The Nature and Scope of Curriculum Development

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  • Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-of-school situations
    It is also defined as a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting

  • The Nature and Scope of Curriculum Development

    1. 1. THE NATURE and SCOPE of CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
    2. 2. Definitions of Curriculum • the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-of-school situations • A sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting • A structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually call goals and objectives. (Howell and Evans 1995) • Is the ‘what’ of teaching • Listing of subjects to be taught in school • A document which describes a structured series of learning objectives and outcomes for a given subject matter area • Includes specification of what should be learned, how it should be taught, and the plan for implementing/assessing the learning
    3. 3. Curriculum Planning A Curriculum Plan is the advance arrangement of learning of opportunities for a particular population of learners A Curriculum Guide is a written curriculum • A process whereby the arrangement of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created. • The process of preparing for the duties of teaching, deciding upon goals and emphases, determining curriculum content, selecting learning resources and classroom procedure, evaluating progress, and looking toward next steps.
    4. 4. Curriculum Development • The Process of Selecting, Organizing, Executing and Evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities and interests of the learners and the nature of the society or community. • Is a place or workshop(s) where curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curriculum Resource Unit- A collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilize in planning, developing, and evaluating a learning unit. Curriculum Laboratory
    5. 5. Two Schools of Thought on Curriculum Development The Essentialist School The Progressive School
    6. 6. The Essentialist School • Considers the curriculum as something RIGID consisting of discipline subjects • Considers ALL LEARNERS ARE THE SAME and it aims to fit the learner into the existing social order and thereby maintain the status quo • Major motivation is DISCIPLINE and considers freedom as an outcome and not a means of education • NO interest in social actions and life activities • Approach is AUTHORITATIVE and the teacher’s role is to assign lessons and to recite recitations. • It is BOOK-CENTERED and the methods recommended are MEMORY WORK, MASTERY of FACTS and SKILLS, and DEV’T of ABSTRACT INTELLIGENCE • Measurement of outcomes are STANDARD TESTS based on SUBJECT MATTER MASTERY
    7. 7. The Progressive School • Conceives the curriculum as something flexible based on areas of interest • LEARNER-CENTERED, having in mind that no two-persons are alike • Factor of motivation is INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT believing that learners are naturally good. • Role of the teacher is to STIMULATE direct learning process • Uses LIFE EXPERIENCES APPROACH to fit the student for future social life • Constant revision of aims and experimental techniques of teaching and learning are imperatives in curriculum development in order to create INDEPENDENT THINKING, INITIATIVE, SELF RELIANCE, INDIVIDUALITY, SELF EXPRESSION and ACTIVITY in the learner. • Measurement of outcomes are devices TAKING INTO CONSIDERATIONS SUBJECT MATTER and PERSONALITY VALUES
    8. 8. Progressive • Listing of subjects, syllabi, course of study and list of courses or specific discipline can only be called curriculum if these written materials are actualized by the learner • Total learning experiences of the individual • All experiences children have under the guidance of teachers Caswell & Campbell • Experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher and also learned by the student Marsh &Willis • Body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn • Synonymous to ‘course study’ • ‘Permanent studies’ where the rule of grammar, reading, rhetoric, logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized Hutchins • Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written documents or plan of action in accomplishing goals Essentialist
    9. 9. Different Theories • Conflicting philosophies of education have influenced curriculum principles and practices • A number of ‘self-evident educational truths’ in the past are now seen to be rather educational myths; such as teachers know, children or learners don’t; all learners should be treated alike • Fundamental concepts of some curricula have changed • In many areas, new methodologies: programmed instructions, computer assisted instruction, tutorials, large and small group instruction, and a variety of individualized instruction procedures have been developed. • subject matter for the mind, with priority in value of literature, intellectual history, ideas of religion, philosophy, studies • Observable facts, the world of things • School’s dependence on scholasticism • Another curriculum stresses the importance of experience-process • A recent curricular emphasis is that of existing choice. The learner must learn skills, acquire knowledge, and make decisions. Different Emphases
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