Qatar Society of Engineers
March 1st , 2011
Lecture

Building Performance
Evaluation
An Integrative Framework For Architec...
Introduction
 This lecture outlines a

comprehensive approach to
Building Performance
Evaluation
Evaluation applicable to...
Introduction
 Building Performance

Evaluation (BPE) is an extension
of what had been called
Evaluation
“Post-Occupancy E...
Six Phases of the Building Life Cycle
 The typical six phases of the

building life cycle are:
1- Planning,
2- Programmin...
Participants in the Building Life Cycle
 Initiators: Owners - Investors - Institutions -

Governmental Agencies…
 Design...
Linear Design Method
Architectural Knowledge
Briefing
Need
Building Type
Program
Site
Data
…

Analysis
…

Synthesis
…

Eva...
Cyclical Design Method
Architectural Knowledge
Briefing
Need
Building Type
Program
Site
Data
…

Analysis
…

Building
Perfo...
BPE Across Project Life Cycle
Feed forward
Experience

Conceive

BPE
Procure

Feed forward
Experience

Conceive

Occupy / ...
BPE Across Projects Life Cycle
Feed forward
Experience
Conceive

3-6
mths
Procure

12-18
mths

5 yrs

Occupy

Conceive

Fe...
The Three Major Elements of Evaluation
The Building Performance
Evaluation process
encompasses Functional
and Technical
pe...
Elements of Evaluation
 Technical Elements:

Fire safety, structural integrity,
sanitation, durability, acoustics,
lighti...
Quantitative and Qualitative
Measurements of Performance
 Many aspects of building performance are in fact

Quantifiable,...
Measurements of Performance
 Observed Performance

– Measured by an expert or panel of experts.
– Information is recorded...
Measurements of Performance
Evaluation
Measured
Perceived
Observed
Technical
Fuctional
Behavioral

Urban
Building
Room

Pe...
An Integrative Framework for BPE
Performance Criteria
Market/
Needs
Analysis
PostOccupancy
Evaluation

Recycling

Recyclin...
Levels of BPE Effort
 There are three levels of effort at which BPEs can be

undertaken:

• Indicative
• Investigative
• ...
Levels of BPE Effort
 Indicative
–
–
–
–
–

Quick, walk-through evaluations
Selected interviews with knowledgeable inform...
Levels of BPE Effort
 Investigative
–
–
–
–
–
–

More in-depth
Interviews and survey questionnaires
Photographic/video re...
Levels of BPE Effort
 Diagnostic
– Focused, longitudinal and cross-sectional
evaluation studies
– One or more performance...
The Process
 Preparation (2-3 weeks): Identification of user groups,

timetabling, selection of participants, letters of ...
BPE Outcomes
 Short term outcomes

– Feedback on existing problems in buildings
– Identification of appropriate solutions...
BPE Benefits
 Fine tuning new buildings.

 Improving design for future buildings.
 Assessing building quality
 Cost sa...
The Application of BPE
 Institutions and Government Agencies
Increasing concern for budget overruns, building failure, or...
Who Should Conduct BPEs?
 Independent team of experts that includes architects, environmental
psychologists, mechanical e...
Barriers to BPEs
 There is generally no money for BPEs.

 BPEs require a considerable amount of

time.
 No people with ...
Conclusions
 The benefits of BPEs are several:

– better quality of the built environment;
– greater occupant comfort
– m...
Summary
 In summary, Building Performance

Evaluation (BPE) identifies both
successes and failures in building
performanc...
Examples
Case study # 1
New Elementary School Buildings - UAE.

