• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Planning Middle Eastern Cities - Introduction
 

Planning Middle Eastern Cities - Introduction

on

  • 4,355 views

Introduction to Dr. Yasser Elsheshatwy’s edited book “Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World” published by Routledge (2004). It introduces critical ...

Introduction to Dr. Yasser Elsheshatwy’s edited book “Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World” published by Routledge (2004). It introduces critical assessments of contemporary Middle East cities.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,355
Views on SlideShare
4,328
Embed Views
27

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
0
Comments
0

4 Embeds 27

http://www.linkedin.com 15
http://www.slideshare.net 8
http://pinterest.com 2
http://www.pinterest.com 2

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Planning Middle Eastern Cities - Introduction Planning Middle Eastern Cities - Introduction Presentation Transcript

    • Architecture in the Middle East 0690-421 – Fall 2009 Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities - 1
          • Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaledioscope in a Globalizing World
          • Editor - Yasser Elsheshtawy
          • Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
          • Pages 1-6
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Collection of chapters on …
      • Middle Eastern … Arab … Muslim !
      • Vague terms.
      • Presumptions and preconceptions.
      • Geographical designation subsumes ethnic, religious, and social groupings.
      • Arab  Middle East
    • Example: Cairo Middle East North Africa Africa Europe
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • 6 cities … not representative of all cities
      • “ There is no monolithic entity termed ‘Moslem/Arab’ “
      • Traditional centers : Cairo, Tunis, and Baghdad
      • Fringe cities: Sana’a and Algiers
      • Oil-rich Gulf entities: Dubai
      • “ Cities within the Arab world are simply too diverse and hybrid to be lumped together under one ‘arbitrary’ category.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Kaleidoscope
      • There are multiple ways of looking at cities in our region.
      • Patterns are rearranged to form a new whole.
      • Particular ways of seeing, understanding, and representing the Middle Eastern city.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The city as a “text”.
      • “ Meanings and symbols are ascribed to the physical environment, and it becomes a ‘representation’, an ‘imagined environment’ construed from the particular vantage point of each observer.”
      • (Donald, 1996)
      Ross Von Rosenberg - I am The City
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss Merry Fuhrer - Fast Food
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss Jarvis Cocker's poem on the wall of new student accommodation. Andrew Motion's poem on one of Sheffield Hallam University's tallest buildings
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Important issues:
      • 1- Review the existing literature on the subject dominated by socio/religious reading of urban spatial patterns, particularly Arab/Moselm writers.
      • 2- The relationship of Arab cities to the current globalization discourse – Commonalities and Differences with development taking place at a global level.
      • 3- Methodology – initial questions asked of the contributors, emerging themes, and the structure of the book.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The Narrative of Loss
      • (Show Kuwait Lost Identity documentary)
      • The typical architectural/urban narrative of the Middle Eastern city is a narrative of loss .
      • A great once flourishing civilization has through colonialization been subjected to plundering and exploitation of resources – and thus cities are in a perpetual state of underdevelopment.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • This trend is exacerbated and amplified through the current universalization (or globalization) discourse.
      • Traditional readings of the ME city:
        • Isolated entity
        • Disconnected from developments occurring elsewhere in the ‘civilized’ world.
        • Heritage
        • Tradition
        • Culture
        • Divorced from the surrounding reality.
        • The “ISLAMIC” perspective.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The “ISLAMIC” perspective.
      • Framework through which the “Moslem” city emerged and developed.
      • Religious text.
      • 1980’s and 1990’s conferences legitimized this approach.
      • The revival of the “Arab” city “glory” by tying it to its cultural/religious roots.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Colonialism
      • Studying the Middle East city in relation to colonialism should be seen in the context of a “larger colonial narrative.”
      • Colonialization may not be the sole factor responsible for the underdevelopment of the Middle East city.
      Mumbai Colonial Architecture
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss The American Hospital, Kuwait Dickson House, Kuwait
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • It is assumed that the “Moslem/Arab” has been unable to develop, grow, and in turn modernize – in short go beyond the twelfth century, the pinnacle of Moslem civilization.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Orientalism
      • Edward Said
      • Said makes the claim that the whole of Western European and American scholarship, literature, and cultural representation and stereotype creates and reinforces prejudice against non-Western cultures, putting them in the classification of Oriental (or "Others").
      • The heart of the matter in understanding Orientalism is this power relationship and how the Occident has used and continues to use and understand the Orient on its own terms.
      Edward Said
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The Dual-city construct
      • Traditional settlement and a European one
      • Freezing the image of a society in time and space
      • Maintaining a physical differentiation between the colonizers and the colonized
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Gulf region calls for a comparative perspective both grounding urban settlements within their regional contexts and studying the ‘specificity’ of each – thus moving away from the ‘static ideal type’ of the ‘Islamic city.’
      • There is an emerging body of research which examines Gulf cities from socio-political perspective , showing that the urban forms developed in response to unique contemporary conditions.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization and the Middle East
        • Barry Rubin
      • Probably no area in the world resists--at least explicitly--globalization to an extent equaling that of the Islamic Middle East.
      • The majority of regimes, opposition movements, and intellectuals in the region are consciously anti-globalization.
      • How can this extremely important phenomenon be explained?
    • Stop Here
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization:
