1      INTRODUCTION: DECIPHERING ECOLOGICAL INSPIRATION       AND ASPIRATIONS OF A ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK1.1   AbstractThe co...
1.2    Contemporary Adaptation of Symbiosis within a Eco-Industrial ParkThe eco-industrial park (EIP) is inspired by mater...
respectively through the dissertation2. Nonetheless most eco-industrial parks wereplanned to be multi-focused and to addre...
1.3     Interpreting Symbiotic Construct of a Eco-Industrial ParkThe underlying hypothesis in development of eco-industria...
Figure 1.2 Primary and secondary aspects influencing symbiosis within the EIP                                Secondary asp...
The techno-centric approach contributes towards the symbiotic construct of the eco-industrial park at a specific scale of ...
Table 1.1 Summary of symbiosis within the purview of EIPState of functioning Level of         Impact of symbiosis Measure ...
1.4   LimitationsThe discourse on symbiosis and synergistic possibilities for an eco-industrial park hasexpanded to includ...
by expanding from a co-located system to a non-co-located one. In any case, inclusionof the waste upgrading industry, whic...
Although this approach contributes to the symbiosis of the eco-industrial park and thelocal ecosystem, it fails to prescri...
resources can provide natural spatial mediums to facilitate symbiotic exchangesacross diverse ecosystems, if judiciously c...
1.5.1 Research questionsCentral questions of the dissertation are: firstly, what is the extant of currentunderstanding wit...
1.5.2 Scope of the dissertationSince the research spans multiple disciplines and domains, it is important to clarifythe sc...
can be recycled, thus bringing significant results to the literature. Yet, raising open-ended questions would delimit the ...
on the basis of ecological theory. Landscape design strategies and related theorieswere investigated as tools to resolve t...
1.7   Dissertation Overview   The overview of the dissertation is presented through figure 1.3 and enunciated   through su...
Symbiotic exchanges among natural ecosystems have inspired the development ofeco-industrial park and yet there is a dearth...
Chapter Five proposes and develops the landscape design strategy of the green switch.The key of this design strategy is th...
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Deciphering ecological inspiartionand aspiration of ec oindustrial park

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    Sharma, Archana., 2007, Articulating the symbiotic construct of eco-industrial park: Strengthening through a modified landscape design strategy, PhD Dissertation, Scholar Bank @ NUS, National University of SIngapore, Singapore,
    http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/13381, last accessed....date....
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  • Dear YoeHerera: You are in blatant copyright violation if you upload my work without attributing it to me. Anybody can access my PhD dissertation by googling Archana Sharma + Articulating Symbiotic Construct of EIP or via Worldcat disserttion or scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/ . The content is freely available in service of researchers building a body of knowledge and not for blatant plagiarism. Please cite it correctly or you must remove it from this website.

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Deciphering ecological inspiartionand aspiration of ec oindustrial park

  1. 1. 1 INTRODUCTION: DECIPHERING ECOLOGICAL INSPIRATION AND ASPIRATIONS OF A ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK1.1 AbstractThe concept of symbiosis has guided the development of eco-industrial parks. Thesymbiotic quality of ‘living together’ is not only concerned with material exchangesbetween two components only but also concerned with the complex interactions withthe larger exchange network and the ensuing multidimensional implications. Thecurrent and planned eco-industrial park developments overtly emphasize on the matterand energy exchanges within a defined geographical boundary of the development,rendering only marginal attention to possible exchanges with the surrounding contextwhich is mostly a composite of residential and biophysical domains. Themarginalization of the larger ecosystem that harbors the eco-industrial park suggests ahighly constrained interpretation and adaptation of the complex concept of symbiosiswithin the realms of eco-industrial park. This research addresses the gap in studies onindustrial symbiosis with particular attention to the spatial interactions of the eco-industrial park with the surrounding context.The dissertation revisits the concept of symbiosis by returning to its basic ecologicalprinciples and clearly articulates the symbiotic construct of an eco-industrial park. Indoing so, the dissertation identifies the aspects of current symbiotic construct of theeco-industrial park that need further reinforcement. In exploring the role of landscapedesign interventions for strengthening the symbiotic construct of eco-industrial parksand proposes the landscape design strategy of green-switch to do so. 1