School Plan
New Elementary School Buildings - UAE.
New Elementary School Buildings - UAE.
Case study # 2
Governmental Housing Projects, Kuwait
This research is applied on a sample of 27 house owners from different educational
l...
The changes that have been done
Exterior changes
exterior walls changes
exterior walls no changes
exterior walls no change...
The changes that have been done
Interior Changes
interior walls changes

25

25

interior walls no changes

23

23
22

int...
Reasons behind changes

7%

7%
functional
form
both

The expence of changes

86%

22%

27%

1000-5000 KD
5000-10000 KD

Th...
Case study # 3
Marina Mall - Kuwait
 The evaluation of user satisfaction intended to depict

the objectives and aims of the designers an...
Marina Mall - Kuwait

Ground floor plan

First floor plan

Marina mall location
Marina Mall - Kuwait
 Way-finding and Circulation:

 Most users cannot find their way in and out the mall and between

s...
Marina Mall - Kuwait
 Noise:

 The area under the dome is very noisy due to the design of the large

double height space...
a

Marina Mall - Kuwait
Noise and Lighting level measurement:

THE DECIBEL METER

lighting lev el

Daytime (lux)
Night (lu...
Marina Mall - Kuwait
5
4

3

2

1

Daytime (lux)
Area 1

64

860

210

Area 3
7

250

Area 2
6

Night (lux)

670

118

Are...
Marina Mall - Kuwait

NIGHT

NIGHT

DAY

DAY
Marina Mall - Kuwait

NIGHT

NIGHT

DAY

DAY
Marina Mall - Kuwait
Age

Finding Parking Space

Difficulty to find parking space

Age
13-19

30

20

20-29
20

30-39

10
...
Marina Mall - Kuwait
Rate Marina Mall according to:

25
20
15
10
5
0
op
t
l
v
n
c
f
i
e
e
m
s
f
en emp ightin enti o ise r...
Marina Mall - Kuwait

Rate Marina Mall according to?

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

de
tu

al
qu

e

t
en
nm

it y

ro

ok...
Marina Mall - Kuwait

Salem al-Mubark court

Virgin corridor

Marina corridors

Wide corridor

The one store (exterior)

M...
Marina Mall - Kuwait
As a result of this BOE, solutions on the short
term included the following:
 Opening clearer entran...
Marina Mall - Kuwait
Recommendations for other future shopping
centers and malls:
 Study flow patterns of visitors and de...
Thank You.
Building Performance Evaluation - تقيم اداء المبانى
Building Performance Evaluation - تقيم اداء المبانى
Building Performance Evaluation - تقيم اداء المبانى
Building Performance Evaluation - تقيم اداء المبانى
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Building Performance Evaluation - تقيم اداء المبانى

