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Powerpoint pres perinatal final (no animation)

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  • 1. PHILIPPINE SOCIO- CULTURAL PRACTICES AND BELIEFS AFFECTING WOMEN IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD
  • 2. -derived from the latin word “cultura” which means care for “cultus” or civilization. -is a view of the world and a set of traditions that a specific social group uses and transmits to the next generation (Pillitteri)
  • 3. -is all the socially learned behaviors, values, beliefs and customs transmitted down to generation (Videbeck)
  • 4. -the way of life, it is stable which means that it endures over time and is passed on from one generation to the next (Maglaya)
  • 5. -can be defined as the non physical traits, such as values, beliefs and attitudes and customs that are shared by a group of people and passed from one generation to the next (Spector,2004)
  • 6. -is also the “thoughts, communications, actions, custo ms, beliefs, values and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious or social groups. (Office of the Minority Health, 2001)
  • 7. -defines how health is per- ceived, how health information is received, how rights and protections are exercised, what is considered to be a health problem, how symptoms and concerns about the health problem are expressed, who should provide treatment and how, and what kind of treatment should be given. (Kozier and Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing)
  • 8. In Socio-anthropology… Edward Tylor -refers to the complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
  • 9. Robert Redfield -an organized body of conventional understanding manifest in arts and artifacts which, persisting through tradition, characteristics of a human group.
  • 10. Kluckhohn and Kelly -those historical and non rational and non rational designs of living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational and non rational, which exists at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of men.
  • 11. -It is referred to as the general design recipe for living or the vast social heritage. -It also includes all the creations (materials and non-materials) and achievements of man, the past and present gains as a result of living together.
  • 12. • -It prescribed what one can do or not do and how one should do things in various situations. “It is a way of Life”
  • 13. -It also implies that each society has its own way of life shared by most of its members. -It has a powerful effect on a person’s daily life as it influences his mode of thinking, feeling and acting.
  • 14. Types of Culture Material culture -Includes physical objects or artifacts. Things that human beings created by altering the natural resources or environment and are often impressive. -This also refers to concrete or tangible things that man creates and uses Example: dwelling units, tools, weapons, clothing
  • 15. Non-material culture Consists of words people use. The habits they follow, the ideas, customs, behaviors of any society profess and to which they strive to conform.
  • 16. Components of Culture The various constituent elements of the culture are: Norms
  • 17. -They are often described as social norms. These are guides or models of behavior which tell us what is proper and which are not. -In the forms of rules, standards or prescription followed by people who follows certain standard of rules.
  • 18. Forms of Social Norms Folkways -Customary patterns of everyday life that specifies what is socially correct and proper in everyday life. -These are great mass of usage of all degrees of importance, covering all the interest in life philosophy, forming a character and containing a life policy.
  • 19. According to Summer The folkways are the habits of individual and customs of the society which arise from the efforts to satisfy needs. They become regulative for succeeding generations and take on the character of a social force. They arise no one knows when or how. They grow as if by the play of internal life energy. They can be modified, but only limited extent, by the purposeful efforts of men. In time, they lose power, decline or die or transformed.
  • 20. -They are accumulated and repetitive patterns of expected behavior and tend to be self- perpetuative. Some evolve into the present form out of a slow but continuous process of trial and experimentation.
  • 21. Mores -In contrast to folkways, mores are extremely important and are considered vital for the groups’ welfare and survival. -It embodies the codes of ethics and standards on sex behavior, family relations, attitude towards authority, religion, and the unfortunate sectors in the society.
  • 22. Laws
  • 23. Values -Are abstract standards that give a person a sense of right and wrong and establish a code of conduct for living. (Videbeck) -These represent the standards we use to evaluate the desirability of things. What is good, right and moral. Example: Hard work, Honesty, sincerity and orderliness.
  • 24. Cultural Values -Are preferred ways of acting based on those traditions. It differs from nation to nation ( Pillitteri) Taboos -Actions that are not acceptable to a culture. (Pillitteri)
  • 25. Fundamental Characteristics of Culture -Culture is always a product of human behavior -It is always transmitted through learning -It always gratifies human needs -It always tends towards integrating a society
  • 26. Two Major Functions of Culture -As a general category for the classification of phenomena -As a tool in predicting social behavior
  • 27. Characteristics of Culture -Culture is learning and acquired. -Culture is shared and transmitted -Culture is social -Culture gratifies human needs -Culture is adaptive -Culture tends toward integration -Culture is cumulative -Culture is ideational
  • 28. Specific functions of Culture -Culture serves as “trademark” or special features that distinguish one society from another -Culture brings together, contains and interprets the values of society in a more or less systematic manner. Culture provides one of the most important basis for social solidarity
  • 29. -Culture provides a blueprint of as well as the materials for social structure -Culture of any society is the dominant factor in establishing and molding the social personality -Culture of a society provides behavioral patterns -Culture provides individuals with the meaning and direction of his existence
  • 30. Three General Modes of Acquiring or Learning Culture -Example and imitation -Indoctrination or formal teaching -Conditioning
  • 31. Criteria in the Assessment of socio-cultural influences to a Family
  • 32. Area of Assessment Questions to Ask or Observations to Make Ethnicity What country or race is the family from? Communication What’s the main language used in the home? Touch Does the family typically touch each other? Do they use intimate or conversational space?
