The Teaching Learning Process: Intro, Phases, Definitions, Theories and Models etc...


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(MST) The Teaching-Learning Process in Educational Practices
First set of report/discussion

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  • The description above implies that the crux of a curriculum is the different planned and unplanned activities which have been lived, acted upon or done by the learners with the guidance of the teacher.What is Teaching and Learning ? (as a process in curriculum?)
  • It has also been said that it is a process of dispensing knowledge to an empty vessel (mind of learner) but there’s been a lot of debate regarding “empty vessel”
  • When we talk about teaching, there’s always the TEACHER.Teacher’s role become complex but has to give the learner the responsibility to learn
  • Planning Phase includes decision like:
  • Factors to consider when planning
  • Based on the objective ,implementation means…
  • A match of the objective with the learning outcome will made.Answer the question if the plans and implementation have been successfully achievedFeedback is the reflection of the feedback;Reflection is the process embedded in teaching where the teacher inquires into his action and provides deep and critical thinking
  • Anchored on Cognitive Learning Theory
  • Motivation Phase – must be motivated to learn by expectation that learning will be rewardingApprehending – learner stands or pay attention if learning has to take placeAcquisition – while learner is paying attention the stage is set and the information presentedRetention – newly acquired info must be transferred from short term to long term memoryRecall – recall previously learned info; to learn to gain access to that which has been learned is a critical phase in learningGeneralization – transfer of info to new situations allows application of the learned information in the context in which it was learnedFeedback – students must receive feedback on their performance
  • Teaching and Learning GO TOGETHER
  • The Teaching Learning Process: Intro, Phases, Definitions, Theories and Models etc...

