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基础 03-英语语言简史与医学英语的关系
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基础 03-英语语言简史与医学英语的关系

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基础 03-英语语言简史与医学英语的关系 基础 03-英语语言简史与医学英语的关系 Presentation Transcript

  • 英语语言演变 Breif History of English 杨明山 200 6.11.09
  • History of the English language ① Proto ② Old ③ Middle ④ Modern
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  • Chinese - 仓颉造字
  • Chinese - Pictography 象形
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  • Proto-English
  • The Commericial Network of the Phoenician 腓尼基商业网 亚洲 非洲 欧洲 地中海
  • Its heartland is along coastal regions of modern Lebanon, Syria, Palestan, & Israel.
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  • Phoenician 腓尼基
  • Alphabetic or Pictographic ?
  • Pictographic 拼写文字
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    • Primitive Inhabitants
    Iberian Triangle 西班牙、葡萄牙、摩洛哥 伊比利亚三角
    • Iberian influence on English
    • There is no agreement : for some this origin is only linked to the Phoenician alphabet while for others the Greek alphabet had participated too.
    • Ancient Celtic 凯尔特人
  • Celtic language
    • The earliest: 6th century BC.
    • Insular Celtic: 4th c. AD
    • Literary: Old Irish from 8th, Táin Bó Cúailnge , survive in 12th c. recensions.
    • Great Germanic Migration: Celtic culture restricted to Insular Celtic, extinct by mid-1st millennium AD.
    • Today: lands surrounding the Irish Sea, Cornwall and Brittany on either side of the English Channel.
  • Táin Bó Cúailnge - Cattle Raid of Cooley 《夺牛长征记》讲述公元前500年爱尔兰几个王国间的战斗故事,曾对西欧文明的发展产生过重要影响。原著用凯尔特语写成。
  • "Longshanks" King Edward I of England William Wallace
  • Braveheart – film 勇敢的心 苏格兰英雄马索 · 华莱士与英军作战牺牲,父友指导其儿威廉 · 华莱士习文练武。英王爱德华颁布法令允许英国贵族在苏格兰享有初夜权。王妃伊莎贝拉深知此法令会激起苏格兰人民反抗。年轻华莱士学成回乡,其未婚妻梅伦却英军无理抢去并遭杀害,华莱士杀英兵揭竿而起。华莱士杀败英军,被任命为苏格兰护国公。爱德华为缓和局势,派伊莎贝拉前去和谈。英王暗中汇合爱尔兰军和法军包围华莱士的苏格兰军,伊莎贝拉暗中送信。大军压境,华莱士领兵出战。伊莎贝拉倾倒于华莱士豪情,来到驻地一吐真情。英王再次提出和谈,华莱士明知圈套,但为和平着想,依然前去而被捕,终判死刑。伊莎贝拉求情不成,在英王临死前,她告诉英王她怀的不是王子血脉,而此婴将成为新英王。 华莱士刑前高呼“自由”,震憾众人 。
  • Murron, wife of William Wallace Princess Isabelle
    • 地名
    London
  • 人名 Mr. Cook Salmonella
  • Scotland Bagpiper 苏格兰风笛手
  • Queen Coronation 女王加冕
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    • Caesar 恺撒大帝
    Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar
  • 地名 – ester = camp Manchester
  • Roch-ester
  • Ancient-English
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    • Anglo-Saxon
    • 盎格鲁 - 撒克逊人
    • Germanic tribes
  • Anglo-Saxon
  • Anglo-Saxon England
    • Everyday English
    • Not multi-syllable
    Characteristics of Anglo-Saxon
  • Everyday English ewe wolf wagon axel
  • Mono-syllable words
    • Saint Augustine: Rome missionary
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  • Altar Organ 古拉丁语-宗教语言
    • Vikings 海盗王
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  • Denmark Area 丹麦区 Danish King of England 丹麦英格兰王
  • Scandinavian influence: navigation Deck Boom Freighter sloop
  • Scandinavian influence: Sk-
  • Scandinavian influence: 3 pron.
  • background
    • In 1066 William, Duke of Normandy, a vassal of the French king, led an invasion of England. He defeated the English King Harold II, and had himself crowned King of England.
