Smart Buildings


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  • The jury loved this unusual project – The Regional Animal Campus in Las Vegas by Tate Snyder Kimsey Architects. This is a dog adoption park … a series of doggie bungalows with 12 kennels each. They got 81% energy reduction, 28% of needs provided by PVs, with future wind farm planned. They reduced cooling loads and water use: minimize maintenance and operating costs without compromising the quality of the adoption experience and the dog’s comfort. Evaporative cooling is mixed with natural ventilation: minimal heating needs in Las Vegas, of course! SECTION: Towers increase natural ventilation supplemented by evaporative cooling.
  • and did so with the industrial/farm palette that the firm is known for. Great aspect of this project: Program called for 20,000 sf and the architects helped right size the facility to 13,000 sf … the main strategy to make that happen was to place the circulation outdoors. They do more with less in many ways. Project cost was $3.5 million.
  • This is designed to be zero net energy during the day; most energy use is for occasional night use.
  • Smart Buildings

    1. 1. Smart Buildings From an Architectural Point of View By: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
    2. 2. Introduction
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>What is “Smart Building”? </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Buildings vs. Dump Buildings ! </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a building “Smart”? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>What is a Smart Building from an Architectural point of view? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A building that … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A building that … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A building that … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A building that … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A building that … </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Activity Describe and Draw a “Smart Building”!
    6. 6. What makes a building “Smart”? <ul><li>There is no simple answer! </li></ul><ul><li>In fact if you ask each of the stakeholders what they seek from an intelligent/smart building their responses will be different. </li></ul>
    7. 7. What makes a building “Smart”? <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Owners need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competitive construction costs , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high occupancy and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low churn to achieve a return on their investment while fulfilling regulatory requirements , </li></ul></ul><ul><li>whereas U sers seek: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transparency, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comfort and flexibility . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both demand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability and, increasingly, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainability . </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. What makes a building “Smart”? <ul><li>Given the constantly changing technology the choice, design and integration of building systems is a critical factor in ensuring that an intelligent building continues to meet the changing needs of occupiers, owners and the environment . </li></ul>
    9. 9. What makes a building “Smart”? <ul><li>The notion “ intelligent/smart building ” was born in the USA in the early 1980's. It: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Senses ” what is going on indoors and outdoors . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reacts ” to ensure, in the most efficient way, safe and comfortable stay in it minimizing amount of energy and resources consumed . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Interacts ” with people by means of simple and easily accessible communications channels. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Smart Car - light & compact - low-drag design - fuel efficient - low emission - 95% recyclable - efficient accessories - friendly factory ? Smart & Green Building - energy efficient - use renewable energy - green building materials - low environmental impact - responsive to climate/site - responsive to user needs - healthy environment
    11. 11. What makes a building “Smart”? <ul><li>From an architectural point of view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Smart Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>= </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Sustainable Building </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>sus·tain v. </li></ul><ul><li>sus·tain a·bil i·ty n. </li></ul><ul><li>sus·tain a·ble adj. </li></ul><ul><li>sus·tain er n. </li></ul><ul><li>sus·tain ment n. </li></ul>Sustainability Defined
    13. 13. <ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>sus·tain v. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To keep in existence; maintain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To supply with necessities or nourishment; provide for. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To support from below; keep from falling or sinking; prop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To support the spirits, vitality, or resolution of; encourage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To bear up under; withstand: can't sustain the blistering heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To experience or suffer: sustained a fatal injury. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To affirm the validity of: The judge has sustained the prosecutor's objection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prove or corroborate; confirm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To keep up (a joke or assumed role, for example) competently. </li></ul></ul>Sustainability Defined
    14. 14. Sustainability Defined <ul><li>The 1987 Brundtland Report , defined sustainable development as development that &quot; meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs &quot;. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Sustainability Defined <ul><li>The 1995 World Summit on Social Development further defined this term as &quot; the framework for our efforts to achieve a higher quality of life for all people ,&quot; in which &quot; economic development, social development and environmental protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components &quot;. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Sustainability Defined <ul><li>The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development expanded this definition identifying the &quot; three overarching objectives of sustainable development &quot; to be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) eradicating poverty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) protecting natural resources, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) changing unsustainable production and consumption patterns. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Sustainability Defined <ul><li>Early definitions narrow the interest to ecological issues such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improving air and water quality , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing energy consumption , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restoring and conserving natural resources , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing landfill mass . </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Building Environmental Impact
