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  • 1. Pollution Prevention and Industrial Ecology NATIONAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CENTER FOR HIGHER EDUCATION Industrial Ecology: An Introduction By Andy Garner, NPPC Research Assistant; and Gregory A. Keoleian, Ph.D., Assistant Research Scientist, University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, and NPPC Research ManagerBackground ................................................................. 2 Appendix A: Industrial Symbiosis at Kalundborg .. 28Industrial Ecology: Toward a Definition ................... 3 Appendix B: Selected Definitions ........................... 31 Historical Development......................................... 3 Defining Industrial Ecology ................................... 4 List of Tables Teaching Industrial Ecology .................................. 4 Table 1: Organizational Hierarchies ................................. 2 Industrial Ecology as a Field of Ecology .............. 5 Table 2: Worldwide Atmospheric Emissions ofGoals of Industrial Ecology ........................................ 5 Trace Metals (Thousand Tons/Year) ................... 9 Sustainable Use of Resources ............................. 6 Table 3: Global Flows of Selected Materials .................... 9 Ecological and Human Health .............................. 6 Table 4: Resources Used in Automaking ........................ 10 Environmental Equity............................................ 6 Table 5: General Difficulties and Limitations ofKey Concepts of Industrial Ecology ......................... 6 the LCA Methodology ....................................... 20 Systems Analysis .................................................. 6 Table 7: Issues to Consider When Developing Environmental Requirements ........................... 23 Material & Energy Flows & Transformations ........ 6 Table 8: Strategies for Meeting Environmental Multidisciplinary Approach .................................. 10 Requirements ................................................... 24 Analogies to Natural Systems ............................ 10 Table 9: Definitions of Accounting and Capital Open- vs. Closed-Loop Systems ........................ 11 Budgeting Terms Relevant to LCD ................... 25Strategies for Environmental Impact Reduction: List of FiguresIndustrial Ecology as a Potential Umbrella Figure 1: The Kalundborg Park ....................................... 3for Sustainable Development Strategies ................. 12 Figure 2: World Extraction, Use, and DisposalSystem Tools to Support Industrial Ecology .......... 12 of Lead, 1990 (thousand tons) ......................... 7 Life Cycle Assessment ....................................... 12 Figure 3: Flow of Platinum Through Various Product Components ........................................................ 13 Systems ........................................................... 8 Methodology ........................................................ 13 Figure 4: Arsenic Pathways in U.S., 1975. ...................... 8 Applications ......................................................... 20 Figure 5: System Types ................................................ 11 Difficulties ............................................................ 20 Figure 6: Technical Framework for LCA ........................ 13 Life Cycle Design & Design for Environment ....... 21 Figure 7: The Product Life Cycle System ...................... 14 Needs Analysis .................................................... 21 Figure 9: Flow Diagram Template ................................. 15 Design Requirements ......................................... 21 Figure 8: Process Flow Diagram ................................... 15 Design Strategies ............................................... 24 Figure 10: Checklist of Criteria With Worksheet ............. 16 Design Evaluation ............................................... 25 Figure 11: Detailed System Flow Diagram for Bar Soap .. 18Future Needs ............................................................. 26 Figure 12: Impact Assessment Conceptual Framework .. 19Further Information .................................................. 26 Figure 13: Life Cycle Design ........................................... 22Endnotes .................................................................... 27 Figure 14: Requirements Matrices .................................. 23National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education • University of Michigan May be reproduced Introduction • 1Dana Building, 430 East University, Ann Arbor MI 48109-1115 freely for non-commercial November 1995734.764.1412 • fax 734.647.5841 • • educational purposes.
  • 2. This portion of the industrial ecology compendium Environmental problems are systemic and thus requireprovides an overview of the subject and offers guidance a systems approach so that the connections between in-on how one may teach it. Other educational resources dustrial practices/human activities and environmental/are also emerging. Industrial Ecology (Thomas Graedel ecological processes can be more readily recognized.and Braden Allenby; New York: Prentice Hall, 1994), A systems approach provides a holistic view of envi-the first university textbook on the topic, provides a ronmental problems, making them easier to identifywell-organized introduction and overview to industrial and solve; it can highlight the need for and advantagesecology as a field of study. Another good textbook is of achieving sustainability. Table 1 depicts hierarchiesPollution Prevention: Homework and Design Problems for of political, social, industrial, and ecological systems.Engineering Curricula (David T. Allen, N. Bakshani, and Industrial ecology studies the interaction between dif-Kirsten Sinclair Rosselot; Los Angeles: American Insti- ferent industrial systems as well as between industrialtute of Chemical Engineers, American Insttute for Pol- systems and ecological systems. The focus of studylution Prevention, and the Center for Waste Reduction can be at different system levels.Technologies, 1993). Both serve as excellent sources of One goal of industrial ecology is to change the linearboth qualitative and quantitative problems that could nature of our industrial system, where raw materialsbe used to enhance the teaching of industrial ecology are used and products, by-products, and wastes areconcepts. Other sources of information are noted else- produced, to a cyclical system where the wastes arewhere in this introduction and in the accompanying reused as energy or raw materials for another product“Industrial Ecology Resource List.” or process. The Kalundborg, Denmark, eco-industrial park represents an attempt to create a highly integratedBackground industrial system that optimizes the use of byproducts and minimizes the waste that that leaves the system.The development of industrial ecology is an attempt to Figure 1 shows the symbiotic nature of the Kalundborgprovide a new conceptual framework for understanding park (see Appendix A for a more complete description).the impacts of industrial systems on the environment(see the “Overview of Environmental Problems” section Fundamental to industrial ecology is identifying andof this compendium). This new framework serves to tracing flows of energy and materials through variousidentify and then implement strategies to reduce the systems. This concept, sometimes referred to as indus-environmental impacts of products and processes trial metabolism, can be utilized to follow material andassociated with industrial systems, with an ultimate energy flows, transformations, and dissipation in thegoal of sustainable development. industrial system as well as into natural systems.2 The mass balancing of these flows and transformationsIndustrial ecology is the study of the physical, chemical, can help to identify their negative impacts on naturaland biological interactions and interrelationships both ecosystems. By quantifying resource inputs and thewithin and between industrial and ecological systems. generation of residuals and their fate, industry andAdditionally, some researchers feel that industrial ecol- other stakeholders can attempt to minimize the environ-ogy involves identifying and implementing strategies mental burdens and optimize the resource efficiency offor industrial systems to more closely emulate harmo- material and energy use within the industrial system.nious, sustainable, ecological ecosystems. 1TABLE 1: ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHIES Political Social Industrial Industrial Ecological Entities Organizations Organizations Systems SystemsUNEP World population ISO Global human material EcosphereU.S. (EPA, DOE) Cultures Trade associations and energy flows BiosphereState of Michigan Communities Corporations Sectors (e.g., transpor- Biogeographical (Michigan DEQ) Product systems Divisions tation or health care) regionWashtenaw County Households Product develop- Corporations/institutions Biome landscapeCity of Ann Arbor Individuals/ ment teams Product systems EcosystemIndividual Voter Consumbers Individuals Life cycle stages/unit steps OrganismSource: Keoleian et al., Life Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1995), 17.2 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 3. FIGURE 1: THE KALUNDBORG PARKIndustrial ecology is an emerging field. There is much furthered this work in their seminal book Limits todiscussion and debate over its definition as well as its Growth (New York: Signet, 1972). Using systemspracticality. Questions remain concerning how it over- analysis, they simulated the trends of environmentallaps with and differs from other more established fields degradation in the world, highlighting the unsustainableof study. It is still uncertain whether industrial ecology course of the then-current industrial system.warrants being considered its own field or should beincorporated into other disciplines. This mirrors the In 1989, Robert Ayres developed the concept ofchallenge in teaching it. Industrial ecology can be taught industrial metabolism: the use of materials and energyas a separate, semester-long course or incorporated into by industry and the way these materials flow throughexisting courses. It is foreseeable that more colleges industrial systems and are transformed and thenand universities will begin to initiate educational and dissipated as wastes.3 By tracing material and energyresearch programs in industrial ecology. flows and performing mass balances, one could identify inefficient products and processes that result in indus- trial waste and pollution, as well as determine steps toIndustrial Ecology: Toward a Definition reduce them. Robert Frosch and Nicholas Gallopoulos, in their important article “Strategies for Manufacturing”Historical Development (Scientific American 261; September 1989, 144–152),Industrial ecology is rooted in systems analysis and developed the concept of industrial ecosystems, whichis a higher level systems approach to framing the inter- led to the term industrial ecology. Their ideal industrialaction between industrial systems and natural systems. ecosystem would function as “an analogue” of its bio-This systems approach methodology can be traced to logical counterparts. This metaphor between industrialthe work of Jay Forrester at MIT in the early 1960s and and natural ecosystems is fundamental to industrial70s; he was one of the first to look at the world as a ecology. In an industrial ecosystem, the waste producedseries of interwoven systems (Principles of Systems, by one company would be used as resources by another.1968, and World Dynamics, 1971; Cambridge, Wright- No waste would leave the industrial system or nega-Allen Press). Donella and Dennis Meadows and others tively impact natural systems. Introduction • 3 November 1995
