Architectural Design: Practice vs. Education Lecture to my daughter Farida Introduction to Architecture November 2007 By: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub http://members.fortunecity.com/ymahgou
Contents <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Design in Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Design in Education </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
What is Architecture? A good definition was provided by the Roman architect VITRUVIUS in the 1st century AD in the first of his famous collection “Ten Books on Architecture”.
What is Architecture? Vitruvius said that architecture was a building that incorporated : Utilitas ... Firmitas … Venustas Commodities ... Firmness ... Delight Function ... Technology ... Aesthetic Utility ... Structure ... Attractive Use ... Construction … Appearance
The Context of Architecture Earth Climate Ecology Resources Cities Neighborhoods Buildings Interior Spaces Individual Groups Psychological Social Cultural Individual Human Environment Built Environment Natural Environment
The Difference Between Architecture and Building Any Building ≠ Architecture Architecture = Design BEFORE Building Architecture is DESIGNED Buildings, Spaces and Environments. According to Human Needs Using Technology and Science, With Aesthetic Qualities.
Who is the Architect? <ul><li>The word architect is derived from the Greek word architekton meaning master builder . </li></ul><ul><li>One who designs buildings and supervises their construction . </li></ul><ul><li>Architects are licensed professionals trained in the art and science of building design . </li></ul><ul><li>They transform needs into concepts and then develop the concepts into images and plans of buildings that can be constructed by others . </li></ul>
What is Design? <ul><li>DESIGN is a both a verb (to design) and noun (a design). </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN a process and a product ; the process of designing and product that is designed. </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN is an activity aiming at the production of a plan of action which if executed is expected to lead to a situation with certain desired characteristics and without unforeseen and undesired side and after effects . </li></ul>
An Architectural Design Method B A S E D BASED Analysis Program Site Goals Performance Alternatives Briefing Problems Definitions Needs Context Program Site Synthesis Solutions Concept Form Space Preliminary Design Study Models Evaluation Priorities Grading Communication Feedback Selection Optimization Design Drawings Final Models Reports CAD Presentation Communication
The Architecture Profession <ul><li>Architecture, as a profession is the practice of providing a service, which includes many different disciplines while the overall aim of an architect is to design buildings . </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture can refer to the actual product, the architecture of a building or it can refer to the method or style used to design the building. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Process issues refer to the entire range of activities involved in an architectural project as it moves from inception through design and construction phases to beneficial occupancy by the Owner/Client/User. </li></ul><ul><li>These processes not only include those services performed by the architect, but also those performed by other participants . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS DELIVERY PROCESS </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>These activities of design may be grouped into 5 major phases of work: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Design activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary (Schematic) Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bidding and Negotiation activities </li></ul><ul><li>Construction activities </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Construction activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS DELIVERY PROCESS </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS DELIVERY PROCESS </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Impact of Design on Cost Implications </li></ul></ul>
Architecture in Practice Owner Consultant Consultant Consultant Trade Contractor Trade Contractor Trade Contractor Architect Contractor
Owner Architect Contractor Architecture in Practice
<ul><li>Antiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Classicism </li></ul><ul><li>Early Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Romanic </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Historicism </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism and Futurism </li></ul><ul><li>Bauhaus </li></ul><ul><li>Modernistic Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernism </li></ul><ul><li>High-Tech </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Current tendencies </li></ul>This presentation briefly covers the architectural styles throughout its history. The timeline will give you a better visual overview.