  2. 2. 1.2 Contemporary Adaptation of Symbiosis within a Eco-Industrial ParkThe eco-industrial park (EIP) is inspired by material recycling, in which wastegenerated by one industry becomes a resource for another. Discussions related tointer-industrial exchanges started with renewed vigor around 20 years ago whenFrosch and Galloupolos put forth the possibility of approaching industrial systems insimilar vein as food webs in natural ecosystems, whereby the waste generated by oneorganism is consumed as a resource by another (1989). Jacobsen interprets thisassociation of dissimilar organisms to their mutual advantage as industrial symbiosis(2002). The mutually beneficial exchanges of products and by-products within aneco-industrial park are the defining feature of industrial symbiosis. Industrialsymbiosis takes place through collaborative and synergistic physical exchanges ofmaterials, energy, water and by-products, among traditional industries that are in closegeographical proximity (Chertow, 2000). The collaborative and synergisticopportunities extend beyond the use of material resources, by-products and waste, andshared infrastructure, to decisions related to logistics, administrative, economic andhuman resources (Curry, 2004).Although resource efficiency and waste minimization are the common objective ofeco-industrial parks, other objectives add diversity to eco-industrial parks and wouldbe used as a basis of categorization for the purpose of this study. Majority of eco-industrial parks were planned to improve technological processes, some with a focuson serviceability to the human community and some others to have some kind ofinter-relationship with the biophysical ecosystem1; these developments would bereferred as techno-centric, anthropocentric and eco-centric eco-industrial parks1 Since most natural ecosystem is modified and the definition of ecosystem still evolving, the term“biophysical ecosystem” is used to mean “natural ecosystem” in conventional sense. 2
  3. 3. respectively through the dissertation2. Nonetheless most eco-industrial parks wereplanned to be multi-focused and to address at least two of the above concerns. Thestudy of twenty four eco-industrial parks planned by the United States PresidentialCouncil on sustainable development (1996) reveals that: • All the eco-industrial parks aimed to improve technological processes by shifting to cleaner production • 33 % complied with community-service objectives. • 21 % engaged with the biophysical environment.Out of 53 publications on eco-industrial parks that were reviewed for this dissertation,39 out of 53 were widely debated and are summarized in appendix 1.1. As outlined inappendix 1.1, 17 out of 39 publications highlighted the improvement of symbiosisbetween eco-industrial parks and the human community, 28 recommendedstrengthening the symbiotic connection between eco-industrial parks and thebiophysical ecosystem, and 8 did not take a strong position on issues concerningsymbiosis. Figure 1.1 below indicates the range of broad research viewpointsdelineated from all fifty three publication studies.Figure 1.1 Broad research viewpoints: Based on symbiosis 15% EIP/Human Community 32% Symbiosis weak EIP/ Biophysical Community Symbiosis weak Neutral to Symbiosis 53%Summary of literature review: Symbiosis with human and biophysical community2 Corresponding research is referred to as techno-centric, anthropocentric or eco-centric approach. 3
  4. 4. 1.3 Interpreting Symbiotic Construct of a Eco-Industrial ParkThe underlying hypothesis in development of eco-industrial park is that thetransformation of the structure and function of a mechanical system into a system akinto a natural system would translate the mechanical system- an eco-industrial park intoa more sustainable system. Graedel (1994, 23-41) and Ayers (1989) warn that theanalogy of industrial ecology to natural ecosystems should not be taken literally andthe possible evolution of industrial ecosystem should be explored. They observe that anatural, biotic system is self-regulatory and self-sustainable, existing as part of thesurrounding ecosystem and hence adapting and responding to changes occurringtherein. In contrast to a natural ecosystem, a mechanical system is not self-sustainable and is regulated externally by humans. Nor is the mechanical systemobliged to adapt or respond to changes in the surrounding ecosystem. The model ofsymbiosis within a natural ecosystem is extremely different and more complex than asadapted in an eco-industrial park. Therefore the translation of symbiosis as occurringin the natural ecosystem into the mechanical system of eco-industrial park needs to becarefully adapted as per the true physical and functional nature of the eco-industrialpark.The current adaptation of symbiotic exchanges within the eco-industrial parks occursat the technical level with a focus on process level improvements. Figure 1.2 depictsthe cause-effect relationship of the eco-industrial park and outlines the primary andsecondary influences upon symbiotic exchanges within and across the eco-industrialparks. 4