  • 4. In 1991, the National Academy of Science’s Colloqium There is substantial activity directed at the producton Industrial Ecology constituted a watershed in the level using such tools as life cycle assessment and lifedevelopment of industrial ecology as a field of study. cycle design and utilizing strategies such as pollutionSince the Colloqium, members of industry, academia prevention. Activities at other levels include tracingand government have sought to further characterize the flow of heavy metals through the ecosphere.and apply it. In early 1994, The National Academy ofEngineering published The Greening of Industrial Eco- A cross-section of definitions of industrial ecology issystems (Braden Allenby and Deanna Richards, eds.). provided in Appendix B. Further work needs to beThe book brings together many earlier initiatives and done in developing a unified definition. Issues toefforts to use systems analysis to solve environmental address include the following.problems. It identifies tools of industrial ecology, such • Is an industrial system a natural system?as design for the environment, life cycle design, and Some argue that everything is ultimately natural.environmental accounting. It also discusses the inter-actions between industrial ecology and other disciplines • Is industrial ecology focusing on integrating indus-such as law, economics, and public policy. trial systems into natural systems, or is it primarilyIndustrial ecology is being researched in the U.S. EPA’s attempting to emulate ecological systems? Or both?Futures Division and has been embraced by the AT&T • Current definitions rely heavily on technical, engi-Corporation. The National Pollution Prevention Center neered solutions to environmental problems. Somefor Higher Education (NPPC) promotes the systems authors believe that changing industrial systems willapproach in developing pollution prevention (P2) edu- also require changes in human behavior and socialcational materials. The NPPC’s research on industrial patterns. What balance between behavioral changesecology is a natural outgrowth of our work in P2. and technological changes is appropriate?Defining Industrial Ecology • Is systems analysis and material and energy accounting the core of industrial ecology?There is still no single definition of industrial ecologythat is generally accepted. However, most definitions Teaching Industrial Ecologycomprise similar attributes with different emphases.These attributes include the following: Industrial ecology can be taught as a separate course• a systems view of the interactions between or incorporated into existing courses in schools of engi- industrial and ecological systems neering, business, public health and natural resources. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of environmental• the study of material and energy flows and problems, the course can also be a multidisciplinary of- transformations fering; the sample syllabi offered in this compendium• a multidisciplinary approach illustrate this idea. Degrees in industrial ecology might be awarded by universities in the future.4• an orientation toward the future• a change from linear (open) processes to Chauncey Starr has written of the need for schools of cyclical (closed) processes, so the waste from engineering to lead the way in integrating an interdis- one industry is used as an input for another ciplinary approach to environmental problems in the future. This would entail educating engineers so that• an effort to reduce the industrial systems’ they could incorporate social, political, environmental environmental impacts on ecological systems and economic factors into their decisions about the uses• an emphasis on harmoniously integrating of technology. 5 Current research in environmental industrial activity into ecological systems education attempts to integrate pollution prevention, sustainable development, and other concepts and• the idea of making industrial systems emulate strategies into the curriculum. Examples include more efficient and sustainable natural systems environmental accounting, strategic environmental• the identification and comparison of industrial and management, and environmental law. natural systems hierarchies, which indicate areas of potential study and action (see Table 1).4 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 5. Industrial Ecology as a Field of Ecology The Institute of Social Ecology’s definition of social ecology states that:The term “Industrial Ecology” implies a relationship tothe field(s) of ecology. A basic understanding of ecology Social ecology integrates the study of humanis useful in understanding and promoting industrial and natural ecosystems through understanding the interrelationships of culture and nature. Itecology, which draws on many ecological concepts. advances a critical, holistic world view and sug- gests that creative human enterprise can constructEcology has been defined by the Ecological Society of an alternative future, reharmonizing people’s re-America (1993) as: lationship to the natural world by reharmonizing their relationship with each other.7 The scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between organisms and Ecology can be broadly defined as the study of the in- their past, present, and future environments. teractions between the abiotic and the biotic compo- These relationships include physiological re- sponses of individuals, structure and dynamics nents of a system. Industrial ecology is the study of the of populations, interactions among species, interactions between industrial and ecological systems; organization of biological communities, and consequently, it addresses the environmental effects on processing of energy and matter in ecosystems. both the abiotic and biotic components of the ecosphere. Additional work needs to be done to designate indus-Further, Eugene Odum has written that: trial ecology’s place in the field of ecology. This will ... the word ecology is derived from the occur concurrently with efforts to better define the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” combined discipline and its terminology. with the root logy, meaning “the study of.” Thus, ecology is, literally the study of house- There are many textbooks that introduce ecological holds including the plants, animals, microbes, concepts and principles. Examples include Robert and people that live together as interdependent beings on Spaceship Earth. As already, the Ricklefs’ Fundamentals of Ecology (3rd edition; New York: environmental house within which we place W. H. Freeman and Company, 1990), Eugene Odum’s our human-made structures and operate our Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems, and machines provides most of our vital biological Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities by necessities; hence we can think of ecology as Michael Begens, John Harper, and Colin Townsend the study of the earth’s life-support systems.6 (London: Blackwell Press, 1991).In industrial ecology, one focus (or object) of study isthe interrelationships among firms, as well as among Goals of Industrial Ecologytheir products and processes, at the local, regional,national, and global system levels (see Table 1). These The primary goal of industrial ecology is to promotelayers of overlapping connections resemble the food sustainable development at the global, regional, andweb that characterizes the interrelatedness of organisms local levels. 8 Sustainable development has beenin natural ecological systems. defined by the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development as “meeting the needsIndustrial ecology perhaps has the closest relationship of the present generation without sacrificing the needswith applied ecology and social ecology. According to of future generations.”9 Key principles inherent tothe Journal of Applied Ecology, applied ecology is: sustainable development include: the sustainable use . . . application of ecological ideas, theories of resources, preserving ecological and human health and methods to the use of biological resources (e.g. the maintenance of the structure and function in the widest sense. It is concerned with the of ecosystems), and the promotion of environmental ecological principles underlying the manage- equity (both intergenerational and intersocietal).10 ment, control, and development of biological resources for agriculture, forestry, aquaculture, nature conservation, wildlife and game manage- ment, leisure activities, and the ecological effects of biotechnology. Introduction • 5 November 1995
  • 6. Sustainable Use of Resources Key Concepts of Industrial EcologyIndustrial ecology should promote the sustainableuse of renewable resources and minimal use of non- Systems Analysisrenewable ones. Industrial activity is dependent on a Critical to industrial ecology is the systems view ofsteady supply of resources and thus should operate as the relationship between human activities and environ-efficiently as possible. Although in the past mankind mental problems. As stated earlier, industrial ecologyhas found alternatives to diminished raw materials, is a higher order systems approach to framing theit can not be assumed that substitutes will continue to interaction between industrial and ecological found as supplies of certain raw materials decrease There are various system levels that may be chosen asor are degraded. 11 Besides solar energy, the supply of the focus of study (see Table 1). For example, whenresources is finite. Thus, depletion of nonrenewables focusing at the product system level, it is important toand degradation of renewables must be minimized in examine relationships to higher-level corporate or insti-order for industrial activity to be sustainable in the tutional systems as well as at lower levels, such as thelong term. individual product life cycle stages. One could also look at how the product system affects various ecologicalEcological and Human Health systems ranging from entire ecosystems to individual organisms. A systems view enables manufacturers toHuman beings are only one component in a complex develop products in a sustainable fashion. Central toweb of ecological interactions: their activities cannot the systems approach is an inherent recognition of thebe separated from the functioning of the entire system. interrelationships between industrial and natural systems.Because human health is dependent on the health ofthe other components of the ecosystem, ecosystem In using systems analysis, one must be careful to avoidstructure and function should be a focus of industrial the pitfall that Kenneth Boulding has described:ecology. It is important that industrial activities do not seeking to establish a single, self-containedcause catastrophic disruptions to ecosystems or slowly ‘general theory of practically everything’ whichdegrade their structure and function, jeopardizing the will replace all the special theories of particularplanet’s life support system. disciplines. Such a theory would be almost without content, for we always pay for general-Environmental Equity ity by sacrificing content, and all we can say about practically everything is almost nothing. 