  1. 1. Qatar Society of Engineers March 1st , 2011 Lecture Building Performance Evaluation An Integrative Framework For Architectural and Urban Design Projects Evaluation Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture College of Engineering Qatar University
  2. 2. Introduction  This lecture outlines a comprehensive approach to Building Performance Evaluation Evaluation applicable to all architectural and urban design projects. Design  Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) offers feedback on design and contributes to architectural knowledge. Construction
  3. 3. Introduction  Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) is an extension of what had been called Evaluation “Post-Occupancy Evaluation." Design  BPE is a continuous process of systematically evaluating the performance and/or effectiveness of aspects of buildings such as accessibility, aesthetics, costeffectiveness, functionality, produ ctivity, safety and security, and sustainability. Construction
  4. 4. Six Phases of the Building Life Cycle  The typical six phases of the building life cycle are: 1- Planning, 2- Programming, 3- Design, 4- Construction, 5- Occupancy, and 6- Recycling. Recycling Planning Programming Occupancy Construction Design
  5. 5. Participants in the Building Life Cycle  Initiators: Owners - Investors - Institutions - Governmental Agencies…  Designers: Architects - Interior Designers - Landscape Architects - Specialists (Structural Electrical - mechanical - …)  Builders: Contractors - Sub-contractors - …  Operators: Managers - Maintenance staff  End Users: actual persons occupying buildings
  6. 6. Linear Design Method Architectural Knowledge Briefing Need Building Type Program Site Data … Analysis … Synthesis … Evaluate … Design … Linear Design Method Execution … ?
  7. 7. Cyclical Design Method Architectural Knowledge Briefing Need Building Type Program Site Data … Analysis … Building Performance Evaluation Synthesis … Evaluate … Design … Execution … Cyclical Design Method
  8. 8. BPE Across Project Life Cycle Feed forward Experience Conceive BPE Procure Feed forward Experience Conceive Occupy / manage Post Occupancy Evaluation Procure Occupy / manage
  9. 9. BPE Across Projects Life Cycle Feed forward Experience Conceive 3-6 mths Procure 12-18 mths 5 yrs Occupy Conceive Feed forward Experience Plan BPE Conceive Plan POE 3-6 mths 5 yrs Occupy Procure Feed forward Experience Conceive Plan BPE Timeline for BPE 12-18 mths Procure Procure 3-6 mths 12-18 mths Occupy Feed forward Experience 5 yrs
  10. 10. The Three Major Elements of Evaluation The Building Performance Evaluation process encompasses Functional and Technical performance of buildings alongside Human performance criteria, while recognizing the Cultural Context of the project. Technical Behavioral Functional Cultural Context The Three Major Elements of Evaluation
  11. 11. Elements of Evaluation  Technical Elements: Fire safety, structural integrity, sanitation, durability, acoustics, lighting, HVAC, …..  Functional Elements: Workflow, circulation, space allocation, operational efficiency, productivity, organization, …..  Behavioral Elements: Privacy, security, social interaction, perception of density, territoriality, ….. Technical Behavioral Functional Cultural Context The Three Major Elements of Evaluation
  12. 12. Quantitative and Qualitative Measurements of Performance  Many aspects of building performance are in fact Quantifiable, such as: – Lighting, – Acoustics, – Temperature and humidity, – Durability of materials, – Amount and distribution of space, – User satisfaction and so on.  The evaluation of Qualitative aspects of building performance, such as aesthetic beauty or visual compatibility with a building’s surroundings, is somewhat more difficult to measure.
  13. 13. Measurements of Performance  Observed Performance – Measured by an expert or panel of experts. – Information is recorded with the help of a checklist during a walkthrough of the building.  Perceived Performance – Measured by the users or occupants of a particular environment. – In most cases this information is recorded by a questionnaire.  Measured Performance – Measured performance is captured through monitoring of physical phenomena.
  14. 14. Measurements of Performance Evaluation Measured Perceived Observed Technical Fuctional Behavioral Urban Building Room Performance Scale
  15. 15. An Integrative Framework for BPE Performance Criteria Market/ Needs Analysis PostOccupancy Evaluation Recycling Recycling Planning Planning ProgramProgram ming -ming Occupancy Occup- ancy PostConstruction Evaluation Effectiveness Review Construction Construction Design Design Program Review Design Review Performance Criteria An Integrative Framework for Building Performance Evaluation
  16. 16. Levels of BPE Effort  There are three levels of effort at which BPEs can be undertaken: • Indicative • Investigative • Diagnostic
  17. 17. Levels of BPE Effort  Indicative – – – – – Quick, walk-through evaluations Selected interviews with knowledgeable informants Structured interviews with key personnel Group meetings with end-users Positive and Negative aspects of building performance are documented using photography and/or notes – Can be carried out within a few hours of on-site data gathering – Executive summary results with prioritized issues and recommendations for action – Indicates major strengths and weaknesses of a particular building’s performance.