    19. 19. Historical Development of Sustainable Architecture <ul><li>1950’s Interest in Vernacular Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s Solar Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s Ecological and Environmental Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>1990’s Sustainable Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>2000’s Green Architecture </li></ul>
    20. 20. Sustainable Architecture <ul><li>The popular interpretation of the words “sustainable architecture” describes an approach to architectural design that minimizes sustenance or resource consumption so as to prolong the availability of natural resources . </li></ul>
    21. 21. Sustainable Architecture <ul><li>Sustainable architecture is sometimes misunderstood as a romantic nostalgia to the past with its simple and unpolluted vernacular ways of living. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Sustainable Architecture <ul><li>It is an invitation to honor the process instead of praising the product . </li></ul><ul><li>One should not expect to reach typical ways of doing things. Each context requires in depth understanding and acting according to its needs and potentials. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Sustainable Architecture <ul><li>What is sustainable architecture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human: Social and Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment: Climate and context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy: Energy and Systems </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Sustainable Architecture The real power of the concept of sustainability lies in its integration of economic , social , and ecological systems, previously studied and dealt with separately. Center for Sustainable Communities, Tutorials, 1995.
    25. 25. Sustainable Architecture Environmental Cultural Economic Social Architecture is unique in that it spans all dimensions of sustainability. This, in itself, presents its own challenges and opportunities.
    26. 26. Building Type Focus: Housing Sustainability
    27. 27. Environmental Sustainability
    28. 28. <ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation and its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming and pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Energy: renewable and not </li></ul><ul><li>Water: sources and uses </li></ul><ul><li>Biological diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Wastes and waste management </li></ul>
    29. 29. Water efficiency A Smart House saves on water which also saves you money in the long term. You can achieve water efficiency by choosing water saving showers and taps and considering using water tanks for watering the garden and flushing the toilet. Environmental
    30. 30. Waste efficiency A Smart House is waste efficient. Careful design and planning can save materials being wasted during initial construction. It may also reduce the need for expensive modifications as needs change. Environmental
    31. 31. Energy efficiency A Smart House reduces energy consumption meaning more economic savings for you and your family. Passive solar design features such as house orientation, ventilation, insulation and adequate shading can improve energy efficiency. In many cases, it is possible to keep inside the home cool in summer and warm in winter without resorting to artificial heating and cooling devices. Environmental
    32. 32. Social Sustainability
    33. 33. <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Good citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of governance </li></ul><ul><li>Well-being and quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty and its eradication </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth and its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of human settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Public awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>Social
    34. 34. <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Belonging and identity </li></ul><ul><li>Changing patterns and cultures of consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Local cultures, globalisation, diaspora </li></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism and cultural sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous practices of sustainability </li></ul>Social
    35. 35. Safety + security + universal design = social sustainability Safety A safe home reduces the likelihood of injuries in and around the home. More information about making your home safer is available. Social
    36. 36. Safety + security + universal design = social sustainability Security A secure home uses designs and fittings to reduce crime. More information about making your home secure is available. Social
    37. 37. Safety + security + universal design = social sustainability Universal design A home that is universally designed is flexible and comfortable for people with varying abilities and at different stages of their lives. More information about making your home more comfortable and flexible is available. Social
    38. 38. Economic Sustainability
    39. 39. <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic vs instrumental value </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>The economics of sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable aid and aid for sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate values and business ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Development and sustainability </li></ul>Economic
    40. 40. Construction costs In a Smart House, you can achieve cost savings at the initial design and construction stage through the use of cost-efficient building materials, economic planning and 'smart' ideas. Economic
    41. 41. Ongoing running costs Ongoing costs can really add up over the life of the home. Significant savings are to be gained by carefully considering the design of the home and which fixtures and fittings to include. Economic
    42. 42. Living costs Smart design features can save you money on a variety of everyday expenses such as cleaning, replacements and repairs as a result of accidents and breakages. The use of durable, low maintenance building materials such as coloured rendering will reduce ongoing expenses. Economic
    43. 43. LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS A tool that can be used to evaluate the long-term economic merits of alternative design solutions.