13A primary challenge of sustainable development is The same is true for industrial ecology. If the scope ofachieving intergenerational as well as intersocietal a study is too broad the results become less meaningful;equity. Depleting natural resources and degrading when too narrow they may be less useful. Refer toecological health in order to meet short-term objectives Boulding’s World as a Complete System (London: Sage,can endanger the ability of future generations to meet 1985) for more about systems theory; see Meadows ettheir needs. Intersocietal inequities also exist, as evi- al.’s Limits to Growth (New York: Signet, 1972) anddenced by the large imbalance of resource use between Beyond the Limits (Post Mills, VT: Chelsea Green, 1992)developing and developed countries. Developed for good examples of how systems theory can be usedcountries currently use a disproportionate amount of to analyze environmental problems on a global scale.resources in comparison with developing countries.Inequities also exist between social and economicgroups within the U.S.A. Several studies have shown Material and Energy Flowsthat low income and ethnic communities in the U.S., and Transformationsfor instance, are often subject to much higher levels A primary concept of industrial ecology is the studyof human health risk associated with certain toxic of material and energy flows and their transformationpollutants. 12 into products, byproducts, and wastes throughout industrial systems. The consumption of resources is inventoried along with environmental releases to air, water, land, and biota. Figures 2, 3, and 4 are examples of such material flow diagrams.6 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 7. One strategy of industrial ecology is to lessen the uses found for the scrap to decrease this waste. Effortsamount of waste material and waste energy that is to utilize waste as a material input or energy source forproduced and that leaves the industrial system, sub- some other entity within the industrial system can poten-sequently impacting ecological systems adversely. For tially improve the overall efficiency of the industrialinstance, in Figure 3, which shows the flow of platinum system and reduce negative environmental impacts.through various products, 88% of the material in auto- The challenge of industrial ecology is to reduce themotive catalytic converters leaves this product system overall environmental burden of an industrial systemas scrap. Recycling efforts could be intensified or other that provides some service to society. RECYCLED 2600 BATTERIES 3700 TOTAL ANNUAL WASTE and CONSUMPTION DISCARDED BATTERIES 5800 1300 ± 200 REFINED LEAD Solder and Miscellaneous 400 3300 Cable Sheathing 300 Rolled and Extruded Products 500 Shot and Ammo 150 PIGMENTS 750 Lead in Gasoline ~ 100 Refining Waste ~ 50 Mining Waste ?FIGURE 2: WORLD EXTRACTION, USE, AND DISPOSAL OF LEAD, 1990 (THOUSAND TONS)R. Socolow, C. Andews, F. Berkhout, and V. Thomas, eds., Industrial Ecology and Global Change (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).Reprinted with permission from the publisher. Data from International Lead and Zinc Study Group, 1992. Introduction • 7 November 1995
  • 8. Ore, 20 Billion Tons 100% Metal 100% Metal 100% of Plant ¨ Fabrication ¨ Products ¨ Waste 60% Mining and Refining Platinum 40% Chemical Group Conversion for 85% Automotive Automotive Metals, ¨ Catalysis and ¨ ¨ Catalytic Catalyst Waste 143 tons Other Uses Manufacture Converters 11% 4% ¨ Chemical Petroleum 88% Catalysts and Catalysts Chemicals 12% 85% 97% RecycledFIGURE 3: FLOW OF PLATINUM THROUGH VARIOUS PRODUCT SYSTEMSSource: R. A. Frosch and N. E. Gallopoulos, “Strategies for Manufacturing” Scientific American 261 (September 1989), p. 150. ATMOSPHEREFrom Air Vulcanism LAND Ores 9,750 INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY Airborne OCEAN Pesticides 2,500 9,300 100 Other 1,200 Pesticides Copper Copper Fossil Fuel Herbicides Mining Smelting Combustion Fertilizers etc. Waterborne Leach Liquor Flue Dust 10,600 Fly Ash Pesticides 11,600 Wastes 100 9,700 Slag 3,700 2,000 Other 5,400 Detergents 120 Other 40 Coal and Weathering of Rock 2,000 43,000 Oil In Soil Extraction BIOSHPERE SEDIMENTS Land Vegetation Land Animals Marine Vegatation Marine AnimalsFIGURE 4: SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION OF ARSENIC PATHWAYS IN THE U.S. (METRIC TONS), 1975.Source: Ayres et al. (1988).8 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 9. TABLE 2: WORLDWIDE ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS OF TRACE METALS (THOUSAND TONNES/YEAR) Smelting, Commercial uses, Total Total Energy refining, Manufacturing incineration, anthropogenic contributions byElement production and mining processes and transit contributions natural activitiesAntimony 1.3 1.5 – 0.7 3.5 2.6Arsenic 2.2 12.4 2.0 2.3 19.0 12.0Cadmium 0.8 5.4 0.6 0.8 7.6 1.4Chromium 12.7 – 17.0 0.8 31.0 43.0Copper 8.0 23.6 2.0 1.6 35.0 28.0Lead 12.7 49.1 15.7 254.9 332.0 12.0Manganese 12.1 3.2 14.7 8.3 38.0 317.0Mercury 2.3 0.1 – 1.2 3.6 2.5Nickel 42.0 4.8 4.5 0.4 52.0 29.0Selenium 3.9 2.3 – 0.1 6.3 10.0Thallium 1.1 – 4.0 – 5.1 –Tin 3.3 1.1 – 0.8 5.1 –Vanadium 84.0 0.1 0.7 1.2 86.0 28.0Zinc 16.8 72.5 33.4 9.2 132.0 45.0Source: J.O. Nriagu, “Global Metal Pollution: Poisoning the Biosphere?” Nature 338 (1989): 47–49. Reproduced with permission of Haldref Publications.TABLE 3: GLOBAL FLOWS OF SELECTED MATERIALS* * Data sources include UN Statistical Yearbooks Material Flow Per-capita flow** (various years), Minerals Yearbooks (U.S. Depart- (Million metric tons/yr) ment of the Interior, 1985), and World Resources 1990–1991 (World Resources Institute, 1990). ** Per-capita figures are based on a population of Minerals 1.2 *** five billion people and include materials in addition Phosphate 120 to those highlighted in this table. Salt 190 *** Does not include the amount of overburden Mica 280 and mine waste involved in mineral production; Cement 890 neglects sand, gravel, and similar material but includes cement. Metals 0.3 Al 097.0 Source: Thomas E. Graedel and Braden Allenby, Cu 8.5 Industrial Ecology. Chapter III: Table III.2.1 (New York: Prentice Hall, 1993; pre-publication copy). Pb 3.4 Ni 0.8 Sn 0.2 Zn 7.0 Steel 780 Fossil Fuels 1.6 Coal 3,200 Lignite 1,200 Oil 2,800 Gas 920 Water 41,000,000 8,200.0 Introduction • 9 November 1995
  • 10. TABLE 4: RESOURCES USED IN AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURINGPlastics Used in Cars, Vans, and Small Trucks— Other Resources—as percentage of Millions of Pounds (1989) total U.S. consumption (1988) Material U.S. Auto All U.S. Percent of Total Material Percent of Total Nylon 141 595 23.7 Lead 67.3 Polyacetal 25 141 17.7 Alloy Steel 10.7 ABS 197 1,243 15.8 Stainless Steel 12.3 Polyurethane 509 3,245 15.7 Total Steel 12.2 Unsat PE 192 1,325 14.5 Aluminum 18.3 Polycarbonate 50 622 8.0 Copper and Copper Alloys 10.2 Acrylic 31 739 4.2 Malleable Iron 63.8 Polypropylene 298 7,246 4.1 Platinum 39.1 PVC 187 8,307 2.3 Natural Rubber 76.6 TP PE 46 2,101 2.2 Synthetic Rubber 50.1 Polyethylene 130 18,751 0.7 Zinc 23.0 Phenolic 19 3,162 0.6Source: Draft Report, Design and the Environment—The U.S. Automobile.The authors obtained this information from the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 1990 Annual Data Book.To identify areas to target for reduction, one must Multidisciplinary Approachunderstand the dissipation of materials and energy(in the form of pollutants) — how these flows intersect, Since industrial ecology is based on a holistic, systemsinteract, and affect natural systems. Distinguishing view, it needs input and participation from manybetween natural material and energy flows and anthro- different disciplines. Furthermore, the complexity ofpogenic flows can be useful in identifying the scope of most environmental problems requires expertise fromhuman-induced impacts and changes. As is apparent a variety of fields — law, economics, business, publicin Table 2, the anthropogenic sources of some materials health, natural resources, ecology, engineering — toin natural ecosystems are much greater than natural contribute to the development of industrial ecologysources. Tables 3 and 4 provide a good example of and the resolution of environmental problems causedhow various materials flow through one product by industry. Along with the design and implementa-system, that of the automobile. tion of appropriate technologies, changes in public policy and law, as well as in individual behavior, willIndustrial ecology seeks to transform industrial activities be necessary in order to rectify environmental impacts.into a more closed system by decreasing the dissipationor dispersal of materials from anthropogenic sources, Current definitions of industrial ecology rely heavilyin the form of pollutants or wastes, into natural systems. on engineered, technological solutions to environmentalIn the automobile example, it is useful to further trace problems. How industrial ecology should balance thewhat happens to these materials at the end of the need for technological change with changes in consumerproducts’ lives in order to mitigate possible adverse behavior is still subject to debate. Some see it as havingenvironmental impacts. a narrow focused on industrial activity; to others, it is a way to view the entire global economic system.Some educational courses may wish to concentrate ondeveloping skills to do mass balances and to trace the Analogies to Natural Systemsflows of certain energy or material forms in processesand products. Refer to Chapters 3 and 4 in Graedel There are several useful analogies between industrialand Allenby’s Industrial Ecology for exercises in this and natural ecosystems.14 The natural system hassubject area. evolved over many millions of years from a linear (open) system to a cyclical (closed) system in which there is a dynamic equilibrium between organisms, plants, and10 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 11. the various biological, physical, and chemical processes Linear (Open) Versusin nature. Virtually nothing leaves the system, because Cyclical (Closed) Loop Systemswastes are used as substrates for other organisms. Thisnatural system is characterized by high degrees of inte- The evolution of the industrial system from a lineargration and interconnectedness. There is a food web system, where resources are consumed and damagingby which all organisms feed and pass on waste or are wastes are dissipated into the environment, to a moreeaten as a food source by other members of the web. closed system, like that of ecological systems, is a cen-In nature, there is a complex system of feedback mech- tral concept to industrial ecology. Braden Allenby hasanisms that induce reactions should certain limits be described this change as the evolution from a Type I toreached. (See Odum or Ricklefs for a more complete a Type III system, as shown in Figure 5.description of ecological principles.) A Type I system is depicted as a linear process in whichIndustrial ecology draws the analogy between indus- materials and energy enter one part of the system andtrial and natural systems and suggests that a goal is to then leave either as products or by-products/wastes.stimulate the evolution of the industrial system so that Because wastes and by-products are not recycled orit shares the same characteristics as described above reused, this system relies on a large, constant supplyconcerning natural systems. A goal of industrial ecology of raw materials. Unless the supply of materials andwould be to reach this dynamicequilibrium and high degree ofinterconnectedness and integra-tion that exists in nature. Type I SystemBoth natural and industrialsystem have cycles of energyand nutrients or materials. Thecarbon, hydrogen, and nitrogencycles are integral to the func-tioning and equilibrium of theentire natural system; materialand energy flows through vari-ous products and processes areintegral to the functioning of theindustrial system. These flowscan affect the global environment. Type II SystemFor example, the accumulation ofgreenhouse gases could induceglobal climate change.There is a well-known eco-industrial park in Kalundborg,Denmark. It represents anattempt to model an industrialpark after an ecological system.The companies in the park arehighly integrated and utilize thewaste products from one firm asan energy or raw material source Type III Systemfor another. (This park is illus-trated in Figure 1 and described FIGURE 5: SYSTEM TYPESin Appendix A.) Source: Braden R. Allenby, “Industrial Ecology: The Materials Scientist in an Environmentally Constrained World,” MRS Bulletin 17, no. 3 (March 1992): 46–51. Reprinted with the permission of the Materials Research Society. Introduction • 11 November 1995