  18. 18. Levels of BPE Effort  Investigative – – – – – – More in-depth Interviews and survey questionnaires Photographic/video recordings Physical measurements Involve a number of buildings of the same type Take anywhere from a week to several months
  19. 19. Levels of BPE Effort  Diagnostic – Focused, longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluation studies – One or more performance aspects (e.g. stair safety, orientation, wayfinding, privacy, overcrowding, ...) – In-depth research in a very focused topic area – From months to years – Requires highly sophisticated data gathering and analysis techniques
  20. 20. The Process  Preparation (2-3 weeks): Identification of user groups, timetabling, selection of participants, letters of invitation.  Interviews (1 week): Small groups of like users are interviewed while walking through the building, which provides the prompt for their comments and observations. A review session is held to verify comments, establish priorities and review the process. Observation studies and written questionnaires may also be used.  Analysis & Reporting (3-6 weeks): Documentation of participant findings, generation of recommendations, compilation of a report and presentation.
  21. 21. BPE Outcomes  Short term outcomes – Feedback on existing problems in buildings – Identification of appropriate solutions  Medium term outcomes – Inform the next building delivery cycle – Database development  Long term outcomes – Generation of planning and design criteria for specific building types – Add to existing architectural knowledge
  22. 22. BPE Benefits  Fine tuning new buildings.  Improving design for future buildings.  Assessing building quality  Cost savings  Renovating existing  Improves staff and customer relations
  23. 23. The Application of BPE  Institutions and Government Agencies Increasing concern for budget overruns, building failure, or inappropriate design decisions made during the planning and development of facility. Government agencies are interested in the performance evaluation concept and process in order to avoid these disadvantages.  Private Sector and Facility Managers There is an increasing acceptance of the performance evaluation concept and process in the private sector in order to solicit user feedback on existing buildings.  Design Firms While some design firms are fearful that BPE results may be used against them, and others are unable to convince clients to pay for evaluation studies. Evaluation studies today constitutes an important contribution in the quest to provide quality assurance.
  24. 24. Who Should Conduct BPEs?  Independent team of experts that includes architects, environmental psychologists, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, facility managers/experts and, when appropriate, fire protection personnel and structural engineers.  The architectural and/or engineering firms during the pre-design phase  The client hires an individual consultant or professional organization  An academic group to develop architectural knowledge base on a set of social and psychological issues, evaluation methods, and/or building types.  In-house facility experts
  25. 25. Barriers to BPEs  There is generally no money for BPEs.  BPEs require a considerable amount of time.  No people with necessary BPE skills.  Professionals do not like to have their work judged by other professionals.  Difficulties involved in establishing a clear link among user assessments and the physical environment.
  26. 26. Conclusions  The benefits of BPEs are several: – better quality of the built environment; – greater occupant comfort – more satisfactory experience in visiting, using, or working in a facility – improved staff morale and productivity – significant cost savings  Most important of all, building performance evaluation contributes to the state-of-the-art knowledge of environmental design research and thus make significant contributions towards improving the profession of architecture.
  27. 27. Summary  In summary, Building Performance Evaluation (BPE) identifies both successes and failures in building performance, with an emphasis on human factors and the interaction with the design of physical setting and building systems.  If BPEs are made part of standard practice, it will help establish a performance-based approach to design.
  28. 28. Examples
  29. 29. Case study # 1
  30. 30. New Elementary School Buildings - UAE. School Plan
  31. 31. New Elementary School Buildings - UAE.
  32. 32. New Elementary School Buildings - UAE.
  33. 33. Case study # 2
  34. 34. Governmental Housing Projects, Kuwait This research is applied on a sample of 27 house owners from different educational levels and socio-cultural backgrounds.
