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  • 1. Fourth International Conference on Natural Computation Design and Application of GIS Software Platform Integrating with DSS Oriented to E-government Liang Wang Professor, Research Centre of Government GIS, Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping E-mail: wangl@casm.ac.cn Bin Li Associate Professor, Research Centre of Government GIS, Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping E-mail: libin@casm.ac.cn Abstract 2.Design way of the platform according to the GIS and DSS integration Both Geographic Information System (GIS) and Decision Support System (DSS) are playing an important 2.1.The integration target of software platform part in government affairs management or Electronic Government (E-government). But GIS and DSS are According to total construction target of the E- usually independently working the interactive relation government in China and system management between them is unsubstantial, so that application of E- requirement, the platform adopts uniform system structure government to GIS is inconvenient and inefficient. This design, database structure design, module and function paper puts forward a new idea for designing software design and component development, and takes the platform based on integrative GIS and DSS according to foundational spatial database as a framework to integrate target of E-government construction in China, introduces a thematic spatial information, national economy statistics the function integration target, method and technical way information, government affair information and multi- in different levels of this platform. This paper has found a media information, and establishes spatial database with new way of GIS development oriented to E-government, comprehensive information warehouse, and implements and described successful application in a series of G- GIS, DSS and close integration and vivid function call government project, such as General National Situation according to the safe electron governmental affairs Information System, Flood and Drought Prevention platform, and sets up an uniform spatial decision software Information Service System, West Development platform for the E-government application. Information Service System and so on. General design of the software platform abides by the following principles: to meet the overall requirements of 1. Introduction electronic government affairs and digital China construction, to conform to the national standard and GIS is one of the construction technology for E- specification and principle of information share and government, and is also a assistant tool to carry out multi-protocols, to apply the integrated application pattern management and macro analysis for all levels of C/S and B/S systems, to support information governments. It has an effect on national economy management structure of multi-subjects and multi-levels management, disaster prevention and governmental standardization and personality application, to realize the affairs management [1]. But GIS and Decision Support distributed management and maintenance. System (DSS) are usually independently working, the interactive relation between them is unsubstantial, so that 2.2. The uniform database design application of E-government in GIS is inconvenient and inefficient. The work point of the database design is to accomplish Based on this situation, we need to construct software the following work: platform of the spatial decision support system under the 2.2.1. Confirm design principle. Based on large network environment, and to tightly integrate decision relational database characteristics, we establishes some support system (DSS) technique with geographical principle of database design, and at the same time, gives information system (GIS) technique, so that we can attention to request of GIS and DSS integration, request supply comprehensive information and decision-making of application function. service for the governments.978-0-7695-3304-9/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEE 483DOI 10.1109/ICNC.2008.773
  • 2. 2.2.2. Choose database contents. According to handle customer release system resource, so the systemapplication and characteristics of the spatial system the consumption can be lower.data contents of the platform are chosen such as thethematic data, spatial data, attribute data, document and 2.4. The uniform software developmentmultimedia data ,etc.2.2.3. Ddesign database. The concept/logic design of the In order to exert respective characteristics of GIS anddatabase, physical design of the database and setting up DSS in the application, attain the close integration of theirthe demonstration test of the database will be carried out function, the platform adopts component to accomplishin prescriptive method. function integration of GIS and DSS. The thought of component can make a software2.3. Uniform data management and scheduling repeatable use, each component has its particular interface The implement of uniform storage and management and the service which can be provided, and can establishfor spatial data and non-spatial data are differ from pure the valid mechanism of software. The component canrelational data management, also is differ from file define a general call method for software serve, it canmanagement. The important point is to resolve cross over a link library, application program, systemmanagement efficiency of spatial data within relational software even network, the component can still providedatabase and concretely involved technique is described valid path to separate software block, each block providesas following: respectively service, the developer can use an object-2.3.1. The establishment of spatial data query oriented method to design and develop program,mechanism. The key of spatial data organization is index simplified complicated system.and the good or bad performance of the spatial data index For implement method of the software function,directly influences the whole performance of spatial because system includes spatial data and relational data(ordatabase and GIS platform. For the vector spatial data statistic data), for the attribute data of spatial dataindex, multi-layer index mechanism and code index adoption relational model are suitable and using SQLmechanism are established based on entity, map sheet, statement to carry out query is efficient. Because of themap layer index, spatial data query efficiency is interval complicated relation spatial data has difficult inimproved. For the grid spatial data index, the tree index using the relational model. But Object Oriented methodmechanism such as R tree, R+tree, CELL tree, quad tree, with abstraction, packaging, encapsulation, polymorphismetc, are