  • 12. energy is infinite, this system is unsustainable; further, Total quality environmental management (TQEM) is usedthe ability for natural systems to assimilate wastes to monitor, control, and improve a firm’s environmental(known as “sinks”) is also finite. In a Type II system, performance within individual firms. Based on well-which characterizes much of our present-day industrial established principles from Total Quality Management,system, some wastes are recycled or reused within the TQEM integrates environmental considerations intosystem while others still leave it. all aspects of a firm’s decision-making, processes, op- erations, and products. All employees are responsibleA Type III system represents the dynamic equilibrium for implementing TQEM principles. It is a holisticof ecological systems, where energy and wastes are approach, albeit at level of the individual firm.constantly recycled and reused by other organisms andprocesses within the system. This is a highly integrated, Many additional terms address strategies for sustain-closed system. In a totally closed industrial system, able development. Cleaner production, a term coined byonly solar energy would come from outside, while all UNEP in 1989, is widely used in Europe. Its meaningbyproducts would be constantly reused and recycled is similar to pollution prevention. In Clean Productionwithin. A Type III system represents a sustainable Strategies, Tim Jackson writes that clean production isstate and is an ideal goal of industrial ecology. . . . an operational approach to the development of the system of production and consumption,Strategies for Environmental Impact which incorporates a preventive approach to environmental protection. It is characterized byReduction: Industrial Ecology as three principles: precaution, prevention, and integration. 18a Potential Umbrella for SustainableDevelopment Strategies These strategies represent approaches that individual firms can take to reduce the environmental impactsVarious strategies are used by individuals, firms, and of their activities. Along with environmental impactgovernments to reduce the environmental impacts of reduction, motivations can include cost savings, regu-industry. Each activity takes place at a specific systems latory or consumer pressure, and health and safetylevel. Some feel that industrial ecology could serve as concerns. What industrial ecology potentially offers isan umbrella for such strategies, while others are wary an organizing umbrella that can relate these individualof placing well-established strategies under the rubris activities to the industrial system as a whole. Whereasof a new idea like industrial ecology. Strategies related strategies such as pollution prevention, TQEM, andto industrial ecology are briefly noted below. cleaner production concentrate on firms’ individualPollution prevention is defined by the U.S. EPA as actions to reduce individual environmental impacts,“the use of materials, processes, or practices that re- industrial ecology is concerned about the activities ofduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants at the all entities within the industrial system.source.” Pollution prevention refers to specific actions The goal of industrial ecology is to reduce the overall,by individual firms, rather than the collective activities collective environmental impacts caused by the totalityof the industrial system (or the collective reduction of of elements within the industrial system.environmental impacts) as a whole. 15 The documentin this compendium entitled “Pollution PreventionConcepts and Principles” provides a detailed examina- System Tools to Support Industrial Ecologytion of this topic with definitions and examples.Waste minimization is defined by the U.S. EPA as “the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)reduction, to the extent feasible, of hazardous waste Life cycle assessment (LCA), along with “ecobalances”that is generated or subsequently treated, sorted, or and resource environmental profile analysis, is adisposed of.” 16 Source reduction is any practice that method of evaluating the environmental consequencesreduces the amount of any hazardous substance, of a product or process “from cradle to grave.”19 20 21pollutant or contaminant entering any waste stream The Society for Environmental Toxicology & Chemistryor otherwise released into the environmental prior to (SETAC) defines LCA as “a process used to evaluaterecycling, treatment or disposal. 1712 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 13. the environmental burdens associated with a product, 3. improvement analysis — evaluation and implementa-process, or activity.”22 The U.S. EPA has stated that an tion of opportunities to reduce environmental burdenLCA “is a tool to evaluate the environmental conse- Some life cycle assessment practitioners have defined aquences of a product or activity holistically, across its fourth component, the scoping and goal definition orentire life.” 23 In the United States, SETAC, the U.S. EPA initiation step, which serves to tailor the analysis to itsand consulting firms are active in developing LCAs. intended use. 24 Other efforts have also focused on de- veloping streamlined tools that are not as rigorous asCOMPONENTS OF AN LCA LCA (e.g., Canadian Standards Association.)LCA methodology is still evolving. However, the threedistinct components defined by SETAC and the U.S. METHODOLOGYEPA (see Figure 6) are the most widely recognized: A Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the product life1. inventory analysis — identification and quantification cycle system as shown in Figure 7. Most research ef- of energy and resource use and environmental forts have been focused on the inventory stage. For an releases to air, water, and land inventory analysis, a process flow diagram is constructed and material and energy inputs and outputs for the2. impact analysis — technical qualitative and quantitative product system are identified and quantified as depicted characterization and assessment of the consequences in Figure 8. A template for constructing a detailed on the environment flow diagram for each subsystem is shown in Figure 9. Impact Assessment Goal - Ecological Health Definition Improvement - Human Health and Assessment - Resource Depletion Scoping Inventory Analysis - Materials and Energy Acquisition - Manufacturing - Use - Waste Management FIGURE 6: TECHNICAL FRAMEWORK FOR LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT Reprinted with permission from Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A “Code of Practice,” F. Consoli et al., eds. Proceedings from the SETAC Workshop held in Sesimbra, Portugal, 31 March–3 April 1993. Copyright 1993 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Florida, and Brussels, Belgium. Introduction • 13 November 1995
  • 14. Checklists such as those in Figure 10 may then be used illustrating how, even for a relatively simple product,in order to further define the study, set the system the inventory stage can quickly become complicated,boundaries, and gather the appropriate information especially as products increase in number of compo-concerning inputs and outputs. Figure 11 shows the nents and in complexity.many stages involved in the life cycle of a bar of soap, Remanufacturing Closed-loop Recycling Manufacture recycling & Assembly Engineered & Use & Speciality Service Materials Reuse Bulk Retirement Processing Open-loop recycling Material downcycling into another product system Raw Material Treatment Acquisition Disposal The Earth and Biosphere Fugitive and untreated residuals Airborne, waterborne, and solid residuals Material, energy, and labor inputs for Process and Management Transfer of materials between stages for Product; includes transportation and packaging (Distribution)Source: Gregory A. Keoleian and Dan Menerey, Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1993), 14. FIGURE 7: THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE SYSTEM14 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 15. Source: B. W. Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles” (Cincinnati:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, 1993), 17. FIGURE 8: PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMSource: Franklin Associates, cited in B. W. Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles”(Cincinnati: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, 1993), 41. FIGURE 9: FLOW DIAGRAM TEMPLATE Introduction • 15 November 1995
  • 16. LIFE-CYCLE INVENTORY CHECKLIST PART I—SCOPE AND PROCEDURES INVENTORY OF: __________________________________________________ Purpose of Inventory: (check all that apply) Private Sector Use Public Sector Use Internal Evaluation and Decision-Making Evaluation and Policy-Making Comparison of Materials, Products or Activities Support information for Policy and Regulatory Evalution Resource Use and Release Comparison With Other Information Gap Identification Manufacturer’s Data Help Evaluate Statements of Reductions in Resource Personnel Training for Product and Process Design Use and Releases Baseline Information for Full LCA Public Education External Evaluation and Decision-Making Develop Support Materials for Public Education Provide Information on Resource Use and Releases Assist in Curriculum Design Substantiate Statements of Reductions in Resource Use and Releases Systems Analyzed List the prodoct/process systems analyzed in this inventory: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Key Assumptions: (list and describe) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Define the Boundaries For each system analyzed, define the boundaries by life-cycle stage, geographic scope, primary processes, and ancillary inputs included in the system boundaries. Postconsumer Solid Waste Management Options: Mark and describe the options analyzed for each system. Landfill ___________________________________ Open-loop Recycling ______________________________________ Combustion _______________________________ Closed-loop Recycling _____________________________________ Composting _______________________________ Other __________________________________________________ Basis for Comparison This is not a comparative study. This is a comparative study. State basis for comparison between systems: (Example: 1,000 units, 1,000 uses) ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ If products or processes are not normally used on a one-to-one basis, state how equivalent function was established. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Computational Model Construction System calculations are made using computer spreadsheets that relate each system component to the total system. System calculations are made using another technique. Describe: __________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Describe how inputs to and outputs from postconsumer solid waste management are handled. _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Quality Assurance: (state specific activities and initials of reviewer) Review performed on: Data-Gathering Techniques ______________ Input Data ________________________________ Coproduct Allocation ____________________ Model Calculations and Formulas ______________ Results and Reporting _______________________ Peer Review: (state specific activities and initials of reviewer) Review performed on: Scope and Boundary ____________________ Input Data ________________________________ Data-Gathering Techniques ______________ Model Calculations and Formulas ______________ Coproduct Allocation ____________________ Results and Reporting _______________________ Results Presentation Report may need more detail for additional use beyond Methodology is fully described defined purpose. Individual pollutants are reported Sensitivity analyses are included in the report. Emissions are reported as aggregated totals only. List: ________________________________________ Explain why. ______________________________________ Sensitivity analyses have been performed but are not _________________________________________________ included in the report. List: ______________________ Report is sufficiently detailed for its defined purpose. ____________________________________________FIGURE 10: TYPICAL CRITERIA CHECKLIST WITH WORKSHEET FOR PERFORMING LIFE-CYCLE INVENTORY16 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 17. LIFE-CYCLE INVENTORY CHECKLIST PART II—MODULE WORKSHEET Inventory of: ____________________________________ Preparer: _______________________________ Life-Cycle Stage Description: ________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________ Quality Assurance Approval: _______________________________ MODULE DESCRIPTION: __________________________________________________________________ Data Value(a) Type(b) Data(c) Age/Scope Quality Measures(d) MODULE INPUTS Materials Process Other(e) Energy Process Precombustion Water Usage Process Fuel-Related MODULE OUTPUTS Product Coproducts(f) Air Emissions Process Fuel-Related Water Effluents Process Fuel-Related Solid Waste Process Fuel-Related Capital Repl. Transportation Personnel (a) Include units. (b) Indicate whether data are actual measurements, engineering estimates, or theoretical or published values and whether the numbers are from a specific manufacturer or facility, or whether they represent industry-average values. List a specific source if pertinent, e.g., “obtained from Atlanta facility wastewater permit monitoring data.” (c) Indicate whether emissions are all available, regulated only, or selected. Designate data as to geographic specificity, e.g., North America, and indicate the period covered, e.g., average of monthly for 1991. (d) List measures of data quality available for the data item, e.g., accuracy, precision, representativeness, consistency-checked, other, or none. (e) Include nontraditional inputs, e.g., land use, when appropriate and necessary. (f) If coproduct allocation method was applied, indicate basis in quality measures column, e.g. weightSource: Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles” (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1993), 24–25. Introduction • 17 November 1995
  • 18. FIGURE 11: DETAILED SYSTEM DIAGRAM FOR BAR SOAPSource: Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles” (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory), 42.18 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 19. FIGURE 12: IMPACT ASSESSMENT CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKSource: Keoleian et al., Life Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1995), 55.Once the environmental burdens haven been identified Efforts to develop methodologies for impact assessmentin the inventory analysis, the impacts must be character- are relatively new and remain incomplete. It is difficultized and assessed. The impact assessment stage seeks to determine an endpoint. There are a range of conver-to determine the severity of the impacts and rank them sion models, but many of them remain indicated by Figure 12. As the figure shows, the Furthermore, different conversion models for translatingimpact assessment involves three stages: classification, inventory items into impacts are required for eachcharacterization, and valuation. In the classification impact, and these models vary widely in complexity,stage, impacts are placed in one of four categories: uncertainty, and sophistication. This stage also suffersresource depletion, ecological health, human health, from a lack of sufficient data, model parameters andand social welfare. Assessment endpoints must then conversion determined. Next, conversion models are usedto quantify the environmental burden. Finally, the The final stage of a LCA, the improvement analysis,impacts are assigned a value and/or are ranked. should respond to the results of the inventory and/or impact assessment by designing strategies to reduce the Introduction • 19 November 1995
  • 20. identified environmental impacts. Proctor and Gamble native products, processes, materials, or activities andis one company that has used life cycle inventory studies to support marketing claims. LCA can also supportto guide environmental improvement for several prod- public policy and eco-labeling programs.ucts. 25 One of its case studies on hard surface cleanersrevealed that heating water for use with the product DIFFICULTIES WITH LCAresulted in a significant percentage of total energy useand air emissions related to cleaning.26 Based on this As shown in Table 5, many methodological problemsinformation, opportunities for reducing impacts were and difficulties inhibit use of LCAs, particularly foridentified, such as designing cold-water and no-rinse smaller companies. For example, the amount of dataformulas and educating consumers to use cold water. and the staff time required by LCAs can make them very expensive, and it isn’t always easy to obtain all ofAPPLICATIONS OF LCA the necessary data. Further, it is hard to properly define system boundaries and appropriately allocate inputsLife cycle assessments can be used both internally and outputs between product systems and stages. It is(within an organization) and externally (by the public often very difficult to assess the data collected becauseand private sectors).27 Internally, LCAs can be used to of the complexity of certain environmental impacts.establish a comprehensive baseline (i.e., requirements) Conversion models for transforming inventory resultsthat product design teams should meet, identify the into environmental impacts remain inadequate. Inmajor impacts of a product’s life cycle, and guide the many cases there is a lack of fundamental understand-improvement of new product systems toward a net ing and knowledge about the actual cause of certainreduction of resource requirements and emissions in environmental problems and the degree of threat thatthe industrial system as a whole. Externally, LCAs can they pose to ecological and human used to compare the environmental profiles of alter-TABLE 5: GENERAL DIFFICULTIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE LCA METHODOLOGYSource: Gregory A. Keoleian, “The Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Design,” Journal of Cleaner Production 1, no. 3–4 (1994): 143–149.Goal Definition and Scoping Costs to conduct an LCA may be prohibitive to small firms. Time required to conduct LCA may exceed product development constraints, especially for short development cycles. Temporal and spatial dimensions of a dynamic product system are difficult to address. Definition of functional units for comparison of design alternatives can be problematic. Allocation methods used in defining system boundaries have inherent weaknesses. Complex products (e.g., automobiles) require tremendous resources to analyze.Data Collection Data availability and access can be limiting (e.g., proprietary data). Data quality concerns such as bias, accuracy, precision, and completeness are often not well-addressed.Data Evaluation Sophisticated models and model parameters for evaluating resource depletion and human and ecosystem health may not be available, or their ability to represent the product system may be grossly inaccurate. Uncertainty analyses of the results are often not conducted.Information Transfer Design decisionmakers often lack knowledge about environmental effects. Aggregation and simplification techniques may distort results. Synthesis of environmental effect categories is limited because they are incommensurable.20 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 21. In the absence of an accepted methodology, results Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmentalof LCAs can differ. Order-of-magnitude differences consequences of each product system component:are not uncommon. Discrepancies can be attributed product, process, distribution and management.31to differences in assumptions and system boundaries. Figure 13 indicates the complex set of issues and deci-Regardless of the current limitations, LCAs offer a sions required in LCD. When sustainable developmentpromising tool to identify and then implement strate- is the goal, the design process can be affected by bothgies to reduce the environmental impacts of specific internal and external factors.products and processes as well as to compare the rela-tive merits of product and process options. However, Internal factors include corporate policies and the com-much work needs to be done to develop, utilize, evalu- panies’ mission, product performance measures, andate, and refine the LCA framework. product strategies as well as the resources available to the company during the design process. For instance, a company’s corporate environmental managementLife Cycle Design (LCD) and system, if it exists at all, greatly affects the designer’sDesign For the Environment (DfE) ability to utilize LCD principles.The design of products shapes the environmental per- External factors such as government policies and regu-formance of the goods and services that are produced lations, consumer demands and preferences, the stateto satisfy our individual and societal needs.28 Environ- of the economy, and competition also affect the designmental concerns need to be more effectively addressed process, as do current scientific understanding andin the design process to reduce the environmental im- public perception of risks associated with the product.pacts associated with a product over its life cycle. LifeCycle Design, Design for Environment, and other simi- THE NEEDS ANALYSISlar initiatives based on the product life cycle are beingdeveloped to systematically incorporate these environ- As shown in the figure, a typical design project beginsmental concerns into the design process. with a needs analysis. During this phase, the purpose and scope of the project is defined, and customer needsLife Cycle Design (LCD) is a systems-oriented approach and market demand are clearly identified.32 The systemfor designing more ecologically and economically sus- boundaries (the scope of the project) can cover the fulltainable product systems. Coupling the product devel- life cycle system, a partial system, or individual stagesopment cycle used in business with a product’s physical of the life cycle. Understandably, the more compre-life cycle, LCD integrates environmental requirements hensive the system of study, the greater the number ofinto each design stage so total impacts caused by the opportunities identified for reducing environmentalproduct system can be reduced. 