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Principles of Test Construction 1
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Principles of Test Construction 1

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(MST) Test Construction and Material ...

(MST) Test Construction and Material
(class report(s)/discussion(s))

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CREDIT/s: education-portal

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Principles of Test Construction 1 Principles of Test Construction 1 Presentation Transcript

  • WHAT is a TEST? Yenna Monica D. P.
  • A Test is an… • assessment – to measure a test taker’s knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness or classification in many other topics Yenna Monica D. P. • action which produces discoveries that can be used to evaluate product quality
  • Types of Test • Achievement • Diagnostic • Aptitude • Proficiency • Placement • Admission Yenna Monica D. P.
  • “A Good Test is Said To Be Tested on a Tripod” Yenna Monica D. P. Standardization
  • What is Validity? Yenna Monica D. P. It refers to whether the test measures what it claims to measure. Approaches to Validity 1.Face Validity 2.Content Validity 3.Construct Validity 4.Criterion – Related Validity
  • What is Reliability? Yenna Monica D. P. • It refers to stability of the test scores • The ability to provide consistent test measurement on repeated occasion • It answers the question “If I administer this test again to the same students, is the score likely to move-up or down by a large amount or relatively stable?”
  • What is Standardization? Yenna Monica D. P. • It refers to stability of the test scores • The ability to provide consistent test measurement on repeated occasion • It answers the question “If I administer this test again to the same students, is the score likely to move-up or down by a large amount or relatively stable?”
  • Yenna Monica D. P. • Is an exam designed to assess how much knowledge a person has in certain area or set of areas •Is a standardized test used to measure developed skill or knowledge through planned classroom instruction or training Achievement Test
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Achievement Test Basic Premise The main goal of any achievement test is to measure what sort of information the test- taker already knows.
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Major Steps in Constructing Achievement Tests 1. Planning of Test 2. Preparation of Test Design 3. Preparation of the blueprint 4. Writing of Items 5. Preparation of Scoring Key and Marking Scheme
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PLANNING of a TEST  Determining the Objectives of the Test  Determining the maximum time allotment and maximum marks Step 1
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PREPARATION of DESIGN for the TEST Important Factors to Consider in Design Step 2 •Weight to Objectives •Weight to Content •Weight to Form of Questions •Weight to Difficulty Level
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PREPARATION of DESIGN for the TEST2.1 Weight to Objectives Step 2 Indicates what objectives are to be tested and what weight has to be given per objective No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Objectives Knowledge Understanding Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation TOTAL Marks 3 2 6 8 4 2 25 Percentage 12% 8% 24% 32% 16% 8% 100%
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PREPARATION of DESIGN for the TEST2.2 Weight to Content Step 2 Indicates the various aspects of the content to be tested and the weight to be given No 1 2 Contents Topic 1 Topic 2 TOTAL Marks 15 10 25 Percentage 60% 40% 100%
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PREPARATION of DESIGN for the TEST2.3 Weight to Form of Questions Step 2 Indicates the forms of questions to be included in the test and its weight No 1 2 3 Forms of Questions Objective Type Short Answer Type Essay Type TOTAL Marks 7 14 5 25 Percentage 28% 56% 6% 100%
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PREPARATION of DESIGN for the TEST2.4 Weight to Difficulty Level Step 2 Indicates weight to be given to different levels of questions No 1 2 3 Level of Difficulty Easy Average Difficult TOTAL Marks 5 15 5 25 Percentage 20% 60% 20% 100%
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PREPARATION of BLUEPRINT Step 3 Is a 3-dimensional chart giving the placement of objectives, content and form of questions BLUEPRINT
  • Yenna Monica D. P. WRITING of ITEMS Step 4 1. The test writer writes items according to the blueprint. 2. The difficulty level has to be followed 3. It should be checked whether all items can be answered within time set. 4. Arrange questions in the order of difficulty
  • Yenna Monica D. P. PREPARATION of SCORING KEY Step 5 No 1 2 3 Answers A B C D Marks 1pt 1pt 1pt 1pt
  • TYPES of TEST ITEMS Yenna Monica D. P.
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Types of Test Items 1. Objective Type Supply Type (Alternate Response, Labeling, Id entification, Fill in the Blank, Enumeration, C ompletion)
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Types of Test Items 1. Objective Type Advantages of Objective Type - Difficulty in preparing good items - Problem of guessing answers - Problem of cheating - Inefficiency of testing complicated skills - High printing cost
