blood into the body cells where it is used for energy.
  • 3. Diabetes  Diabetes is a disorder in which the body cells fail to take up glucose from the blood.  Wasting of tissues is seen as glucose-starved cells are forced to consume their own proteins.  Diabetes is the cause of blindness, kidney failure and amputation in adults.  Individuals with diabetes lack the ability to use the hormone insulin.
  • 4. There are two types of diabetes Diabetes Type 1  In type 1 diabetes your body stops making insulin because the body's immune system destroys the insulin producing cells (called beta cells) in the pancreas.  People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections every day.  Although it can occur at any age, this type of diabetes occurs more often in children and young adults.
  • 5. Diabetes Type 2  Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body cannot use insulin properly (called insulin resistance) or it does not make enough insulin.  This type of diabetes is usually seen in adults who are overweight and less active.  Due to obesity and inactivity this type of diabetes is increasing in children.
  • 6. Diabetes – Type 2  As we start eating food, our body starts producing insulin.  The insulin signal attaches to a special receptor on the cell surface, to make the cell turn-on its own glucose transporting machinery.  It had been observed that type 2 diabetics have normal or even elevated levels of insulin in their body with normal insulin receptor, but due to some unknown reason the binding of insulin to the cell receptors does not start the glucose transporting machinery, which it is supposed to do.
  • 7. Diabetes – Type 2  Special proteins called IRS (insulin receptor substrate) are inside the cell.  In type 2 diabetes something is interfering with the action of the IRS protein and it is also estimated that about 80% of those who develop type 2 diabetes are obese.  When insulin attaches to the receptor protein, the receptor responds by adding a chemical called a phosphate group onto the IRS molecules by which the IRS molecules turn into action.  Once activated, they start variety of processes, including an enzyme that turns on the glucose transporter machinery.
  • 8. Consequences of Diabetes  The elevated blood sugar that occurs in both types of diabetes can lead to other health problems.
  • 9. Symptoms  Symptoms that occur at onset of type 1 diabetes include extreme thirst, increased hunger, frequent urination,unexplained weight loss and tiredness.  The onset of type 1 diabetes appears suddenly, but we know that insulin-producing cells are destroyed slowly over a period of several years
  • 10. Who Gets Type 1 Diabetes?  18.2 million people in the United States (6.3 percent of the population) have been diagnosed with diabetes.  5 to 10 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.  Type 1 diabetes occurs equally among males and females. It is more common in whites than in nonwhites.  Although the cause of type 1 diabetes isn't known, it is likely that genetic and environmental factors work together to trigger the immune system to destroy the insulin producing cells.  Relatives of people with type 1 diabetes are at a 10 to 15 percent greater risk for developing the disease.
  • 11. What Treatments Exist for Type 1 Diabetes?  People with type 1 diabetes manage their diabetes by taking insulin everyday along with healthy eating and physical activity.  The goal is to keep the blood sugar level as close to normal as possible.  An important landmark study called the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) provided important evidence that maintaining blood sugars as close to normal as possible can help to prevent, or minimize, the occurrence of complications in people with type 1 diabetes.  There have been many advances in the treatment of type 1 diabetes.  Newer types of insulin have been developed to offer more flexibility in eating patterns and lifestyle. Advances have been made in how insulin is given such as insulin pumps, and there is ongoing research to find ways of giving insulin without the need for injections.
  • 12. What is Obesity?  Excess accumulation of fats resulting in increased weight  Decreased physical activity resulting in accumulation of fats.  Obesity is a physical, mental and emotional disorder.
  • 13. Obesity Symptoms  Obesity increases weight, reduces physical movements, and also brings in slowness in emotional and mental activities.  Food intake increases.  Obesity can result in frustration.  Laziness increases, reducing overall efficiency.  Sometimes obesity can create obstruction to breathing process.  Obesity may result in heart problems, diabetes or blood pressure.
  • 14. Obesity Reasons ---- Food Habits  Excess consumption of fats & proteins in diet  Eating sugar rich foods  Consuming milk, butter, cheese, oily food, non-vegetarian food, tea, coffee, bakery products, rice etc.  Not eating raw food, fruits, vegetables rich in fibers
  • 15. US Population and Obesity  61% of the U.S. adult population considered overweight or obese, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has released a new practical guide to help doctors treat their overweight patients.  It consists of a 10-step plan to help the nation’s 97 million obese or overweight adults to lose weight and thereby reduce their risk of illness or death from hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions that have been associated with overweight.
  • 16. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  Strong evidence that weight loss produced by lifestyle modification reduces blood glucose levels and HbA1c in some patients with type 2 diabetes.  Suggestive evidence that decreases in abdominal fat will improve glucose tolerance in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, although not independent of weight loss.  Limited evidence that increased cardiorespiratory fitness improves glucose tolerance in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, although not independent of weight loss.  Suggestive evidence that weight loss induced by weight loss medications does not appear to improve blood glucose levels any better than weight loss through lifestyle therapy in overweight people with or without type 2 diabetes.