29 impact. Finally, benchmarking of competitors can iden-Design for Environment (DfE) is another design strategy tify opportunities to improve environmental perfor-that can be used to design products with reduced envi- mance. This involves comparing a company’s productsronmental burden. DfE and LCD can be difficult to and activities with another company who is considereddistinguish. They have similar goals but evolved from to be a leader in the field or “best in class.”different sources. DfE evolved from the “Design for X”approach, where X can represent manufacturability, DESIGN REQUIREMENTStestability, reliability, or other “downstream” design Once the projects needs have been established, they areconsiderations. 30 Braden Allenby has developed a DfE used in formulating design criteria. This step is oftenframework to address the entire product life cycle. considered to be the most important phase in the designLike LCD, DfE uses a series of matrices in an attempt to process. Incorporating key environmental requirementsdevelop and then incorporate environmental require- into the design process as early as possible can preventments into the design process. DfE is based on the the need for costly, time-consuming adjustments later.product life cycle framework and focuses on integrating A primary objective of LCD is to incorporate environ-environmental issues into products and process design. mental requirements into the design criteria along with the more traditional considerations of performance, cost, cultural, and legal requirements. Introduction • 21 November 1995
  • 22. Life Cycle Goal Sustainable Development Internal Factors Life Cycle Design Management External Factors • Policy • Multi-stakeholders • Government policy • Performance Measures • Concurrent Design and regulations • Strategy • Team Coordination • Market demand • Resources • Infrastructure Needs Analysis Research & Development State of Environment • Significant needs • Scope & purpose • Baseline Requirements • Environmental • Performance • Cost • Cultural • Legal Evaluation Design • Analysis Tools Strategies environmental cost • Tradeoff Analysis Design Solution Implement • Production • Use & service • Retirement Continuous Assessment Continuous ImprovementFIGURE 13: LIFE CYCLE DESIGNSource: Keoleian and Menerey, Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, January 1993), 23.22 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 23. Design checklists comprised of a series of questions are being overly time-consuming or disruptive to the crea-sometimes used to assist designers in systematically tive process. Another more comprehensive approachaddressing environmental issues. Care must be taken is to use requirement matrices such as the one shownto prevent checklists, such as the one in Table 7, from in Figure 14.TABLE 7: ISSUES TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTSMaterials and Energy Residuals Ecological Health Human Health and SafetyAmount & Type Type Stressors Population at Risk• renewable • solid waste • physical • workers• nonrenewable • air emissions • biological • users • waterborne • chemical • communityCharacter• virgin Characterization Impact Categories Exposure Routes• reused/recycled • constituents • diversity • inhalation, contact, ingestion• reusable/ recyclable • amount • sustainability • duration & frequency • concentration • resilienceResource Base Accidents • toxicity • system structure• location • type • hazardous content • system function• local vs. other • frequency) • radioactivity• availability Scale Toxic Character• quality Environmental Fate • local • acute effects• management • containment • regional • chronic effects• restoration practices • bioaccumulation • global • morbidity/mortality • degradabilityImpacts From • mobility/transport Nuisance EffectsExtraction and Use • ecologial impacts • noise• material/energy use • human health • odors• residuals impacts • visibility• ecosystem health• human healthSource: Keoleian et al., LIfe Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, July 1995), 45. Legal Cultural Cost Performance Environmental Raw Bulk Engineered Assembly & Use & Treatment Material Processing Materials Manufacture Processing Service Retirement & Disposal Acquisition Product • Inputs • Outputs Process • Inputs • Outputs Distribution • Inputs • Outputs Management • Inputs • OutputsFIGURE 14: REQUIREMENTS MATRICESSource: Keoleian and Menerey, Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, January 1993), 44. Introduction • 23 November 1995
  • 24. Matrices can be used by product development teams to LCD looks at the cost to stakeholders such as manu-study interactions between life cycle requirements and facturers, suppliers, users and end-of-life managers.their associated environmental impacts. There are no Cultural requirements include aesthetic needs such asabsolute rules for organizing matrices. Development shape, form, color, texture, and image of the product asteams should choose a format that is appropriate for well as specific societal norms such as convenience ortheir project. The requirements matrices shown are ease of use. 33 These requirements are ranked andstrictly conceptual; in practice such matrices can be weighed given a chosen mode of classification.simplified to address requirements more broadly duringthe earliest stages of design, or each cell can be further DESIGN STRATEGIESsubdivided to focus on requirements in more depth. Once the criteria have been defined, the design teamGovernment policies, along with the criteria identified can then use design strategies to meet these require-in the needs analysis, also should be included. It is often ments. Multiple strategies often must be synthesizeduseful in the long term to set environmental require- in order to translate these requirements into solutions.ments that exceed current regulatory requirements to A wide range of strategies are available for satisfyingavoid costly design changes in the future. environmental requirements, including product system life extension, material life extension, material selection, andPerformance requirements relate to the functions needed efficient distribution. A summary of these strategies arefrom a product. Cost corresponds to the need to deliver shown in Table 8. Note that recycling is often over-the product to the marketplace at a competitive price. emphasized.TABLE 8: STRATEGIES FOR MEETING ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTSProduct Life Extension Process Management• extend useful life • use substitute processes• make appropriately durable • increase energy efficiency• ensure adaptability • process materials efficiently• facilitate serviceability by simplifying • control processes maintenance and allowing repair • improve process layout• enable remanufacture • improve inventory control and• accommodate reuse material handling processes • plan efficient facilitiesMaterial Life Extension • consider treatment and disposal too• specify recycled materials• use recyclable materials Efficient Distribution • choose efficient transportationMaterial Selection • reduce packaging• substitute materials • use low-impact or reusable packaging• reformulate products Improved Management PracticesReduced Material Intensity • use office materials and equipment efficiently• conserve resources • phase out high-impact products • choose environmentally responsible suppliers or contractors • label properly • advertise demonstrable environmental improvementsSource: Keoleian et al., LIfe Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, July 1995), 51.24 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 25. DESIGN EVALUATION addition to an environmental matrix and toxicology/ exposure matrix, manufacturing and social/politicalFinally, it is critical that the design is evaluated and matrices are used to address both technical and non-analyzed throughout the design process. Tools for technical aspects of design evaluation range from LCA to single-focusenvironmental metrics. In each case, design solutions Although LCD is not yet widely practiced, it has beenare evaluated with respect to a full spectrum of criteria, used by companies like AT&T and AlliedSignal andwhich includes cost and performance. is recognized as an important approach for reducing environmental burdens. To enhance the use of LCD,DfE methods developed by Allenby use a semi- appropriate government policies must be evaluatedquantitative matrix approach for evaluating life cycle and established. In addition, environmental accountingenvironmental impacts.34 35 A graphic scoring system methods must be further developed and utilized byweighs environmental effects according to available industry (these methods are often referred to as Lifequantitative information for each life cycle stage. In Cycle Costing or Full Cost Accounting — see Table 9.)TABLE 9: DEFINITIONS OF ACCOUNTING AND CAPITAL BUDGETING TERMS RELEVANT TO LCDAccountingFull Cost Accounting A method of managerial cost accounting that allocates both direct and indirect environmental costs to a product, product line, process, service, or activity. Not everyone uses this term the same way. Some only include costs that affect the firm’s bottom line; others include the full range of costs throughout the life cycle, some of which do not have any indirect or direct effect on a firm’s bottom line.Life Cycle Costing In the environmental field, this has come to mean all costs associated with a product system throughout its life cycle, from materials acquisition to disposal. Where possible, social costs are quantified; if this is not possible, they are ad- dressed qualitatively. Traditionally applied in military and engineering to mean estimating costs from acquisition of a system to disposal. This does not usually incorporate costs further upstream than purchase.Capital BudgetingTotal Cost Assessment Long-term, comprehensive financial analysis of the full range of internal (i.e., private) costs and savings of an investment. This tool evaluates potential invest- ments in terms of private costs, excluding social considerations. It does include contingent liability costs. Further, educational institutions must work to continue the development and the dissemination of the LCD methodology and related approaches. Key issues in environmental accounting that need to be addressed include: measurement and estimation of environmental costs, allocation proce- dures, and the inclusion of appropriate externalities.Source: Robert S. Kaplan, “Management Accounting for Advanced Technical Environments,” Science 245 (1989): 819–823; cited in Keoleian et al., LIfe Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, July 1995), 62. Introduction • 25 November 1995