  5. 5. Figure 1.2 Primary and secondary aspects influencing symbiosis within the EIP Secondary aspects: End-of-life properties of the material Impacts on human community None or least disturbance to the ecosystem Primary aspects: Reusability of waste Inclusion of community concerns since Symbiosis within EIP: Impact planning stage Intra- and Inter-EIP exchanges Component organism and the EIP- human community interactions ecosystem EIP- natural ecosystem interactionsSymbiotic exchange is the common building block of both the natural and industrialecosystem and thus provides the operational context for this research. The key aspectsthat describe the symbiosis as occurring within a system are aggregated to define the“symbiotic-construct” of the system. Key aspects of symbiosis such as the substanceof exchange, components involved and the objective of exchange differentiate thesymbiotic-construct of an eco-industrial park. For example, the types of componentsinvolved in symbiotic exchange in an eco-industrial park focusing on technologicalissues are different from those of the anthropocentric or eco-centric eco-industrialparks. The exchange occurs between ‘one industry and another or one industry and agroup of industries’ within techno-centric eco-industrial park, between ‘eco-industrialpark and human community’ in anthropocentric eco-industrial park and between ‘aneco-industrial park and the contextual biophysical environment’ in an eco-centric eco-industrial park. These symbiotic exchanges in the realm of eco-industrial park can beviewed as occurring at two broad levels of ‘within the EIP’ and ‘across the EIP’. 5
  6. 6. The techno-centric approach contributes towards the symbiotic construct of the eco-industrial park at a specific scale of ‘within the eco-industrial park’ or ‘among theeco-industrial parks’. The individual industries within the eco-industrial park oracross a group of eco-industrial parks engage in mutually beneficial exchanges ofmaterials, information, or administrative infrastructure. The key aspects influencingthese exchanges are the life cycle of materials, the economics of material flows, andthe boundaries of material flows. The symbiotic construct, as reflected in theanthropocentric approach, is concerned with benefits to human community. Manyeco-industrial parks incorporate an anthropocentric approach and the benefits to thehuman community form the central or one of the central concerns of the eco-industrialpark. The biophysical ecosystem lends resources such as land, water, air andvegetation in addition to the extracted resources to the eco-industrial park; the eco-industrial park reciprocates by reducing trans-boundary pollution and mitigatingenvironmental degradation. In doing so, the eco-centric approach strengthens thesymbiotic construct of the eco-industrial park. The key contributions of contemporaryapproaches to activation of symbiotic exchanges among eco-industrial parks aredelineated below; refer appendix 1.2: a-c for details on planned and operational eco-industrial park developments: • More efficient resource utilization conserves minerals and materials • Reduced pollution as a result of process level improvements renders the air cleaner than that of most of the other industrial parks • Consideration of offsite biological treatments of industrial waste 6
  7. 7. Table 1.1 Summary of symbiosis within the purview of EIPState of functioning Level of Impact of symbiosis Measure ofof a EIP Symbiosis symbiosisCurrent state of Within EIP Pollution reduction Resource recyclingfunctioning loops within EIP Streamlined material flows The quantity of natural resources conservedPotential state of Between EIP Strengthened Spatialfunctioning and its resource loops of interconnections(inclusive of current context land and water between EIP and itsfunctioning) through landscape context Minimal-disruption The quantity of of contextual natural resources ecological-flows conserved Increased green area Enhanced biodiversity connectivityTable 1.1 summarizes the above discussion, and documents the current and proposedfunctioning of the eco-industrial park. As the table shows, the hypothetical potentialstate of functioning of the eco-industrial park with a strengthened symbiotic constructis significant and promising in terms of resource loops, co-habitation with thecontextual ecosystem, greenery, and biodiversity connections. 7
  8. 8. 1.4 LimitationsThe discourse on symbiosis and synergistic possibilities for an eco-industrial park hasexpanded to include discussions on economic, administrative and legal collaborativenetworks. Yet the qualitative issues related to the aesthetics and functionality of thegeographical premise of an eco-industrial park and its interface with the residentialand biophysical context continue to be marginal or non-existent. “Although‘symbiotic industrial network construction’ is one of the most important issuesconcerning the development of eco-industrial park, no sufficient design strategies andtechnologies have been identified” (Deog-Seong et al, 2005). Most contemporaryefforts aim to strengthen the symbiosis within the eco-industrial park, with only minorattention to symbiosis between the eco-industrial park and its larger context and thealternative means of doing so. This limits the implications for both the eco-industrialpark (EIP) and the context in terms of: • Recycling loops within EIP • Co-habitation with the surrounding ecosystem and ecological flows • Availability of land and water resources1.4.1 Restricted recycling loopsThe current adaptation of symbiosis within an eco-industrial park emphasizes thestreamlining of material flows. Much of the contemporary research explores ways ofmaximizing the inter-industrial material linkages and cleaning the intra-industrialproduction processes.When one industry closes down, it is either replaced by another or a regional link isestablished. So in terms of inter-linkages the system stays stable either by growing or 8