    1. 1. THE TEACHING- LEARNING PROCESS Yenna Monica D. P MST EdTech (Edu221B T-L Process)
    2. 2. Curriculum  Total Learning Experience Teaching and Learning are actions necessary to accomplish a goal in Education.
    3. 3. Teaching  Creating a situation or selecting life-like situation to enhance learning  Showing, telling, giving instruction, making someone understand in order to learn  Imparting knowledge and skills required to master a subject matter (traditionalist) Effective teaching is one that will bring about the intended learning outcome. “YOU CANNOT GIVE WHAT YOU DO NOT HAVE”
    4. 4. Teaching  Teaching is perceived as stimulating, directing, guiding the learner and evaluating the learning outcomes of teaching (based on progressive and humanist education)  A process that enables the learner to learn on his own Teacher Person who teaches, controls learning, dispenser of knowledge, an ultimate authority, a director of learning Teacher’s role: give the learner the responsibility to learn “the decision maker in the teaching process”
    5. 5. Teaching Process PLAN EVALUATE IMPLEMENT Feedbacks and Reflection
    6. 6. Planning Phase  The needs of the learner  The achievable goals and objectives to meet the needs  Selection of content to be taught  Motivation to carry out the goal  Strategies most fit to carry out the goals  Evaluation Process to measure learning outcome
    7. 7. Considerations when Planning  Learner  Availability of Materials  Time Requirements of Particular Activity  Strategy need to achieve the objective  Teacher
    8. 8. Implementation Phase  Implementation – to put into action the different activities in order to achieve the objectives through the subject matter  Use of different teaching styles and strategy are included in the phase “To accomplish the plan” Interaction of the teacher and the learner IMPORTANT!
    9. 9. Evaluation Phase OBJECTIVE LEARNING OUTCOME PLANS IMPLEMENTATION MATCH SUCCESSFUL LYACHIEVED PLAN EVALUATE IMPLEMENT Feedbacks and Reflection Continuous process of feedback and reflection is made in this three phases of teaching Reflection is the process embedded in teaching where the teacher inquires into his action and provides deep and critical Feedback is the reflection of the feedback
    10. 10. Basic Assumptions (based on the diagram):  Teaching is goal-oriented with the change of behavior as the ultimate end  That teachers are the ones who actively shape their own action  That teaching is rational and a reflective process  That teachers by their actions can influence learners to change their own thinking or desired behavior, thus teaching is a way of changing behavior, through the intervention of the teacher
    11. 11. Good Teaching is…  Well planned and activities are interrelated  Provides learning experiences or situation that will ensure understanding, application and critical thinking based on the theory/ies of learning  Where the learner is stimulated to think and reason  Utilizes prior learning and its application to new situation  Governed by democratic principles  Embeds a sound evaluation process
    12. 12. Learning  Change in an individual’s behavior caused by experiences or self activity  Implies that learning can only happen through the individual’s activity or his own doing  Can be intentional or unintentional “TO TEACH, IS TO MAKE SOMEONE LEARN” Two Principal Types of Learning Process: - Behavioral Learning theories - Cognitive Learning theories
    13. 13. Behavioral Learning Theory  Emphasizes observable behavior such as new skills, knowledge, or attitudes which can be demonstrate  Observable and measurable  If the individual has changed behavior, he has learned
    14. 14. Cognitive Learning Theory  Concerned with human learning in which unobservable mental processes are used to learn and remember new information or acquired skill  Related to concept of meaningful learning through cognitive models - DISCOVERY Learning (Jerome Bruner) - RECEPTION Learning (David Ausubel) - EVENTS of Learning (Robert Gagne)
    15. 15. Discovery Learning  States that individuals learn from his own discovery of the environment  Learners are inherently curious, thus they can be self motivated until they find answers to the problem  Gave rise to the emerging theory of constructivism and self-learning  Learning is flexible, exploratory and independent.
    16. 16. Reception Learning  Though learners are inherently curious, they may not be able to know what is important or relevant and they need external motivation in order to learn Both emphasizes that prior learning is important in order to learn new things as knowledge is continuously changing once it is in the learner’s mind
    17. 17. Events of Learning 1. Motivation Phase 2. Apprehending Phase 3. Acquisition Phase 4. Retention Phase 5. Recall Phase 6. Generalization Phase 7. Feedback Phase Internal Events
    18. 18. Learning based on the theory of Learning…  Does not take place in an empty vessel  A social process where interaction with other learners and teachers are needed  Result of individual experiences and self activity  Both observable and measurable  Takes place when all the senses are utilized  Will be enhanced when the learner is stimulated, directed, guided and feedback is given immediately  Each learner has its own learning style
    19. 19. Teaching and Learning  One cannot succeed without the support and success of the other  Teaching style of the teacher should jibe with the learner’s learning style  Learner is the center of teaching  Knowledge of the learner and his learning style should be considered  Learners become complex individuals capable of learning on their own, the repertoire of teaching should also increase GO TOGETHER! Teaching is the cause Learning is the
    20. 20. Learning in Teaching Teaching for Learning Ways of Teaching and Learning: - different teaching methods and strategies can be clustered accdg to the number of students to be/being taught For larger group teaching – lecture, expository, panel discussion, seminar, forum, demonstration, combination of lecture-demo For smaller group – role playing, buzz session, work shop, process approach, discovery learning, cooperative learning For individualized teaching – modular instruction, e-teaching, programmed instruction
    21. 21. Ways of Teaching • Traditional teaching methods: -inductive method, -deductive method, -type study method, -project method, -laboratory method, -Q&A or Socratic method -lecture method • Improved Teaching methods: -integrative technique, -discovery approach, -process approach, -conceptual approach, -mastery learning, -programmed instruction, -e-learning, -simulation, -case-based teaching, -conceptual teaching, -cooperative teaching
    22. 22. Ways of Learning • Trial and Error – related to stimulus response theory of learning • Conditioning – Classical conditioning theory of Pavlov • Insight – higher level of intelligence is being utilized • Observation and imitation through modeling
    23. 23. Teaching and Learning in the Curriculum… ! Crucial Issue: How the student should learn how to learn •Teaching and Learning give life to the curriculum. •Value placed in teaching will reap the same value in learning •A good curriculum can be judged by the kind of teaching and the quality of learning derived from it.
    24. 24. The Teaching-Learning Process END