    46. 46. Alternatives have different effects on: <ul><li>everyday operating cost </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>energy consumption </li></ul><ul><li>replacement cycle of components </li></ul>Defining Design Alternatives for Study LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
    47. 47. Experienced architects focus on design ALTERNATIVES when: <ul><li>Significant initial construction funds will be spent. </li></ul><ul><li>There are design choices to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>The choices have significantly different in-use cost. </li></ul>LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
    48. 48. BIG decisions are faced early in design.. (build, renovate, build later, not-to-build … ) LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
    49. 49. During Design stage , Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) usually focuses on SYSTEMS and ELEMENTS that will require varying costs for energy, equipment replacement, or continuing labor. LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
    50. 50. Sometimes it makes sense to pay more now to save much more later. LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
    51. 51. Activity Sustainability Evaluation Form
    52. 52. Activity Sustainability Evaluation Form Public Neighborhoods in Kuwait
    53. 53. Activity Sustainability Evaluation Form Public Neighborhoods in Kuwait
    54. 54. Activity Sustainability Evaluation Form Public Neighborhoods in Kuwait
    55. 55. LEED Rating System
    56. 56. LEED Rating System <ul><li>The U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED™) Rating System is designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional, and high-rise residential buildings . </li></ul><ul><li>It evaluates environmental performance from a “whole building” perspective over a building's life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building. LEED™ is based on accepted energy and environmental principles described here. </li></ul>
    57. 57. LEED Rating System
    58. 58. LEED Rating System <ul><li>These criteria were developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) who maintains a list of registered and LEED™ certified green buildings and awards certificates for the various levels of certification. </li></ul><ul><li>LEED divides green building practices into five major categories as indicated above, all of which are essential, if a building is to be considered “green.” </li></ul>
    59. 59. What is LEED ® ? <ul><li>Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design </li></ul><ul><li>Rating system for developing high performance, sustainable buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary, consensus-based, well recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by US Green Building Council </li></ul>
    60. 60. LEED ® Point System 2 credits / 5 points Innovation & Design Process 8 credits / 15 points Indoor Environmental Quality 7 credits / 13 points Materials & Resources 6 credits / 17 points Energy & Atmosphere 3 credits / 5 points Water Efficiency 8 credits / 14 points Sustainable Sites Credits/Points Performance Category
    61. 61. LEED ® Rating Levels 26 – 32 points LEED ® Certified 33 – 38 points LEED ® Silver 39 – 51 points LEED ® Gold 52+ points LEED ® Platinum 69 points Total Possible Points Required Points LEED Designation
    62. 62. Applications for LEED ®
    63. 63. Why use LEED ® ? <ul><li>Provides a common and consistent framework for defining a “green” building </li></ul><ul><li>Is relatively simple to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Is not overly prescriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Can be adapted for local climates and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Provides legitimacy of 3 rd party certification </li></ul><ul><li>Is gaining momentum as the accepted rating system </li></ul>
    64. 64. Green Building Benefits <ul><li>25-60% energy savings </li></ul><ul><li>30-50% water savings </li></ul><ul><li>Financial benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Improved worker productivity – due to improved lighting and thermal comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced sick time from allergies, asthma & respiratory illness </li></ul><ul><li>Lower life-cycle costs </li></ul>
    65. 65. Sustainability Indicators
    66. 66. Keys to Success <ul><li>Incorporate green principles at the beginning of the design process </li></ul><ul><li>Involve operations staff early in the design process </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unmanageable complexity in building systems </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake a thorough commissioning process </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure staff are properly trained in building system operation </li></ul>
    67. 67. LEED Rating System - Example
    68. 73. Traditional Solutions
    69. 74. Traditional Solutions
    70. 75. Traditional Solutions
    71. 76. Traditional Solutions
    72. 77. Traditional Solutions
    73. 78. Traditional Solutions
    74. 79. Wind catchers
    75. 80. Wind catchers
    76. 81. Hot humid zone Making the outer skin porous and light.