  9. 9. by expanding from a co-located system to a non-co-located one. In any case, inclusionof the waste upgrading industry, which is the intermediary between the primary donorand recipient industries, forms an essential, secondary tier of exchange (Ayers, 1996),requiring some input of resources from sources in addition to the donor industry.Hence, even when the eco-industrial park optimizes its core material flow, thisindustry forms another resource-consuming loop, destabilizing the system againaccording to the law of entropy, thus emphasizing that the increase in the number ofinter-industrial exchanges does not indicate a stable or a sustainable eco-industrialpark (Hardy and Graedel, 2002).The main limitations of recycling loops within the realm of an eco-industrial park are:(a) excessive reliance on systems approach; and (b) an emphasis on the geographicalsite of EIP as the boundary of exchange among co-located industries. Modeling thesymbiotic associations in an eco-industrial park as per a natural ecosystem, wouldinfluence the use of an integrated approach that incorporates technical and spatialapproaches, and opens up the possibilities of multi-faceted resource loops that arefacilitated by the naturally available spatial medium of the local ecosystem.1.4.2 Disruption of surrounding ecological flowsThe eco-centric approach advocates the inclusion of ecological landscape measuressuch as wastewater collection ponds and wetlands within the eco-industrial park. Theapproach advocates conservation of natural resources and flows in order to reduceinterference with the ecological functioning of larger landscape. 9
  10. 10. Although this approach contributes to the symbiosis of the eco-industrial park and thelocal ecosystem, it fails to prescribe a landscape strategy that could facilitate thelinkage between the geographical premise and surrounding context of the eco-industrial park. Another critical limitation is that this approach continues to raise theissue of symbiosis between the eco-industrial park and the local ecosystem withoutestablishing the link between landscape planning solutions and the theoreticalconstruct of the eco-industrial park. These limitations are the key driving force of theensuing research.1.4.3 Depletion of land and water resourcesThe position of an eco-industrial park is parasitic with regard to the biosphere andcompetitive with regard to human population, where the eco-industrial park andhuman population are both competing for land, water and air. These resources,although in abundance at the global level, are in short supply at the local level. Eco-industrial parks compete for these resources with urbanized and biophysical contexts,thus generating negative interrelationships among the local industrial, urban andbiophysical domains.The contemporary approaches focus on conservation of material resources. Forexample, water is recycled intensively within industries thus decreasing the burden onother water resources and indirectly contributing to water conservation. As for othernatural resources such as land, and air, the eco-industrial park indirectly contributes totheir conservation by ameliorating the degradation of land and water and alleviatingair pollution. Yet, the issue of land conservation is often neglected even though land iscritical to the growth and nourishment of all ecosystems. Moreover, land and water 10
  11. 11. resources can provide natural spatial mediums to facilitate symbiotic exchangesacross diverse ecosystems, if judiciously conserved and planned.For these ecological concerns to be considered by the developers of an eco-industrialpark, the ecological concept has to be incorporated at the point of conceptualdevelopment of the eco-industrial park. Once the concept is ingrained at theoreticallevel, it will reach the practical level with wider acceptability among the eco-industrial park developers and the involved community.1.5 Research Questions, Hypotheses, Aim, Objectives and ScopeProlific research has followed Frosch and Galloupolos’s proposal (1989) regardingeco-industrial parks. Each piece of research has made a valuable addition to theknowledge base and has identified the lacuna that need to be filled in order to developthe eco-industrial park that is true to its concept. The multifaceted investigationsrelated to the eco-industrial park enrich the field but simultaneously complicates theissue. This dissertation redirects researchers’ attention to the fundamental concept ofsymbiosis that generated the eco-industrial park.The research assumes that there is an opportunity for landscape design to bring thedevelopment of an eco-industrial park closer to its ecological ambitions of reducingecological disruptions and functioning as a part of the larger natural ecosystem. 11