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Types of Test Items 1. Objective Type Selection Type (Multiple Choice, Matching Type) Limitations of Objective Type - Large amount of materials/coverage can be tested in very short time - Objectivity of Scoring - Easy to Check - It reduces the subjective element of the examiner - If carefully planned, it measures higher mental process
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Types of Test Items 2. Short Answer Type A question may require at most three value points Advantages of Short-Answer Type - Large portion/coverage can be coved - No opportunity of guessing - Easy to construct, measures simple outcome - Useful in interpreting diagrams, charts, graphs
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Types of Test Items 2. Short Answer Type Limitations of Short-Answer Type - It is more subjective than objective types of items - May encourage student to memorize facts - Mechanical scoring is not possible
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Types of Test Items 3. Essay Type - A free response test item - Helps in evaluating complex skills - Ensures broad understanding of the learner Advantages of Essay Type -Easy to prepare -Useful in measuring certain abilities/skill -Permits examinee to write down comprehensively what he knows of/about -Promote creativity and creative thinking -Eliminate guessing -Reduces spot copying -Low printing cost
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Types of Test Items 3. Essay Type Limitations of Essay Type -Minimum validity -Lack of reliability -No objectivity -It is a time-consuming test -Needs more time to check
  • METHODOLOGY of TEST CONSTRUCTION Yenna Monica D. P.
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Methodologies Constructing Multiple Choice Stem/Question: 1. Use direct question scheme 2. Item should be clear, definite and explicit 3. Eliminate redundant language or non- functioning words 4. Avoid negatively stated items 5. Avoid double jeopardy TEST CONSTRUCTION Choices: 1. Present alternatives in logical alphabetical or numerical order 2. Present 4 or more options 3. Response alternatives should be mutually exclusive 4. Use attractive and plausible alternatives 5. Make responses appear in random order 6. Use responses, “all of the above”, “none of the above” with caution 7. Follow rules of grammar
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Methodologies Constructing Matching Type/Exercise TEST CONSTRUCTION 1. Use homogenous material in a single matching exercise 2. Include unequal number of responses and premise 3. Keep the list of items to be matched brief and place the shorter responses at the right 4. Arrange the responses in alphabetical or logical order 5. Place all the items for the matching type on the same page
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Methodologies Constructing True-False or Alternative Response TEST CONSTRUCTION 1. Make statements 100% True or False if they are to be judged. 2. Avoid the use of negatives and (especially) double negatives 3. Avoid long complex sentences 4. Avoid two ideas in one statement unless cause-effect relation 5. If opinion is used, attribute it to the source. 6. Avoid the use of modifiers (none, always, never, nothing, only, alone) unless they are part of a fact or truth 7. True and False statements should be approximately equal in number, equal in length and randomly arranged to avoid clues. 8. The correct response should not follow a pattern. Note: If this test is used alone, the maximum number of items should be 50 as suggested by Bradfield and Moredock
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Methodologies Constructing Supply Type Items TEST CONSTRUCTION 1. Require definite clear-cut, short-term answer. 2. Don’t take statements directly from textbook to use as a basis for short items 3. A direct question is generally desirable than incomplete statements 4. When the answer is to be expressed in numerical units, indicate the type of answer required. 5. Blanks for answer should be equal in length 6. Don’t have too many blanks in an item.
  • Yenna Monica D. P. Methodologies Constructing Essay-Type Items TEST CONSTRUCTION 1. Limit problem to the question poses 2. Use word that conveys meaning to the students 3. Use essay question for the purpose it best serves that is organization, handling complicated ideas and writing 4. Determine in advance the weight expected for the complete answer In terms of brevity of response: Essay question can be a simple recall, short- answer question, or a discussion type In terms of scope and latitude of answer: Essay question can be controlled or uncontrolled.
  • Yenna Monica D. P. TEST REPRODUCTION 1. All items should be spaced on the page so that students can easily read them 2. As a general rule, the item should be presented as a whole on one page - T/F completely printed on one page - Multiple choice and alternatives must be together - Matching Types must all be in one page 3. When answers are to be written on test papers space should be provided in column at the left of the page.
  • Yenna Monica D. P. TEST ADMINISTRATION 1. Readiness of the examiner 2. Readiness of the examinees 3. Conducive testing conditions 4. Examiner’s rapport with the examinees 5. Testing Time 6. Clear giving of directions 7. Examiner’s conduct during the test
  • Yenna Monica D. P. TEST ASSEMBLY 1. Items should be arranged according to types. - Provide set of directions for each types of test 2. Items should be arranged in order of difficulty - Items in each type should be arranged simple to complex 3. Items of the same subject matter content maybe grouped together.
  • END ^.^ Yenna Monica D. P.