used as spatial index, and the structure of tree are is feasible to handle spatial data. Therefore, mixingstored by array, and code of each spatial object is stored Object Oriented with relational model is suitable foron the node of the tree. implement integral management of spatial data and2.3.2. Data compression. Regular GIS manages amount attribute data.of data, high or low system performance have very greatrelation to transmission speed of network. In order to 3. The architecture of the platformreduce load on network, we consumedly lower thetransmission network quantity using data compression of Application service structure of the platform adoptsspatial data, so the performance of the system has got B/S, and the system maintenance adopts C/S structure,higher. Because vector data has lower degree redundancy such as figure 1 .and its compressing potential is not big. For compression The software platform can be divided into three parts:of sound, picture, animation, multi-media data, system application integration tools, application server and clientcan make the compression rate bigger attained 50:1 even module. The tools can deal with spatial data, such ashigher. We can deliver different resolution data layer input, processes, edit, application thememethod and decrease on-line data quantity for taking integration/modify in server side. Application server runsvisualization as the application in server side which receives and analyzes client’s2.3.3. Making use of large relational database request, then, gets spatial and non-spatial data fromtechnique. The query of the great capacity for spatial data database and send them to client. For complicated spatialmay return to a very big result to gather and attain several operation, which could not be performed in client side,100,000 even million records. So we can put the records such as spatial analysis, the application server will callto database buffer in server, in the meantime the customer component in server side to perform the operation. Clientterminal can receive data after getting data in database side module is consisted of display and user interface.buffer, and then the customer program will begin, the Through uniform system structure design, databasereceiving data process turns to background. Data design, modularized function design and componenttransmission and data transaction are asynchronous, development method we can implement close GIS andcustomer has no need to wait, in advance the data spreads DSS integration and vivid function calling, set up uniformto the customer and they are handled while in need. After spatial decision software platform. 484
  • 3. DSS, the integration of their function are exhibited on4 The running software and hardware three levels: data layer, maintenance layer and applicationenvironment of the platform service layer. Integration method is shown in figure 2. Leadership application Hardware environment: that includes high efficiencyPC server, microcomputer client and wire network whosespeed is above 2M. Secretary application Software environment: that includes the Windowsoperation system in server and client side, datamanagement by Oracle 9i. Professional application Customer layer Display Query Analysis Safety maintenance Application service layer Function management module GIS and DSS foundation function layer Spatial query Relational query System maintenance tool(C/S) Map & image display Chart & table display Spatial analysis Statistical analysis Spatial data, statistics data, multi- media data, metadata, model database Figure 2. GIS and DSS function integration 5.1 The integration function design of data Data exchange maintenance layer Exchange the center document Using C/S system structure, the system administrator based on with professional GIS background can carry out XML data Government management and support of the spatial database, network comprehensive information database, operation process and the user interface. Departmental 5.1.1. Geography spatial database supports tool. The network data import module: include importing the various vector Departmental map data, DEM data, image data, relational attribute data into system, support the coordinates transformation, database 1,2 projection change of vector, raster data. Visualization module: support point, line and polygon Figure 1. Software platform architecture form cartographic symbol, map symbol design, setting up a symbol library. The spatial database creation module: Implement5 Integrated design and development of the setting up database function of the multi-scale, multi-typesoftware platform functions spatial database (containing spatial data and its attribute data, topology data) including library structure definition,To take GIS as a foundation framework and to use data storage in base, quality inspection and so on.function calling to implement the close integration with 485
  • 4. The meta database maintenance module: Implement for description thematic spatial place, attributethe metadata creation, edition and management of the information and operating command.spatial data and attribute data of the system. In order to By providing uniform maintenance tool of the thematickeep data consistency, we adopt centralized management information the system can complete a thematic treepattern of metadata and the data body. creation, register, the increment, delete, copy, modify, The database management module: Include edit, union, operation for node, and at thematic tree node we can addclip, backup, recovery, journal management. spatial information (extent, entity), non-spatial Data automatic exchange module: Complete to add information (table, text, thematic graphics, multimedia)exterior data from the data switching center, dynamic data and spatial query, spatial analysis and comprehensivestorage in database, creation metadata. information data warehouse analysis ,etc.5.1.2. The non-spatial database supports tool. The dataimport module: support input various relational database, 5.2 The function design and implementation ofimage data file, audio-video data file and statistics a the application service layerthematic map, CAD graphics a file in common use. The non-spatial data index creation module: to create With adoption of uniform component standard methodthe information index of the tree form non-spatial catalog, to integrate GIS and DSS function different hierarchy into implement the hierarchical structure organization to the server. The application server takes GIS as a callingnon-spatial data of various types and to support library framework, GIS call the component function provided bystructure definition, data storage, non-spatial data DSS, support function of gentle assemble each other.positions, quality inspection and so on. 