  • 17. Recommendations  Dietary therapy -- A low calorie diet -- with a deficit of 500 to 1000 calories/day -- is recommended for weight loss.  Physical activity -- Individuals should start moderate activity for 30-45 minutes, 3 -- 5 days/week, and aim for at least 30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on most, and preferably all, days.  Behavior therapy -- This is a useful adjunct when incorporated into treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance.  Pharmacotherapy -- Using FDA-approved weight loss medications, in combination with diet and physical activity, results in weight loss when used for 6 months to a year.  Weight loss surgery is an option for carefully selected patients with clinically severe obesity when less invasive methods of weight loss have failed and the patient is at high risk for obesity-associated illness or death.
  • 18. Weight Loss  Dozens of controlled clinical trials had been carried out to determine the effect of weight loss on fasting blood glucose. They found:  Weight loss produced by lifestyle modification declines blood glucose levels and HbA1c in type 2 diabetics.  Glucose tolerance can be improved in overweight individuals by decreasing abdominal fat.  Glucose tolerance can also be improved in overweight individuals with increased cardio respiratory fitness.
  • 19. Women’s Fat Cells Are Different  Women have larger fat cells from estrogen and at-storing enzymes.  Your body changes at midlife.  Years 35 to 55 you're more likely to gain weight. To compensate for estrogen loss, your fat cells expand to boost estrogen production, thus contributing to middle-age spread .  You also may be prone to upper body fat deposits. The poundage goes to the waist specifically and the torso .
  • 20. Women’s Fat Cells and Menopause  Some jumping into extreme, low-cal diets.  The fat cells fight back by growing even stronger.  Menopausal women, more than anyone, should never starve themselves.  Women during this period crave sweets and starches more than younger or older women, and they don't even know it.
  • 21. Study on Middle-Aged Women  A University of Pittsburgh study confirms this. Over a 4½-year period, middle-aged women kept their weights stable through exercise and a sensible diet. The control group of non-exercisers continued to gain an average of one pound a year.
  • 22. Energy and Weight  When your stomach is empty and growling, your body's primary directive is to get you to eat -- to fill your energy tank and fuel your body.  But if you don't refuel within 30 minutes of those first biological signals, your blood-glucose level plummets even more, causing you to get a headache or heartburn and to feel nauseated or irritable.  When you finally do stop to eat, you can't help but overdo it.
  • 23. Hunger  Instead, listen to your appetite signals and refuel right away. You'll feel energized immediately. And because you were hungry but not famished when you began eating, you are more easily satisfied with a moderate amount of food.  How much food does it take to perfectly fill your stomach? The answer lies in the palm of your hand. Less than a handful and you're not filling your food tank enough; more than a handful and you're filling it too much.
  • 24. Filling the Stomach  Moderate palm-size portions:  Half a sandwich (not a foot-long sub)  10 potato chips (not a 10-ounce bag)  1 cup of cooked pasta (not half a 16-ounce package)  A small hamburger (not a Big Mac or Whopper)  3 heaping tablespoons of ice cream (not a whole pint or even a cup)  There are certain exceptions to the "hand" measuring cup.  Three handfuls of lettuce leaves equal one serving.  And a "good size" bowl of soup is allowed.  But for most foods, remember this: Your hand is the measuring cup of your stomach, so use it.
  • 25. Eat Little, Eat Often  Small, frequent meals that constantly refuel your body provide big, long-lasting benefits.  A "three balanced meals" approach can cause an imbalance in our energy level.  Too much time elapses between breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and we eat too much food in the evening.  So, instead, try eating five small meals a day.  It will double your energy while controlling your weight.  Just be sure you don't make the mistake of eating five courses at each of those five meals.  Have cereal for breakfast, fruit and yogurt midmorning, half a sandwich at lunch, the other half midafternoon, and a modest-size dinner that could fit in your hand.
  • 26. Skip the Fads  Diet crazes have made us doubt our body's messages.  Don't give in to the "Carbs are hazardous to your health and your waistline" myth that's all the rage right now.  It's also time to relax restrictions against certain "taboo" foods, namely anything with fat.  Your body needs fat and probably craves it too.  A study from England found when women cut their fat intake in half, their dispositions take a nosedive too. They get angrier, moodier, more hostile.  Focus on the so-called good fat, the monounsaturated type found in olives, olive oil, canola oil, soybeans, soybean oil, tofu, nuts, peanut oil, and avocado.)
  • 27. Eat Natural  Sugar causes energy crashes. A simple carbohydrate, sugar is quickly digested and absorbed, leading to a dip when that surge of energy disappears.  There is, however, a way to avoid such a roller coaster: Don't eat sugar by itself. Make sure there's something else present in your stomach that will slow digestion and absorption.  Drink a glass of milk with that cookie, nibble a slice of cheese with that apple, have a little yogurt with those raspberries.