    77. 82. Traditional Solutions
    78. 83. Shading Devices
    79. 84. Shading Devices
    80. 85. Shading Devices
    81. 86. Shading Devices <ul><li>Planting is a low cost, low energy provider of shade that improves air quality by filtering pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose local native species with low water requirements wherever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to providing shade, plants can assist cooling by transpiration. Plants also enhance the visual environment and create pleasant filtered light. </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous plants allow winter sun through and exclude summer sun. </li></ul>
    82. 87. Renewable Energy Sources
    83. 88. Renewable Energy Sources Solar Energy Basics Sunlight—solar energy—can be used to generate electricity, provide hot water, and to heat, cool, and light buildings. Photovoltaic (solar cell) systems convert sunlight directly into electricity. A solar or PV cell consists of semi conducting material that absorbs the sunlight. The solar energy knocks electrons loose from their atoms, allowing the electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity There are three main ways that we use the Sun's energy:- Solar Cells Solar water heating Solar Furnaces
    84. 89. Renewable Energy Sources Solar water heating , where heat from the Sun is used to heat water in glass panels on your roof. Water is pumped through pipes in the panel. The pipes are painted black, so they get hot when the Sun shines on them.
    85. 90. Renewable Energy Sources Wind Energy Wind turbines capture the wind's energy with two or three propeller-like blades, which are mounted on a rotor, to generate electricity. The turbines sit high atop towers, taking advantage of the stronger and less turbulent wind at 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground. A blade acts much like an airplane wing. When the wind blows, a pocket of low-pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it, causing the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the wind's force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag. The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to spin like a propeller, and the turning shaft spins a generator to make electricity.
    86. 91. Renewable Energy Sources Tidal power Tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon, and waves are driven primarily by the winds. A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity
    87. 92. Renewable Energy Sources Waves Ocean waves are caused by the wind as it blows across the sea. Waves are a powerful source of energy. The problem is that it's not easy to harness this energy and convert it into electricity in large amounts. Thus, wave power stations are rare.
    88. 93. Renewable Energy Sources Bio energy Biomass (organic matter) can be used to provide heat, make fuels, and generate electricity. This is called bio energy. Wood, the largest source of bio energy, has been used to provide heat for thousands of years. But there are many other types of biomass—such as wood, plants, residue from agriculture or forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes—that can now be used as an energy source.
    89. 94. Renewable Energy Sources Hydro power Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydropower . Hydropower is currently the largest source of renewable power, generating nearly 10% of the electricity used in the United States. The most common type of hydropower plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which, in turn, activates a generator to produce electricity. But hydropower doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydropower plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine.
    90. 95. Renewable Energy Sources Geothermal Geothermal energy technologies use the heat of the earth for direct-use applications, geothermal heat pumps, and electrical power production. Research in all areas of geothermal development is helping to lower costs and expand its use. Advantages -Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, -The power stations do not take up much room-No fuel is needed -Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free Disadvantages -The big problem is that there are not many places where you can build a geothermal power station. -Sometimes a geothermal site may &quot;run out of steam&quot;, perhaps for decades - Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground, and can be difficult to safely dispose of
    91. 96. Examples
    92. 103. Pugh + Scarpa Architects Solar Umbrella House The photovolatic panels on the top and side are used as an expressive and transformative part of the design. These panels provide 95% of the house’s electricity and provide shading for indoor and outdoor spaces.
    93. 104. Mahlum Architects Benjamin Franklin Elementary School This school was designed to connect students directly with the environment in which they live.
    94. 105. Ballard Library & Neighborhood Service Center Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Architects Green roof covers most of the site.
    95. 106. Croxton Collaborative Architects & Cecil Baker Associates Philadelphia Forensic Science Center Adaptive re-use with a difficult orientation.
    96. 107. Tate Snyder Kimsey Architects Regional Animal Campus Towers increase natural ventilation supplemented by evaporative cooling.
    97. 108. Lake Flato Architects World Birding Center Tough, durable materials are assembled into a simple, elegant structure. Concrete frames supporting the barrel roof allowed reduction of material use
    98. 109. Jackson & McElhaney Architects Westcave Preserve Careful consideration of sun path as it interacts with the building.