  • 26. Future Needs for • Increased curriculum development efforts on sus- tainable development in professional schools of engi-the Development neering, business, public health, natural resources,of Industrial Ecology and law. The role of industrial ecology in these ef- forts should be further explored and defined. Deter-Industrial ecology is an emerging framework. Thus mining whether industrial ecology courses should bemuch research and development of the field and its discipline specific, interdisciplinary or integrated asconcepts need to be done. Future needs for the further modules into existing courses.development of industrial ecology include: • Further research on the impacts of industrial ecosys-• A clearer definition of the field and its concepts. The tem activities on natural ecosystems in order to iden- definition of industrial ecology, its scope and its tify what problems need to be resolved and how. goals need to be clarified and unified in order to be more useful. The application of systems analysis • Greater recognition of the importance of the systems must be further refined. approach to identifying and resolving environmental problems.• A clearer definition of sustainable development, what constitutes sustainable development, and how • Further development of tools such as life cycle as- it might be achieved, will help define the goals and sessment and life cycle design and design for the en- objectives of industrial ecology. Difficult goals to ad- vironment. dress, along with the maintenance of ecological sys- tem health, are intergenerational and intersocietal • The improvement of governmental policies that will equity. strengthen incentives for industry to reduce environ- mental burdens.• More participation from a cross section of fields such as ecology, public health, business, natural resources and engineering should be encouraged in order to Further Information meet some of the vast research and information re- Further resources, references and sources of informa- quirements needed to identify and implement strate- tion are provided in other sections of this compen- gies to reduce environmental burdens. dium. Please forward any comments or concerns di- rectly to the National Pollution Prevention Center. Your input is encouraged and appreciated.26 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 27. Endnotes 191 Robert A. Frosch, “Industrial Ecology: A Philosophical Introduction,” Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Foundation forProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89 (February Environmental Education, “A Technical Framework for Life-Cycle1992): 800–803. Assessment — SETAC Workshop, Smuggler’s Notch, VT, 18 August 1990”2 Robert U. Ayres, “Industrial Metabolism” in Technology and Environment (Pensacola, Florida: SETAC, 1991). 20(Washington: National Academy Press, 1989), 23–49. B. W. Vigon, D. A. Tolle, B. W. Cornary, H. C. Latham, C. L. Harrison,3 Ibid. T. L. Bouguski, R. G. Hunt, and J. D. Sellers, “Life Cycle Assessment:4 Inventory Guidelines and Principles,” EPA/600/R-92/245 (Cincinnati: U.S. Daniel R. Lynch and Charles E. Hutchinson, “Environmental Education,” Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89 (February February 1993).1992): 864-867. 215 R. Hiejungs, J. B. Guinee, G. Huppes, R. M. Lankreijer, H. S. Udo de Chauncey Starr, “Education For Industrial Ecology,” Proceedings of Haes, A. Wegener Sleeswijk, A. M. M. Ansems, P. G. Eggels, R. van Duin,the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89 (February 1992). and de Goede, “Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Products—Back-6 Eugene P. Odum, Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems, grounds” (Leiden, Netherlands: Center of Environmental Science, 1992).2nd ed. (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1993). 22 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Guidelines for Life-7 Michael Begens, John Harper, and Colin Townsend, Ecology: Individuals, Cycle Assessment: A “Code of Practice” (Pensacola, Florida: SETAC, 1993).Populations and Communities (London: Blackwell Press, 1991). 23 Vigon et al., p. 5.8 Gregory A. Keoleian and Dan Menerey, “Sustainable Development by 24 Ibid.Design: Review of Life Cycle Design and Related Approaches,” Air and 25Waste (Journal Of the Air and Waste Management Association) 44 (May Mary Ann Curran, “Broad-Based Environmental Life Cycle Assessment,”1994): 646. Environmental Science and Technology 27, no. 3 (1993): 430-436. 269 United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, Franklin and Associates, “Resource and Environmental Profile AnalysisOur Common Future (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). of Hard Surface Cleaners and Mix-Your-Own Cleaning Systems” (Prairie10 Village, KS: Franklin and Associates, 1993). Keoleian and Menerey, “Sustainable Development,” 649. 2711 Vigon et al. Ibid., 650. 2812 Keoleian and Menerey, “Sustainable Development,” 645. Ibid., 650. 2913 Gregory A. Keoleian and Dan Menerey, Life Cycle Design Guidance Kenneth Boulding, “General Systems Theory—The Skeleton of Science,” Manual, EPA/600/R-92/226 (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk ReductionManagement Science 2, no. 3 (April 1956): 197–198. Engineering Laboratory, January 1993).14 Frosch, 800–803. 30 Braden Allenby, “Design For the Environment: A Tool Whose Time Has15 Harry Freeman, Teresa Harten, Johnny Springer, Paul Randall, Mary Ann Come,” SSA Journal (September 1991): 6.Curran, and Kenneth Stone, “Industrial Pollution Prevention: A Critical 31 Keoleian and Menerey, “Sustainable Development,” 665.Review,” Air and Waste (Journal of the Air and Waste Management 32Association) 42, no. 5 (May 1992): 619. Ibid., 651. 3316 Ibid., 620. Ibid., 654. 3417 Ibid., 620. Braden R. Allenby and Ann Fullerton, “Design for Environment—A New18 Strategy for Environmental Management,” Pollution Prevention Review Tim Jackson, ed., Clean Production Strategies: Developing Preventive (Winter 1991): 51-61.Environmental Management in the Industrial Economy (New York: Lewis 35Publishers, 1993). Allenby, “Design For the Environment: A Tool Whose Time Has Come,” 6-9. Introduction • 27 November 1995
  • 28. Appendix A: “The Industrial Symbiosis Participants in the Kalundborg symbiosis are:at Kalundborg, Denmark” • Asnæsværket, Denmark’s largest power plant. The plant is coal-fired with a capacity of 1,500 MW. Presented at the National Academy of Engineering It employs about 600 people. International Conference on Industrial Ecology • The Statoil oil refinery, Denmark’s largest refinery Irvine, California, May 9–13, 1994 with a capacity of about three million tons/year. By Henning Grann, Statoil The refinery is currently being expanded to a Reprinted with permission of the author capacity of five million tons/year with a manning level of about 250 people. • Gyproc A/S, a plaster board manufacturing plantBackground producing about 14 million m2/year of plasterThe concept of sustainable development is being board for the building industry. The employmentwidely referred to by politicians, authorities, industri- is about 175 people.alists, and the press. Although there is agreement in • Novo Nordisk, a biotechnological industry produc-principle about the meaning of this concept, there are ing about 45% of the world market of insulin andmany and differing opinions as to what it means in about 50% of the world market of enzymes. Inpractice and how the concept should be translated addition, there is substantial production of growthinto specific action. hormones and other pharmaceutical products.The subject for my presentation is “Industrial Sym- Novo Nordisk is operating in several countries,biosis,” and I think that this could well be viewed as but the Kalundborg plant with its 1,100 people isa practical example of application of the sustainable the largest production site.development concept. The industrial symbiosis • The Kalundborg municipality, who through itsproject at Kalundborg (100 km west of Copenhagen) technical administration is the operator of allin Denmark has attracted a good deal of international distribution of water, electricity, and district heatingattention, notably by the EC Commission, and the in the Kalundborg city area.project has been awarded a number of environmentalprizes. Development of the symbiosisThe symbiosis project is originally not the result of a • In 1959 Asnæsværket, who is the central partnercareful environmental planning process. It is rather in the symbiosis, was started up.the result of a gradual development of co-operationbetween four neighbouring industries and the • In 1961 Tidewater Oil Company commissionedKalundborg municipality. From a stage where things the first oil refinery in Denmark. The refinery washappened by chance, this co-operation has now taken over by Esso two years later and acquireddeveloped into a high level of environmental con- by Statoil in 1987 along with Esso’s Danish market-sciousness, where the participants are constantly ing facilities. To ensure adequate water supply, aexploring new avenues of environmental co-operation. pipeline from the Lake Tissø was constructed.What is industrial symbiosis? In short, it is a process • In 1972 Gyproc established a plaster boardwhereby a waste product in one industry is turned manufacturing plant. A pipeline for supply ofinto a resource for use in one or more other industries. excess refinery gas was constructed.A more profound definition could be: • In 1973 the Asnæs power plan was expanded. “A co-operation between different industries by The additional water requirements were supplied which the presence of each of them increases the through a connection to the Tissø pipeline follow- viability of the others and by which the demands ing an agreement with the refinery. from society for resource conservation and envi- • In 1976 Novo Nordisk started delivery by ronmental protection are taken into consideration.” special tank trucks of biological sludge to the neighbouring farming community.28 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 29. • In 1979 the power plant started supply of fly ash Typical characteristics of an effective symbiosis (until then a troublesome waste product) to • The participating industries must fit together, cement manufacturers (e.g., Aalborg Portland). but be different.• In 1981 the Kalundborg municipality completed a • The individual industry agreements are based district heating distribution network within the city on commercially sound principles. of Kalundborg utilising waste heat from the power plant. • Environmental improvements, resource conser- vation, and economic incentives go hand in hand.• In 1982 Novo Nordisk and the Statoil refinery completed the construction of steam supply • The development of the symbiosis has been on a pipelines from the power plant. The subsequent voluntary basis, but in close co-operation with the purchase of process steam from the power plant authorities. enabled the shut-down of their own inefficient • Short physical distances between participating steam boiler capacity. plants are a definite advantage.• In 1987 the Statoil refinery completed a pipeline • Short “mental” distances are equally important. for supply of cooling water effluent to the power plant for use as raw boiler feed water. • Mutual management understanding and co-operative commitment is essential.• In 1989 the power plant started to use the waste heat in salt cooling water (+7–8°C) for • Effective operative communication between fish production (trouts and turbot). participants is required.• In 1989 Novo Nordisk entered into an agreement • Significant side benefits are achieved in other with the Kalundborg municipality, the power plant, areas such as safety and training. and the refinery for supply of Tissø water to meet Novo’s rising demand for cooling water following Achieved results of the symbiosis several expansions. The most significant achievements of the industrial• In 1990 the Statoil refinery completed the con- symbiosis co-operation at Kalundborg may be struction of a sulphur recovery plant for production summarised as: of elemental sulphur being sold as a raw material for sulphuric acid manufacture. • Significant reductions of the consumption of energy and utilities in terms of coal, oil, and water.• In 1991 the Statoil refinery commissioned a pipeline for supply of biologically treated refinery • Environmental improvements through reduced effluent water to the power plant for use in various SO2 and CO2 emissions and through reduced cleaning purposes and for fly ash stabilisation. volumes of effluent water of an improved quality.• In 1992 the Statoil refinery commissioned a • Conversion of traditional waste products such as pipeline for supply of refinery flare gas to the fly ash, sulphur, biological sludge, and gypsum power plant as a supplementary fuel. into raw materials for production.• In 1993 the power plant completed a stack flue gas • Gradual development of a systematic environ- desulphurisation project. This process converts mental “way of thinking” which is applicable to flue gas SO2 to calcium sulphate (or gypsum) many other industries and which may prove which is sold to the Gyproc plaster board plant, particularly beneficial in the planning of future where it replaces imports of natural gypsum as industrial complexes. raw material. The new raw material from the • Creation of a deservedly positive image of power plant results in increased plaster board Kalundborg as a clean industrial city. quality characteristics.• The construction of green houses are being considered by the power plant and by the refinery for utilisation of residual waste heat. Introduction • 29 November 1995