  12. 12. 1.5.1 Research questionsCentral questions of the dissertation are: firstly, what is the extant of currentunderstanding with regards to symbiosis in realms of an eco-industrial parkdevelopment and secondly, whether landscape design can play a role in strengtheningthe symbiotic construct of an eco-industrial park.The dynamics of a system cannot be fully understood without taking into account thenature and importance of interactions among the environmental factors that act on thissystem (Leveque, 2003, 358), thus leading to engagement with a range of theoriespertaining to the development of an eco-industrial park, and its surrounding context ofurban and biophysical domains. The primary objective of this dissertation is toinvestigate strategies to strengthen the symbiotic existence of eco-industrial park withits surrounding ecosystems.The specific objectives are listed below: • Articulate the symbiotic construct of the eco-industrial park and identify the strengthening parameters. • Explore landscape design strategies that could strengthen the symbiotic construct of eco-industrial park while fitting within the spatially constrained and pollution prone context. • Conduct a case study in Singapore to explore the role of landscape design strategy in strengthening the symbiotic existence of the eco-industrial park with its local ecosystem. 12
  13. 13. 1.5.2 Scope of the dissertationSince the research spans multiple disciplines and domains, it is important to clarifythe scope of this dissertation. With regard to the technological domain, this researchquestions the practice of symbiosis within the eco-industrial park and explores thepossibility of improving the symbiotic practice by providing optional components forsymbiotic exchange and alternative opportunities for exchange loops with a particularemphasis on water loops through landscape planning. The intention here is not toventure into the essentially scientific and technical domain of industrial ecology, butto complement the technical material flows with spatial ecological flows.The research employed the landscape planning approach to analyze the urban andbiophysical domains, without inquiring into the technical aspects and policy planningissues of those fields. Contextual ecological flows are understood as “in status quo,”guided through roadways, natural and constructed storm drainage-ways, publicgardens and recreation areas, preserved natural ecosystems and even unusedwasteland, in most urban contexts.1.6 Research ApproachResearch approaches are generally classified as quantitative, qualitative andtriangulation (Fellows and Liu, 2003; Clifford and Valentine, 2003; Ford, 2000).Many significant aspects of industrial ecosystems have either been overlooked ormarginalized due to a strong bias towards quantitative approaches. Contemporaryresearch tends to ask technical closed-ended questions in order to reach precisequantitative solutions. Closed-ended questions may concern the recycling potential ofa particular metal, resulting in specific answers about the number of times a material 13
  14. 14. can be recycled, thus bringing significant results to the literature. Yet, raising open-ended questions would delimit the investigation, thus generating both empirical andrational knowledge. Resorting to quantitative approach discourages inquiries intoqualitative aspects concerning natural resources, environmental quality and landscapeecology since it is difficult to attribute quantitative values to these aspects and theirrelated benefits. For instance, if the closed-ended question of “how many times amaterial can be recycled” is supported by an open-ended question such as “can therecycling of a resource material through visible spatial element such as anaesthetically pleasing landscape design improve the environmental quality of the eco-industrial park and its surrounding context” the subsequent investigation wouldproduce more dynamic and comprehensive results.The selection of a particular research approach depends on the research questions andconcerns. This research transcends several phases of description, exploration andinterpretation, simultaneously raising open-ended philosophical questions andaddressing close-ended empirical questions. Therefore, an exclusive dependence oneither a quantitative or qualitative approach is precluded because of its inefficiency indealing simultaneously with statistics and theory. The triangulation approach, whichcombines qualitative and quantitative approaches, underpins the researchmethodology for this dissertation.The research is premised within the larger contemporary research investigating thedynamics of overlapping industrial, human and biophysical domains. The centralfocus is on the symbiotic relationship between the eco-industrial park and its land, airand water. The symbiotic construct of the eco-industrial park is primarily examined 14
  15. 15. on the basis of ecological theory. Landscape design strategies and related theorieswere investigated as tools to resolve the problem of constrained symbiotic construct.The green-switch design strategy grounded in the principles of applied ecology andlandscape design is finally developed, critiqued and evaluated through input/outputanalysis and scenario planning of four industrial estates in Singapore.Exhaustive literature review, communication with prominent industrial ecologists,case studies, study of maps and visit to the existing eco-industrial park wereconducted in the course of this research. 15