Antiquity Architecture Giza Pyramids Petra Stone Henge Abu Simbel Temple
Islamic Architecture Mecca Dome of the Rock Wikalat Al Ghuri Muhamad Ali Mosque Al Hambra Sultan Hassan
Architecture of the Late 20 th Century Frank Gehry Shtutgart Museum Mario Botta Peter Eisenman Renzo Piano
<ul><ul><li>Professional Architects Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Falling Water”, USA </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Professional Architects Projects “Guggenheim Museum” - NY </li></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Professional Architects Projects “ Notre Dame du Haut ” - Ronchamp </li></ul></ul>
Architectural Education École Nationale Sup. des Beaux-Arts, Paris. <ul><li>The origins of the school go back to 1648 when the "Académie des Beaux-Arts" was founded by Cardinal Mazarin to educate the most talented students in drawing, painting, sculpture, engraving, architecture and other media. </li></ul><ul><li>The Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture, Italian Renaissance and French and Italian Baroque models. </li></ul>
Architectural Education École Nationale Sup. des Beaux-Arts, Paris. <ul><li>Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches , highly-finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program , and knowledgeable detailing . </li></ul><ul><li>Site considerations tended towards social and urbane contexts. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The first school in the United Kingdom to offer a structured program of instruction was the Architectural Association ( AA ), founded in 1847 . </li></ul><ul><li>School has continued to draw its teaching staff from progressive international practices , and they are reappointed annually , allowing a continual renewal of the exploration of architecture </li></ul>Architectural Education The UK schools
<ul><li>Courses are divided into two main areas - undergraduate programmes , leading to the AA Diploma , and postgraduate programmes , which include specialised courses in landscape urbanism , housing and urbanism , energy and the environment , histories and theories , design research lab , building conservation , garden conservation , and environmental access . </li></ul>Architectural Education The UK schools
<ul><li>A school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts. </li></ul><ul><li>It operated from 1919 to 1933 , and for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius . </li></ul><ul><li>The name Bauhaus stems from the German words for "to build" and "house." </li></ul>Architectural Education Bauhaus, Germany.
<ul><li>Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design . </li></ul><ul><li>The teachings at the Bauhaus school of design were greatly influenced by the machine age . </li></ul><ul><li>The school's aim was to fuse all the arts under the concept of design . </li></ul>Architectural Education Bauhaus, Germany.
<ul><li>The first architecture schools in the USA were in universities of MIT, Cornell, and Illinois. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture was first taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1868 . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1932 the School of Architecture was established. </li></ul>Architectural Education MIT, USA.
<ul><li>In 1882 Andrew Dickson White, the first president of Cornell University established a new program to provide formal academic training in architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1896 the College of Architecture also offered classes in drawing, painting, and sculpture, and a department of art was formally added in 1921. </li></ul>Architectural Education Cornell, USA. Drafting Room, White Hall. ca. 1910 2007
Sociology Psychology Anthropology Materials Structure Electrical Mechanical Civil Painting Sculpture Aesthetics Architecture Education Arts Science & Engineering Humanities The Education of the Architect
<ul><li>Sample Curriculum for an Architecture Program: </li></ul><ul><li>Design Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Design </li></ul><ul><li>History of Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Working Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Design </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting and Illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Urban Design </li></ul><ul><li>Interior Architectural Design </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-Aided Design </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Practice </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>The Education of the Architect
Project Based Learning <ul><li>In architecture education we apply what is known as “Project Based Learning” (PBL). </li></ul><ul><li>Project Based Learning allows teachers to create tasks whose complexity and openness mimic problems in the real world . </li></ul><ul><li>Students can see the interdisciplinary nature of these tasks, and see that each task may have more than one solution . </li></ul><ul><li>Students have the freedom to choose different strategies and approaches may become more engaged in the learning process , and these students will be more likely to approach other problems with an open mind . </li></ul>