  • 30. Future developments which in reality is impossible to achieve, it may be a good and challenging planning assumption.Traditionally, increase of industrial activity hasautomatically meant in increased load on the At Kalundborg all future projects and/or processenvironment in an almost straight line relationship. modifications will be considered for inclusion in theThrough the application of the industrial symbiosis industrial symbiosis network. A number of interestingconcept this no longer needs to be the case. By ideas have been identified for further study. In thecarefully selecting the processes and the combination meantime, the concept of industrial symbiosis isof industries, future industrial complexes need in recommended as a practical approach to minimisetheory not cause any pollution of the environment the environmental impact from existing and newat all. Although this obviously is an ideal situation industrial complexes.Additional dataASNÆSVÆRKET, ANNUAL PRODUCTION GYPROC, ANNUAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION Electricity 4,300,000,000 tons Gypsum, from Asnæsværket 80,000 tons Process steam 355,000 tons " , other industrial 33,000 tons District heating 700,000 GJ " , recycled 8,000 tons Fly ash 170,000 tons Cardboard 7,000 tons Fish 200 tons Oil 3,300 tons Gypsum 80,000 tons Gas 4,100 tons Water 75,000 m3ASNÆSVÆRKET, ANNUAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION Electricity 14,000,000 kWh Water 400,000 m3 (treated) 100,000 m3 (raw) NOVO NORDISK, ANNUAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION 700,000 m3 (reused coolingwater from Statoil) Water 1,400,000 m3 (treated) 500,000 m3 (reused wastewater from Statoil) 300,000 m3 (raw) Coal 1,600,000 tons Steam 215,000 tons Oil 25,000 tons Electricity 140,000,000 kWh Gas 5,000 tons (flare gas from Statoil) NOVO NORDISK, ANNUAL EMISSIONSASNÆSVÆRKET, ANNUAL EMISSIONS Waste water 900,000 m3 CO2 4,300,000 tons COD 4,700 tons SO2 17,000 tons Nitrogen 310 tons NOX 14,000 tons Phosphorus 40 tonsSTATOIL REFINERY, ANNUAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION Water 1,300,000 m3 (raw) ACHIEVED ANNUAL RESULTS 50,000 m3 (treated) Reduction of resource consumption Steam 140,000 tons (from Asnæsværket) Oil 19,000 tons 180,000 tons (own waste heat) Coal 30,000 tons Gas 80,000 tons Water 1,200,000 m3 Oil 8,000 tons Electricity 75,000,000 kWh Reduction in emissions CO2 130,000 tonsSTATOIL REFINERY, ANNUAL EMISSIONS SO2 25,000 tons SO2 1,000 tons NOX 200 tons Re-use of waste products Waste water 500,000 m3 Fly ash 135,000 tons Oil 1.80 tons Sulphur 2,800 tons Phenol 0.02 tons Gypsum 80,000 tons Oily waste 300 tons* Nitrogen from biosludge 800 tons *Being biologically degraded in own sludge farming facilities Phosphorus from biosludge 400 tons30 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  • 31. Appendix B: “Selected Definitions of Industrial ecology can be best defined as the totality or the pattern of relationships between various indus-Industrial Ecology” trial activities, their products, and the environment. Traditional ecological activities have focused on twoThe idea of an industrial ecology is based upon a time aspects of interactions between the industrialstraightforward analogy with natural ecological systems. activities and the environment — the past and theIn nature an ecological system operates through a web present. Industrial ecology, a systems view of theof connections in which organisms live and consume environment, pertains to the future.each other and each other’s waste. The system has — C. Kumar N. Patel, “Industrial Ecology,”evolved so that the characteristic of communities of Proceedings of the National Academy ofliving organisms seems to be that nothing that contains Sciences, USA 89 (February 1992).available energy or useful material will be lost. Therewill evolve some organism that will manage to make its Industrial Ecology is the study of how we humansliving by dealing with any waste product that provides can continue rearranging Earth, but in such a wayavailable energy or usable material. Ecologists talk of as to protect our own health, the health of naturala food web: an interconnection of uses of both organ- ecosystems, and the health of future generations ofisms and their wastes. In the industrial context we plants and animals and humans. It encompassesmay think of this as being use of products and waste manufacturing, agriculture, energy production, andproducts. The system structure of a natural ecology transportation — nearly all of those things we do toand the structure of an industrial system, or an eco- provide food and make life easier and more pleasantnomic system, are extremely similar. than it would be without them. — Robert A. Frosch, “Industrial Ecology: A — Bette Hileman, “Industrial Ecology Route to Slow Philosophical Introduction,” Proceedings of the Global Change Proposed,” Chemical and Engineer- National Academy of Sciences, USA 89 (February ing News (Aug. 24 ,1992): 7. 1992): 800–803. Industrial ecology involves designing industrialSomewhat teleologically, “industrial ecology” may be infrastructures as if they were a series of interlockingdefined as the means by which a state of sustainable manmade ecosystems interfacing with the naturaldevelopment is approached and maintained. It consists global ecosystem. Industrial ecology takes the patternof a systems view of human economic activity and its of the natural environment as a model for solvinginterrelationship with fundamental biological, chemical, environmental problems, creating a new paradigmand physical systems with the goal of establishing and for the industrial system in the process. . . . The aimmaintaining the human species at levels that can be of industrial ecology is to interpret and adapt ansustained indefinitely, given continued economic, understanding of the natural system and apply it tocultural, and technological evolution. the design of the manmade system, in order to — Braden Allenby, “Achieving Sustainable Develop- achieve a pattern of industrialization that is not only ment Through Industrial Ecology,” International more efficient, but that is intrinsically adjusted to the Environmental Affairs 4, no.1 (1992). tolerance and characteristics of the natural system. The emphasis is on forms of technology that workIndustrial Ecology is a new approach to the industrial with natural systems, not against of products and processes and the implementa- — Hardin B. C. Tibbs, “Industrial Ecology: Antion of sustainable manufacturing strategies. It is a Environmental Agenda for Industry,” Whole Earthconcept in which an industrial system is viewed not in Review 77 (December 1992).isolation from its surrounding systems but in concertwith them. Industrial ecology seeks to optimize the The heart of industrial ecology is a simple recognitiontotal materials cycle from virgin material to finished that manufacturing and service systems are in factmaterial to component, to product, to waste products, natural systems, intimately connected to their local andand to ultimate disposal. . . . Characteristics are: regional ecosystems and the global biosphere. . . the(1) proactive not reactive, (2) designed in not added on, ultimate goal . . . is bringing the industrial system as(3) flexible not rigid, and (4) encompassing not insular. close as possible to being a closed-loop system, with — L.W. Jelinski, T. E. Graedel, R. A. Laudise, D. W. near complete recycling of all materials. McCall, and C. Kumar N. Patel, “Industrial Ecology: — Ernest Lowe. “Industrial Ecology — An Orga- Concepts and Approaches,” Proceedings of National nizing Framework for Environmental Management.” Academy of Sciences, USA 89 (February 1992). TQEM (Autumn 1993). Introduction • 31 November 1995
  • 32. Industrial ecology is the means by which humanity can Industrial ecology provides for the first time a large-deliberately and rationally approach and maintain a scale, integrated management tool that designsdesirable carrying capacity, given continued economic, industrial infrastructures “as if they were a series ofcultural, and technological evolution. The concept interlocking, artificial ecosystems interfacing with therequires that an industrial system be viewed not in natural global ecosystem.” For the first time, industryisolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert is going beyond life-cycle analysis methodology andwith them. It is a systems view in which one seeks to applying the concept of an ecosystem to the whole ofoptimize the total materials cycle from virgin material, an industrial operation, linking the “metabolism” of oneto finished material, to component, to product, to waste company with that of another.product, and to ultimate disposal. Factors to be opti- — Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commercemized include resources, energy, and capital. (New York: HarperBusiness, 1993). — Braden Allenby and Thomas E. Graedel, Industrial Ecology (New York: Prentice Hall, 1993; pre-publication edition).National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education In addition to developing educational materials and conducting430 East University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115 research, the NPPC also offers an internship program, profes-734-764-1412 • fax: 734-647-5841 • sional education and training, and conferences.The mission of the NPPC is to promote sustainable development The NPPC provides educational materials through the Worldby educating students, faculty, and professionals about pollution Wide Web at this URL:; create educational materials; provide tools and Please contact us if you have comments about our onlinestrategies for addressing relevant environmental problems; and resources or suggestions for publicizing our educationalestablish a national network of pollution prevention educators. materials through the Internet.32 • IntroductionNovember 1995