  16. 16. 1.7 Dissertation Overview The overview of the dissertation is presented through figure 1.3 and enunciated through subsequent text. Figure 1.3 Conceptual map of the dissertation Reviewing the current state of EIP, with specific focus on its impact on 2 surrounding ecosystem Understanding critical issues and approaches to EIP development Combined approach (Qualitative + Quantitative) Study of the Articulating the symbiotic construct of EIP symbiosis in 3 natural Rephrasing the symbiotic construct of EIP ecosystem through inclusion of additional principles Reviewing the theory and role of ecological landscape planning to strengthened symbiotic construct of EIP 4Ecological influence: Work gate Proposing a landscape design strategy: Applied ecological Green-switch 5 influence:Constructed wetlandIllustrative case Studies in Singapore: Applying proposed landscape strategy Basic input-output analysis of wastewater flows 6 Before and after ‘application of GS’ scenarios of EIPS Key findings Augmentation of recycling loops within EIP Non-disruption of ecological flows of the local ecosystem, Conservation of land and water resources 7Development of generic siting and design guidelines for incorporating a landscape strategy within the context of EIP Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 8 Chapters 16
  17. 17. Symbiotic exchanges among natural ecosystems have inspired the development ofeco-industrial park and yet there is a dearth of studies exploring the possibilities thatthe ecological model has to offer. This gap in knowledge was the impetus to myresearch. While the first chapter introduces the research problem and discusses thegeneral structure of the dissertation, the second chapter describes the historicalprecursor and context of the eco-industrial park development, and, the details ofcontemporary research. The chapter identifies both the generic and the ecologicaldimensions of the debate over symbiosis concerning eco -industrial park.The third chapter discusses the concept of symbiosis as practiced in the contexts ofnatural ecosystem and eco-industrial park. The symbiotic constructs of naturalecosystem and the eco-industrial park are articulated and operationalized (measurableparameters identified). The symbiotic construct of the eco-industrial park is measuredagainst that of the natural ecosystem to identify the missing parameters and then re-phrased through inclusion of additional parameters. The chapter also exploresalternative approaches in order to identify the tools and strategies that can translatethe theoretically consolidated symbiotic construct of an eco-industrial park into apractical reality. Chapter Four engages in a critical review of contemporary ecologicallandscape design approaches for strengthening the symbiotic construct of eco-industrial park. The chapter observes that the current landscape design approachesare not applicable in the spatially and pollution constrained urban context of the eco-industrial park. The chapter thus identifies the need to modify the current ecologicallandscape design approaches in order to develop an applicable landscape strategy forthe eco-industrial park and sets up the theoretical groundwork for such a strategy. 17
  18. 18. Chapter Five proposes and develops the landscape design strategy of the green switch.The key of this design strategy is the “switch” component based on ecologicalconcept of work gate. Combined with the conventional landscape design strategy ofgreenways, the green switch could address the issues of spatial efficiency andindustrial-responsiveness, strengthen the symbiotic construct of the eco-industrialpark and spatially fit within and across the geographical site of the eco-industrial park.The combination of pollution-treating groundscape, pollution-indicating wallscapeand pollution-reducing roofscape is identified as a key design component of green-switch, with a constructed wetland as the basic design module.The sixth chapter develops the eco-industrial park conglomerations for selectedindustrial estates through material exchange analysis3. These eco-industrial parkconglomerations are used as a base for applying the proposed landscape designstrategy and evaluating its impact in subsequent chapter. The seventh chapterdemonstrates the improved symbiosis between the eco-industrial park and its contextas a result of the incorporation of the proposed landscape design strategy. The casestudy in Singapore is used to evaluate the improvements in recycling loops within theeco-industrial park, co-habitation with the surrounding ecosystem and conservation ofnatural resources, contributing to the ultimate objective of developing an eco-industrial park as a sub-ecosystem of the larger ecosystem. The eighth chaptersummarizes the research and suggests avenues for further discussion.3 FAST Exchange software uploaded for test-run on the website of United Nations of EnvironmentalProgram in year 2001 was used for the material exchange analysis. 18

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