    99. 110. Buildings of the 21st Century
    100. 111. Buildings of the 21st Century <ul><li>They will integrate technology with other building systems to create a &quot;Smart Building&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The Smart Building will anticipate the needs of the building users to provide improved comfort, greater user control, and better energy efficiency . </li></ul>
    101. 112. Buildings of the 21st Century <ul><li>Here are a few examples of how this can work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web based control of building systems. Building occupants can adjust room temperature setpoints, change lighting schemes, or adjust any number of other systems through a password protected web page. An instructor could use this to set up a classroom in advance of a lecture. </li></ul></ul>
    102. 113. Buildings of the 21st Century <ul><ul><li>Integration of HVAC and lighting systems with security systems. A building user enters the building during &quot;off&quot; hours. The security system knows who has entered the building. The building then can turn on lights and HVAC systems in the areas to be used by the person entering. </li></ul></ul>
    103. 114. Buildings of the 21st Century <ul><ul><li>Smart Windows. For most building users, operable windows are a desirable feature. Smart Windows will know if they are open and will let the building system know. HVAC systems can be automatically turned down in areas with open windows resulting in energy savings. Smart Windows combined with room occupancy sensors will alert building personnel if windows have been accidentally left open in unoccupied areas. Smart Window technology can be combined with natural ventilation schemes to tell building users when opening the windows would be a good idea. </li></ul></ul>
    104. 115. List of Green Ideas <ul><li>Below is a list of some ideas and new technologies, which can help to make your building green. These items should be in every building designed today. Unfortunately many are not, usually because a short sighted owner sees only first cost, or because a designer doesn't understand them. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo- voltaics </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Façade </li></ul><ul><li>Green Roof </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal Heat Pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater collection </li></ul>
    105. 116. Photo-Voltaics <ul><li>Photo-voltaic cells can be mounted on the building roof or integrated into the building façade. </li></ul><ul><li>PV can be used to provide portions of the buildings electrical load during daylight hours. </li></ul>
    106. 117. Photo-Voltaics <ul><li>In remote locations PV’s can be combined with storage devices to provide electricity. </li></ul>
    107. 118. Climate Façade <ul><li>An advanced technology used successfully in parts of the world. The Climate Façade is typically a curtain wall with two layers of glazing separated by a large (12 inches or more width) air space. </li></ul>
    108. 119. Climate Façade <ul><li>Automatic sun shades can be installed in the air space to block solar heat gain during warm conditions. The sun shades can be opened to allow light to enter the space during winter, and at times of indirect sunlight. This system allows the curtain wall to have the thermal efficiency of highly reflective insulating glass, yet allow natural lighting into the space in a manner similar to clear glass. </li></ul>
    109. 120. Climate Façade <ul><li>The Climate Façade can be integrated with the building HVAC systems to allow wintertime heat recovery from the sun shades and/or direct venting from the air space during times of high cooling load. </li></ul>
    110. 127. Green Roof <ul><li>There are a variety of technologies that can be used to improve the sustainable of the building roof. The roof can become a &quot;habitat&quot; with plantings of grass and other vegetation. This decreases solar load and winter heat loss, while providing greenspace for birds and other wildlife. Alternatively, the roof can include water features, such as reflecting pools, or fountains, which will evaporatively cool the building during the summer months. </li></ul>
    111. 128. Wind Power <ul><li>A wind turbine can be used to generate electricity for building use </li></ul>
    112. 129. Geothermal Heat Pumps <ul><li>With ground source heat pumps, the earth is used as a heat sink in summer, and a heat source in winter. This eliminates the need for cooling towers and provides some energy savings. </li></ul>
    113. 130. Rainwater collection <ul><li>It may be feasible to collect rainwater in a catch basin or other device, for use in the building in a manner similar to gray water systems. This will reduce building water consumption and may reduce storm sewer requirements. </li></ul>
    114. 131. Activities
    115. 132. Activities Economy Environment Human Socio-Cultural Neighborhood Street House
    116. 133. Activity Smart House
    117. 134. Activity Smart House
    118. 135. Activity Smart Street
    119. 136. Activity Smart Street
    120. 137. Activity Smart Neighborhood
    121. 138. Activity Smart Neighborhood
    122. 139. End