For the purpose of accreditation, graduating students must demonstrate understanding or ability in the following areas: 1. Speaking and Writing Skills Ability to read, write, listen, and speak effectively 2. Critical Thinking Skills Ability to raise clear and precise questions, use abstract ideas to interpret information, consider diverse points of view, reach well-reasoned conclusions, and test them against relevant criteria and standards 3. Graphics Skills Ability to use appropriate representational media, including freehand drawing and computer technology, to convey essential formal elements at each stage of the programming and design process 4. Research Skills Ability to gather, assess, record, and apply relevant information in architectural coursework. 5. Formal Ordering Systems Understanding of the fundamentals of visual perception and the principles and systems of order that inform two- and three-dimensional design, architectural composition, and urban design Condition 12: Student Performance Criteria
6. Fundamental Design Skills Ability to use basic architectural principles in the design of buildings, interior spaces, and sites 7. Collaborative Skills Ability to recognize the varied talent found in interdisciplinary design project teams in professional practice and work in collaboration with other students as members of a design team 8. Western Traditions Understanding of the Western architectural canons and traditions in architecture, landscape and urban design, as well as the climatic, technological, socioeconomic, and other cultural factors that have shaped and sustained them 9. Non-Western Traditions Understanding of parallel and divergent canons and traditions of architecture and urban design in the non-Western world 10. National and Regional Traditions Understanding of national traditions and the local regional heritage in architecture, landscape design and urban design, including the vernacular tradition 11. Use of Precedents Ability to incorporate relevant precedents into architecture and urban design projects Condition 12: Student Performance Criteria
12. Human Behavior Understanding of the theories and methods of inquiry that seek to clarify the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment 13. Human Diversity Understanding of the diverse needs, values, behavioral norms, physical ability, and social and spatial patterns that characterize different cultures and individuals and the implication of this diversity for the societal roles and responsibilities of architects 14. Accessibility Ability to design both site and building to accommodate individuals with varying physical abilities 15. Sustainable Design Understanding of the principles of sustainability in making architecture and urban design decisions that conserve natural and built resources, including culturally important buildings and sites, and in the creation of healthful buildings and communities 16. Program Preparation Ability to prepare a comprehensive program for an architectural project, including assessment of client and user needs, a critical review of appropriate precedents, an inventory of space and equipment requirements, an analysis of site conditions, a review of the relevant laws and standards and assessment of their implication for the project, and a definition of site selection and design assessment criteria Condition 12: Student Performance Criteria
17. Site Conditions Ability to respond to natural and built site characteristics in the development of a program and the design of a project 18. Structural Systems Understanding of principles of structural behavior in withstanding gravity and lateral forces and the evolution, range, and appropriate application of contemporary structural systems 19. Environmental Systems Understanding of the basic principles and appropriate application and performance of environmental systems, including acoustical, lighting, and climate modification systems, and energy use, integrated with the building envelope 20. Life Safety Understanding of the basic principles of life-safety systems with an emphasis on egress 21. Building Envelope Systems Understanding of the basic principles and appropriate application and performance of building envelope materials and assemblies 22. Building Service Systems Understanding of the basic principles and appropriate application and performance of plumbing, electrical, vertical transportation, communication, security, and fire protection systems Condition 12: Student Performance Criteria
23. Building Systems Integration Ability to assess, select, and conceptually integrate structural systems, building envelope systems, environmental systems, life-safety systems, and building service systems into building design 24. Building Materials and Assemblies Understanding of the basic principles and appropriate application and performance of construction materials, products, components, and assemblies, including their environmental impact and reuse 25. Construction Cost Control Understanding of the fundamentals of building cost, life-cycle cost, and construction estimating 26. Technical Documentation Ability to make technically precise drawings and write outline specifications for a proposed design 27. Client Role in Architecture Understanding of the responsibility of the architect to elicit, understand, and resolve the needs of the client, owner, and user Condition 12: Student Performance Criteria