5.2.1. Foundational function design. To complete the The database management module: Include edit, design of basic function of the system floor and itsbackup, recovery, journal management of the non-spatial correlation, reasonable grain dimension of the partitioningdata and meta database management. function, implement the united data access, data query, Data automatic exchange module: Complete to add data operation.exterior data from the data switching center, dynamic data Map display class: Show several data, vector mapstorage in database, creation metadata of the non-spatial layer data, map library data, event .data. The vector data query class: Provide map query,5.1.3. The comprehensive information data warehouse attribute query, metadata query, result conservancy.supports tool. Relational database basic management The report prints class: Print the data(library, table,component: It is management tools oriented to memory), record print and the sort print and the reportinformation object attribute set which can implement make to order.database table, table structure, index, association and The vector quantity edit class: Edition setup, point,statistics management, etc. line, polygon and annotation edition, the map connecting Data interface component: It provides general data side, metadata update.import and export transaction for comprehensive The spatial analysis class: Overlaying analysis, bufferinformation warehouse according to the Schema XML analysis, network analysis, the spatial statistic operation.interface standard. The terrain analyzes class: According to DEM the The data description metadata management system implement profile and factor creation output.component: It implement data object description, The spatial data processing class: Projection change,automatic association, data exchange and data load projection alteration, linear transformation, polynomialoperation, etc. transformation, cut to slice, concatenation and attribute5.1.4. The thematic database management tool. User concatenation.interface consists of series of application thematic term Statistics graphic class: Statistics cartographic modeland these theme are organized and spread by tree form. and statistics, the map decoration, thematic mapping, map The design, development of the thematic database are keeping.the key to system construction, it takes database platform The intelligence graph component: To use artificialas a basic data source, processes the correlative data in the intelligence(AI) technique, applying rule knowledgedatabase and put result into application server according processing thought, give the data information formatto the theme requirement, end releases to the all levels according to the data list processing tool, nationaluser through web method. economy statistics information table and statistical charts The system provides uniform maintenance tool of the automatically are expressed.thematic information to implement an user interface Combine time sequence model: Include model dataestablishment and to make custom operation, on the processing component, the model creation component,thematic information tree each node can link with a series settle information processing, model application analysisof spatial data, non-spatial data and correspond an component.operating command, create theme object entity, is used 486
  • 5. The population simulation of the spatial distribution 6. Conclusionmodel: Include model data processing component, themodel creation component, settle information processing, This platform has successful application in a series ofthe model application analysis component, census taking project of E-government application, and searched after aand spatial distribution analysis component etc. new way of GIS development oriented to E-government.5.2.2. Application service function design. Through the For example: General National Situation Informationfunction component of the assemble foundational function System. Flood and Drought Prevention Informationand custom development the system can provide more Service System, West Development Information Serviceintegrated information, text, multimedia and assistance System, etc.the geography spatial information for application system. However, there are also some problems about the Query function: Vector and raster data blending query, platform design needed to further improve on systemcondition query, spatial relation query, Topology query, flexibility, custom function, etc, in the future.the spatial factor gather, sort and statistics, text databrowsing, table data browsing, the intelligence makegraph, information incident query etc. 7. References The DSS function server can be run by the operationof defining command (usage operation coding start [1]J.P. Liu etc. Study and Application of Comprehensiveservice) in advance, also query operation with GIS to Data management for Spatial Decision-Making for E-combine an operation. government, Science of Surveying and Mapping, Beijing Analyze a function: The spatial topology overlay, China, 2005, pp. 9-11.buffering analysis, shortest path analysis, the best pathanalysis, resource allocation, DEM analysis, evaluation [2]L.Wang, etc, Design and Development of Softwareanalytical, region national economy decision analytical Platform of Spatial Aided Decision-Making Based onmodel. GIS and DSS. Science of Surveying and Mapping, Beijing Display function: Multi-dimensions map displays, China,2005,pp.18-20.remote sensing image the multistage show with roaming,data table, text, statistical charts. [3]Q.P.Zhang, etc. The Government Geographical The web serve: Provide an united user management, Information System, Science Publisher, Beijing China,command request and respond to a function. 2003.5.2.3. User layer function design. Providing the systeminformation service according to the WEB environment,the user can establish thematic information tree gettinginto an operation interface in advance. Thematic tree: Show current theme name, we can clickit to carry out a theme selecting. Operate: Showing the information that includes currenttheme and its related operation is the main entry point ofthematic tree.5.3 Design of data layer integration andimplemention method The spatial data and non-spatial data adopt largerelational database such as Oracle to storage. Provide uniform information framework to implementgeographic spatial data, non-spatial data withcomprehensive information warehouse based on the GISplatform. Comprehensively adopt relational database to storagethrough geography code by making the spatial data linkedwith non-spatial data. Implement the data integration of the exterior dynamicstate through XML file from data switch center. In memory, GIS and DSS and use XML file as amedium to realize data exchange. 487