La deriva genética aleatoria es la ganancia o pérdida de alelos de los genes de la población por oprtunidad.
La mutación introduce variaciones genéticas en la población afectada.
El flujo de genes ocurre por intercambio: la transmisión de material genético de una población a otra. El flujo genético disminuye las diferencias e inhibe la especialización, la formación de nuevas especies.
The science of genetics explains the origin of the variety upon which natural selection operates.
By experimenting with successive generations of pea plants, Mendel came to the conclusion that heredity is determined by discrete particles, the effects of which may disappear in one generation, and reappear in the next.
Creationism accounts for biological diversity by referring to the divine act of Creation as described in Genesis.
Catastrophism is a modified version of Creationism, which accounts for the fossil record by positing divinely authored worldwide disasters that wiped out the creatures represented in the fossil record, who were then supplanted by newer, created species.
Intelligent Design states that modern physics and cosmology have uncovered evidence for intelligence in the structure of the universe and this intelligence seems to act with us in mind and that the universe as a whole shows evidence of design.
Árbol de idiomas indo-europeos Dyen, Kruskal & Black, 1992 Piazza, Cavalli-Sforza, 2001 Afghan Baluchi Persian Osetic Bengali Hindi Punjabi Marathi Nepali Kashmiri Singhalese Breton Welch Irish Bulgarian Macedonian Serbo Croatian Belorussian Ukranian Polish Chech Russian Slovenian Latvian Lithuanian French Walloon Italian Ladin Portugese Spanish Sardinian Rumanian Danish Swedish Riksmaal Faraoese Icelandic Dutch German Frisian English Greek Armenian Albanian Germanic Celtic Romance Slavic 6000 7000 9000 8000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000
Germanic Language Trees From Embleton, 1986 English Pennsylvanian German Dutch Yiddish German Hamburg Lower Saxony Danish Swedish Icelandic Norwegian Faraoese Tok Pisin Africaans Frisian Flanders TrS 1803 1540 1051 1842 246 194 1051 1239 1476 1558 1051 1423 1668 1234 1025