  • 33. Time Is being on time important? Is the family planning for the future? Occupation Is work important to the family? Do they plan leisure time or leave it unstructured? Pain Does the family express pain or remain stoic in the face of it? What do they believe relieves pain best?
  • 34. Family Structure Is the family nuclear? Extended? Single-parent? Are family roles clear? Can an individual name a family member he/she would call on for support in a crisis? Male and Female Roles Is the family male or female dominant? Health beliefs What does the family believe about health? What do they believe causes illness? Makes illness better? Do they use alternative therapies or established practices?
  • 35. Nutrition Does the family eat an ethnic diet? Are the foods they enjoy available in their community? Religion What is the family’s religion? Do they actively practice their religion? Community Is the predominant culture in the community the same as the family’s? Can they name a neighbor they could call on in a crisis? Is the community a “young”, a “settled in”, or a “retired’ one? Is the culture one of immigration or stability?
  • 36. Philippine Socio-cultural Practices/Beliefs affecting woman in the Perinatal Period Maternal Care Practices Traditional birth attendants (TBA or “hilots”) -Many Filipino women, both rural and urban, still prefer to be delivered by the traditional birth attendants or hilots. -Provide the basic maternity services and do household chores like cooking or washing during the postnatal period -The main source of advice on almost everything in maternal care – from the foods pregnant women should eat or avoid, to what actions and rituals are appropriate to ensure a safe birth.
  • 37. Home deliveries -The most comfortable place for a parturient. -The hospital is a place regarded with fear. It is perceived as a place where women die.
  • 38. Other family and community practices in maternal care -Pregnancy is regarded as a critical period in life. According to Abraham, (2002), in the study done among pregnant women, most women follow all these indigenous beliefs and practices because if she violates them, she would have a difficult delivery, or her baby is born dead. -It is believed that evil spirits are lurking around, waiting to eat the fetus in the womb, especially during the early weeks of pregnancy that is the reason why women who just recently miss their period tried to keep her pregnancy a secret until it is well established in her womb
  • 39. -Some hilots also advice pregnant women not too eat too much during pregnancy to avoid large a baby that could make delivery difficult -Uterine massage is also a common practice, usually done by TBAs at about the second trimester on the belief that this improves maternal circulation and fetal development. If massage is light, this may not be harmful, but some techniques may be too strong for the developing fetus. -Among many Filipinos, covering of the navel of the newborn baby with sand for the purpose of quick healing -The burying of the placenta and umbilical cord of a newborn baby together with a pencil and paper in the will make the baby intelligent.
  • 40. Filipino Superstitious beliefs and practices in Perinatal Period Preconceptual Misconceptions: -Some family Planning methods cause abortion. This is not true because Abortion is the termination of pregnancy while family planning prevents pregnancy.
  • 41. -Using contraceptives will render the couples sterile. Temporary methods such as fertility awareness methods and contraceptives such as pills, IUDs, condoms when stopped, a couple may still have children. Vasectomy and tubal ligation are permanent methods and will render couples sterile. -Using contraceptive methods will result to loss of sexual desire. Sex drive varies from person to person. In fact, the use of contraceptives frees the couple from fear of unwanted pregnancies. This enhances the couple’s sexual relationship.
  • 42. Prenatal: -It is believed that if a pregnant woman is “blooming” during her pregnancy, her baby would be a girl. -Exercise will cause abortion -Minor falls or bumps can deform the baby. -Sexual intercourse can harm the baby or cause miscarriage or abortion
  • 43. -Pregnant woman eating twin bananas will give birth to twins -Food desires or cravings must be satisfied because such desires are believed to spring from the child inside the womb. -The pregnant woman is advised to look at beautiful things so that the baby will look beautiful/ handsome. -Avoid eating dark colored food because it will make the baby dark skinned
  • 44. Postnatal -Putting a piece of paper on the baby’s forehead relieves hiccups -Placenta is buried at the lawn or backyard to ensure good health of the baby
  • 45. -The head should be wrapped with a cloth or towel after giving birth to avoid bad spirits (masamang hangin) -Putting a red lipstick on the forehead of the baby wards off bad spirits or “aswang” -Taking a bath is prohibited few days after childbirth