28. Comprehensive Design Ability to produce a comprehensive architectural project based on a building program and site that includes development of programmed spaces demonstrating an understanding of structural and environmental systems, building envelope systems, life-safety provisions, wall sections and building assemblies and the principles of sustainability 29. Architect ’ s Administrative Roles Understanding of obtaining commissions and negotiating contracts, managing personnel and selecting consultants, recommending project delivery methods, and forms of service contracts 30. Architectural Practice Understanding of the basic principles and legal aspects of practice organization, financial management, business planning, time and project management, risk mitigation, and mediation and arbitration as well as an understanding of trends that affect practice, such as globalization, outsourcing, project delivery, expanding practice settings, diversity, and others 31. Professional Development Understanding of the role of internship in obtaining licensure and registration and the mutual rights and responsibilities of interns and employers Condition 12: Student Performance Criteria
32. Leadership Understanding of the need for architects to provide leadership in the building design and construction process and on issues of growth, development, and aesthetics in their communities 33. Legal Responsibilities Understanding of the architect ’ s responsibility as determined by registration law, building codes and regulations, professional service contracts, zoning and subdivision ordinances, environmental regulation, historic preservation laws, and accessibility laws 34. Ethics and Professional Judgment Understanding of the ethical issues involved in the formation of professional judgment in architectural design and practice. Condition 12: Student Performance Criteria
Kuwait University - Arch. Department Themes of Arch. Design Studio Courses Details Presentation Techniques Project Level Knowledge Components Skills and Abilities Themes Course Name - Pencil and ink drafting Basic drafting Projection methods Basics of drafting 2D Projection methods Graphics Architecture Communication 1 - Pencil and ink drafting Basic drafting Representation methods Shade and Shadow and Perspective Graphics Architecture Communication 2 - Model making techniques Basic design and form manipulation exercises Form, space and order in Architecture 3D Projection methods, Models, room design Elements Design Basics Construction Materials Black and White presentation techniques Single function Simple structure Spatial relationships Circulation, Function, Diagrams and zoning Form Architectural Design 1 Construction methods Color presentation techniques Medium span Horizontal circulation The Design Process Site and Program analysis Function Architectural Design 2 Structural system details Advanced presentation techniques Large span Vertical circulation Human needs and Programming Contextual analysis and environmental considerations Structural systems Architectural Design 3 Modular coordination & Design details Advanced presentation techniques Multiple systems Multiple functions Heritage and Identity Team work approach Environmental sustainability Architectural Design 4 Urban design and landscape details Project Drawings and Report Multiple systems Complex functions Design theory and strategy Data collection and analysis Technical writing Socio-Cultural sustainability Architectural Design 5 Working Details CAADD Multiple systems Complex functions The Electronic Design Studio ACAD Presentation Techniques CAAD Architectural Design 6 Working Drawings set Construction Drawings Medium size Construction Documents Design Development Working Drawings Working drawings - Presentation and Report Comprehensive project Research and Analysis Site and program development Problem formulation Graduation Project 1 ARCH 491 Structural details Drawings and Report Comprehensive project Synthesis and Design Design Development Creative thinking Graduation Project 2 ARCH 492
Kuwait University - Arch. Department Focus of Arch. Design Studio Courses
The Design Courses & Studio Manual Internet access to manual: http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/cameroon/84/courses/designmanual.html
<ul><ul><li>Comparison Between Architectural Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in Practice and in Education </li></ul></ul>In Education In Practice Hypothetical Real Client/Owner Low priority High priority Economics Low priority High priority Constructability Process Product Focus Low priority High priority Building Industry Not required Required Licensing Considered Applied Codes and Regulations Grade (A) Money ($) Compensation
<ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union of International Architects (UIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.uia-architectes.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Institute of Architects (AIA) http://www.aia.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.architecture.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kuwait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuwait Society of Engineers (KSE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.kse.org.kw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuwait League of Architects (KLA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.kse.org.kw/kose/lacen/artel/ </li></ul></ul>The Professional Bodies Around the World
Conclusions <ul><li>There commonalities and differences between architectural design in practice and in education . </li></ul><ul><li>Commonalities include: design process, graphics, presentation, creativity, etc … </li></ul><ul><li>Differences include: client, budget, constructability, contractor, specialists, etc … </li></ul><ul><li>While the focus in PRACTICE is on the PRODUCT , the focus in EDUCATION is on the PROCESS . </li></ul><ul><li>In PROJECT BASED LEARNING (BPL), the project is only a vehicle for learning by doing. </li></ul>