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  • Hundred Years' War
  • Middle-English
  • The Hundred Years' War
    • It was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne. The two primary contenders were the House of Valois, and the House of Plantagenet. The House of Valois claimed the title of King of France, while the Plantagenets from England claimed to be Kings of France and England. The Plantagenet Kings in England had their roots in the French regions of Anjou and Normandy.
  • 百年战争
    • 是指英国和法国,于 1337-1453 年间的战争,是世界最长的战争,长达 116 年,百年战争中,发展出不少新战术和武器。
    • 12 世纪中,英国金雀花王朝在法国占有广阔领地, 12-13 世纪,法国国王逐渐夺回部分被英王占领的土地。 14 世纪初,英国仍占据法国南部阿基坦地区,成为法国政治统一的最大障碍。双方还争夺富庶的佛兰德地区。佛兰德毛纺业主要依赖英国的原料,英国则从羊毛贸易中获取巨利。 1328 年,法国占领佛兰德,英王爱德华三世( 1327-1377 在位)下令禁止羊毛出口。佛兰德因失去原料来源,转而支持英国。战争的导火线主要是王位继承问题。 1328 年,查理四世去世,法国卡佩王朝绝嗣,支裔瓦卢瓦王朝的腓力六世继位,英王爱德华三世以法王查理四世外甥的资格,与腓力六世争夺王位,触发战争。
  • Conqueror William Saint Joan of Arc Saint Joan of Arc
    • French - first foreign language
    • Supra-structure
    • Language
    • Crown
  • Saloon
  • Parliament
  • Court
  • Lux 力士恒久柔嫩香皂 腰圆膀粗,鼻直口方,力大无穷,眉宇间有英武之气
  • Lux 丽士恒久柔嫩香皂
  • Modern-English
  • The Great Vowel Shift
  • 1500
    • The major change in the pronunciation took place in the south of England between 1200 and 1600. The Great Vowel Shift was first studied by Otto Jespersen (1860–1943), a Danish linguist and Anglicist. The values of the long vowels form the main difference between the pronunciation of Middle English and Modern English.
  • 元音大推移
    • 英语发展史上的一次主要的语音转变, 14 世纪 -15 世纪中期,由城市向乡村扩散持续到 16 世纪。转变主要体现在英语长元音的变化上。
    • 丹麦语言学家 Otto Jespersen 提出“元音大推移”的说法。
    • 元音大推移:长元音音值的差异已成为英语史的断代标准,用以区分中古英语和现代英语。英语中的长元音,原本与欧洲大陆发音相似,经历大推移后,两个高位长元音转变成双元音,其余五个长元音开口度缩小(高化)。
    • Edward III addressed in English
  • Chivalry and national identity
  • Geoffrey Chaucer 1343-1400
    • an English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat.
    • Although he wrote many works, he is best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales.
  • The Canterbury Tales
    • The tales are contained inside a frame tale and told by a collection of pilgrims on a pilgrimage from Southwark to Canterbury to visit the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The Canterbury Tales are written in Middle English. Although the tales are considered to be his magnum opus, some believe the structure of the tales is indebted to the works of The Decameron, which Chaucer is said to have read on an earlier visit to Italy.
  • 坎特伯雷的传说 /
    • 本片取材于十四世纪英国诗人乔叟的同名诗体小说集。文学原著由 23 篇相对独立的故事组成,充满英国人特有的严谨不失幽默的味道。强调性爱作为反抗宗教束缚、争取人性自由的武器。
    • Caxton
    • First Printer
    • 卡克斯顿
    • 第一位印刷家
  • William Caxton 明永乐十三年
  • 《永乐大典》
    • 明永乐年间编纂。全书目录 60 卷,正文 22877 卷。如此一部规模宏大的类书,永乐帝当时未能毅然付之刊印,仅抄写一部。嘉靖末年虽抄写成副本,而正本却杳如黄鹤。
    • Renaissance - Da Vinci 明景泰三年
      The Last Supper (1498)
  • Italian influence
    • 美术
    • 音乐
    • 建筑
  • Violin
  • Piano( 弱 )-Forte( 强 )
  • Tener Domigo
  • Corridor 门廊 Balcony 阳台
    • Greek & Latin
  • Conclusion
    • Pure? Or Mixed?
    • What is the universal language?
    Trilogy?
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  • 女书
  • Old English AD 900 Beowulf
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  • THANK YOU