  • 28. Yoga for Obesity and Diabetes  Yoga has considered all aspects of Obesity and Diabetes (physical, emotional and mental)  Regular practice of Yoga and controlled life style reduces obesity (weight is reduced).  Yoga makes human being agile, efficient and slim.  Yoga is suitable for people in any age group.  Yoga helps achieve control over mind and behavior (one can easily control food habits and change life style to reduce the obesity.)  Yoga has different effect on obesity, which is permanent in nature than other techniques for obesity reduction. Weight loss is permanent but one needs to practice few important techniques regularly.
  • 29. Yoga and Obesity  Yoga has an important role to play in the treatment of Obesity.  Yoga techniques affect body, internal organs, endocrine glands, brain, mind and other factors concerning Body – Mind complex.  Various Yoga techniques can be practiced effectively to reduce the weight and achieve normal healthy condition of Body and Mind.
  • 30. Asanas  Yoga positions or postures are especially useful to reduce the fats in various parts, especially forward bending, twisting and backward bending asana help reduce the fats near abdomen, hips and other areas.  Also the practice of asana improves functioning of internal organs, strengthening heart, lungs, kidneys, excretory & reproductive organs.  Regular practice builds strength in muscles.  Asana can be practiced with fast speed like exercise with good effects, the practitioner may increase repetitions instead of maintaining the asana for long.
  • 31. Sun Salutations  Sequence of asana that tones almost all of the muscles and also internal organs are stretched increasing blood & oxygen supply to these parts.  Regular practice of sun salutation with breathing is good exercise for the lungs.
  • 32. Pranayama  Pranayama controls and extends Prana or Vital energy or Life force. Pranayama helps in management of this energy. Various techniques are available in yoga, which give interesting but good results.  The Pranayama can be classified in 2 types in terms of physiology,  Hypo ventilation or vitalizing Pranayama: Deep breathing, Bhramari, Shitali, Sitkari  Hyper ventilation or relaxing pranayama. Kapalbhati, Bhasrika and Fast breathing can be classified under Hyper ventilation (increases Oxygen and reduces carbon dioxide)  Kapalbhati, Bhasrika & fast breathing can be practiced by people suffering from obesity with good effects; these Pranayama techniques increase the lung capacity and help burning fats.  Regular practice of Pranayama brings balance in the system in terms of Physical and Mental functions.
  • 33. Bhramari  Bhramari: the bee breath soothes the nerves and calms the mind Inhale through both nostrils, taking a slow deep breath in. Exhale through both nostrils using the throat to make a soft "eeee" sound, like the buzzing of a bee. Do 5-10 rounds, making the buzzing bee noise louder as you progress, but do not strain.
  • 34. SitKari (Sit Cari)  the hissing breath cools the body Curl the tongue touching the roof of the mouth as far back as you can to the soft pallet. As you inhale clench the teeth together and slightly part the lips making a hissing "ssss" sound. Exhale through both nostrils. Repeat 5-10 times.
  • 35. Shitali  the cooling breath cools the body Roll the tongue into a tube (as best as you can) and stick the tip of the tongue out of the mouth. Inhale through the tongue and hold the breath in for 4-5 seconds with the chin pressed against the chest. Exhale using Ujjayi Pranayama through the nose. Repeat 5-10 times.
  • 36. Kapalabhati  the breath of fire or the skull shining breath invigorating, energizing, and purifying Kapalabhati is a very active, forced exhalation with a passive inhalation. To exhale, the belly quickly pumps into the spine forcing the air out of the nose (like trying to blow out a candle through you nose). Place a hand on your belly to feel the belly actively pumping. Play with the tempo (45-60 exhalations/30 seconds), but keep a steady rhythm. Start with 2-3 rounds of 30 exhalations, and gradually increase the exhalations if comfortable.
  • 37. Bhastrika  Keep the body, neck and head erect. Close the mouth. Next, inhale and exhale quickly ten times like the bellows of the blacksmith. Constantly dilate and contract. When you practice this Pranayama a hissing sound is produced. The practitioner should start with rapid expulsions of breath following one another in rapid succession.
  • 38. Yoga for Weight Loss  Studies have shown that yoga can reduce weight within a month.  Drinking 5-6 glasses of water every morning.  Practicing a lot of asanas and Pranayama. They enhance your memory, eyesight, and concentration and also bring down your excessive weight.  It makes the digestive tract function smoothly and allows quick digestion of foods.
  • 39. Chemical in Broccoli Fights H. Pylori Infection  Infected Japanese patients who ate broccoli sprouts every day for eight weeks had significantly decreased levels of urease -- a biomarker of H. pylori infection -- compared with controls who ate alfalfa, Jed Fahey, Sc.D., of Johns Hopkins, and colleagues reported in the April issue of Cancer Prevention Research. In a simultaneous mouse study, the researchers found that eating broccoli, which contains sulforaphane, was associated with reduced bacterial colonization.