  35. 35. The changes that have been done Exterior changes exterior walls changes exterior walls no changes exterior walls no changes 25 25 exterior wall paint changes exterior wall paint no changes exterior wall paint no changes exterior finishing changes 20 20 20 19 19 19 exterior finishing no changes exterior finishing no changes exterior ornamentation changes exterior ornamentation no changes 15 15 14 exterior ornamentation no changes 14 13 car shed changes 13 car shed no changes 12 car shed no changes exterior doors and fences changes 10 exterior doors and fences no changes 8 7 8 8 exterior doors and fences no changes 7 garden changes garden no changes 5 garden no changes adding extra rooms changes 2 adding extra rooms no changes adding extra rooms no changes 0 adding extra floor changes adding extra floor no changes
  36. 36. The changes that have been done Interior Changes interior walls changes 25 25 interior walls no changes 23 23 22 interior walls no changes 22 interior wall paint changes 20 19 interior wall paint no changes 19 interior wall paint no changes 17 interior finishing changes 16 15 interior finishing no changes interior finishing no changes interior flooring changes 11 10 10 interior flooring no changes 8 8 interior flooring no changes bathrooms changes 5 5 4 4 2 0 5 bathrooms no changes bathrooms no changes kitchen changes kitchen no changes kitchen no changes
  37. 37. Reasons behind changes 7% 7% functional form both The expence of changes 86% 22% 27% 1000-5000 KD 5000-10000 KD The materials that are changed 10000-20000 KD 7% 20000-30000 KD 22% 7% throne away 41% 52% sold reused 22% 30000-40000 KD
  38. 38. Case study # 3
  39. 39. Marina Mall - Kuwait  The evaluation of user satisfaction intended to depict the objectives and aims of the designers and compare them with opinions of its users, employees and visitors.  It focused on: – – – – – Way finding and circulation Air temperature Noise levels Some users attitudes Security
  40. 40. Marina Mall - Kuwait Ground floor plan First floor plan Marina mall location
  41. 41. Marina Mall - Kuwait  Way-finding and Circulation:  Most users cannot find their way in and out the mall and between stores. They get lost easily. It is hard for users to understand the vertical circulation between the parking level and the shopping level. There by, most users make themselves familiar with only one entrance to access the mall, which for most of them is the entrance on the Gulf Road.  Air temperature:  The employees are not showing any satisfaction with the indoor cold temperature. The employees who usually have slight movements, suffer from the cold temperature.
  42. 42. Marina Mall - Kuwait  Noise:  The area under the dome is very noisy due to the design of the large double height space under the dome, which causes echoes to travel throughout the building. In addition to the large flow of crowd on the ground floor, the noise coming from the food court on the upper level and the level of music coming from each restaurant and stores surrounding the dome.  Security:  Security staff members are not enough nor qualified for their jobs. People complain from the fights that regularly occur inside the mall on weekends when there is a large crowd.
  43. 43. a Marina Mall - Kuwait Noise and Lighting level measurement: THE DECIBEL METER lighting lev el Daytime (lux) Night (lux) 900 800 700 600 500 LUX 400 300 200 100 0 Daytime (lux Night (lux) Area Area Area Area Area Area Area 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 area
  44. 44. Marina Mall - Kuwait 5 4 3 2 1 Daytime (lux) Area 1 64 860 210 Area 3 7 250 Area 2 6 Night (lux) 670 118 Area 4 570 43 Area 5 400 302 Area 6 790 405 Area 7 690 96
  45. 45. Marina Mall - Kuwait NIGHT NIGHT DAY DAY
  46. 46. Marina Mall - Kuwait NIGHT NIGHT DAY DAY
  47. 47. Marina Mall - Kuwait Age Finding Parking Space Difficulty to find parking space Age 13-19 30 20 20-29 20 30-39 10 40-49 10 50-59 0 0 60 + 1 Purpose of v isite Purpose of visit? Level of educationLevel of education shopping 60 20 resturants 15 middle school 10 high school university and college 40 cinema playing 20 5 walking around higher education 0 0 1 meeting 1 other
  48. 48. Marina Mall - Kuwait Rate Marina Mall according to: 25 20 15 10 5 0 op t l v n c f i e e m s f en emp ightin enti o ise rowd loori nteri xte r xte r ain ecu ire e la t or t r xit er t i i es ed ng poor ion e n or lo or co ana n ity s ur e g ne o vir lor ce ss average on k me good nt excellent
  49. 49. Marina Mall - Kuwait Rate Marina Mall according to? 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 de tu al qu e t en nm it y ro ok i nv lo c an it s ng ti at ex di fin s er ay us w e fir y rit cu s r io r te r lo an nt ai se m co ex re g n io at in or ri o te in flo il nt es g in ht ve lig en op
  50. 50. Marina Mall - Kuwait Salem al-Mubark court Virgin corridor Marina corridors Wide corridor The one store (exterior) Marina’s signage
  51. 51. Marina Mall - Kuwait As a result of this BOE, solutions on the short term included the following:  Opening clearer entrances of “The One” store onto the mall.  Increasing signage of shaft numbers and maps in the parking lot and throughout the building.  Relocate the existing visitors building maps. The dome The dome
  52. 52. Marina Mall - Kuwait Recommendations for other future shopping centers and malls:  Study flow patterns of visitors and design stores accordingly  Provide directories and reference labeling for entrances and zones  Locate entrances of the building in nodes containing equal amount of people so that the entrances would be used equally. Food court The parking
  53. 53. Thank You.

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