      • 1- Globalization refers to the spread throughout the globe of ideas, customs, institutions, and attitudes originated in one part of the world .
      • At present these are usually Western in origin.
      • Thus , it is easy to see Globalization as largely equivalent to Westernization .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization :
      • Nationalism comes dramatically into play when certain aspects of Westernization are seen as challenges to a nation's ethos .
      • Regions like North and South America, Europe and Africa, and even Asia to a lesser extent are more open to Westernization and globalization, in part because they have considerable Western components already.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization :
      • 2- Much of globalization is related to what historically is called modernization , a set of behaviors and beliefs that challenge traditional society .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization :
      • Thus , Globalization is seen as a major threat to tradition .
      • Where religion is far more traditional in its practice , the defense of religion also conflicts with the acceptance of modernization .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization:
      • 3- The two factors that supposedly make globalization attractive are those of benefits and cultural synthesis .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization:
      • Benefits : If globalization makes life better , raises living standards , strengthens the society , and stabilizes the existing order (or helps replace it with an order its citizens deem to be better), people will prefer to accept more globalization .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization:
      • The concept of cultural synthesis means that the society's existing or traditional ways can be blended with new and foreign ideas to make a stronger hybrid . (The modern history of Japan, for example, shows how such a synthesis can be constructed.)
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization:
      • The society is also selective in choosing what it wants to accept and reject , with those values or institutions most destructive of tradition being blocked .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization:
      • Ultimately, then, globalization is accepted if and when it is perceived not as destroying the local society but helping it to survive and flourish in a partly new form .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization
      • 4- Even the most extreme explicit rejection of globalization does not mean that globalization fails to infiltrate into the society .
      • In Iran, where the Islamic republic has attempted to block many foreign cultural and intellectual influences, it has often not succeeded.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization
      • These concepts have been taken up by an opposition enjoying support from a majority of the population.
      • Leaders of this opposition, notably President Muhammad Khatami, explicitly speak of the need for cultural synthesis , while suggesting that globalization is a two-way street and the West can also learn from their society .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Arab cities have been part of modernization efforts from the nineteenth century to the present.
      • While being subjected to colonialism , they nevertheless were able to grow, develop and contribute to architecture/urban design.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Urban forms, unique to each city were developed, responding to larger ‘global’ issues.
        • Ex. Ebenezer Howard “Garden City” – Cairo, Kuwait
        • French architecture – Tunis
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The exclusive “Islamic” reading of such cities is outdated and counterproductive .
      • Heritage and culture are visual issues, but they should not be the sole, or dominant, factors through which the middle Eastern city is studied and analyzed.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Existing literature tends to simplify the trends in the ME city by having a very string historical focus . (AlSayyad 1991, Basim Hakim 1986, Jamel Akbar 1988).
      • Some scholars employed a postcolonial framework, examining the impact of colonialism on ‘traditional’ societies, transformations due to national movements, and the construction of identities . (Case studies, specific events, buildings, …)
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Janet Abu-Lughod
      • Abu-Lughod was one of the first to criticize the ‘monolithic Islamic city model’, finding great similarities between this model and cities in medieval Europe and arguing that similar economic factors led to specific city forms . (Abu-Lughod, 199)
      Janet Abu-Lughod
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Stefano Bianca
      • An attempt to establish a religious basis for the urban form in the Arab world .
      • 4 case studies; Mecca, Baghdad, Fez, and Aleppo.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Establishing a Religious Undercurrent to the Spatial Structure of Arab-Moselm Cities is in fact a recurring theme .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The mere notion that the Arab/Moselm could be capable of producing contemporary, modern structures, which do not necessarily have to be reflective of any illusive traditional concepts but are unique responses to contemporary conditions, is nowhere to be found.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Despite disagreement over the Islamic city model , it is undeniable that Islam , as a socio-religious system , has had a significant impact on the morphology of cities where it predominates .”
      • Linking the Religious and the Secular , an attempt to ascribe to a religion some planning guidelines which were never intended to be there in the first place .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: Moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • A much more useful model would be to examine contemporary social, political, and economic factors operating at a global level and to understand the extent to which they have shaped the Middle Eastern city.
      • Impact of Capitalism
      • Impact of socialism
      • Impact of Global economy; free flow of goods, people and ideas.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization, Cultural Hybridity and Polarization
        • End of 20 th century and the beginning of 21 st century
        • Loss of place
        • Identity and character
          • “ Cities throughout the world are becoming shapeless entities with a haunting sameness.”
        • “ Universalization”
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization, Cultural Hybridity and Polarization
        • Western hegemony
        • Edward Said “Orientalism”: Colonial discourse analysis
          • “ There is a ‘culture of imperialism’ in which the West is trying to superimpose its values and beliefs on the East.” (Said, 1979)
        • Jane Jacobs
          • “ Such approach led to the creation of a new analytical language in which such constructs as ‘hybridity’, ‘diaspora’, ‘creolization’, ‘transculturation’, etc.” (Jacobs, 1996)
        • Nezar AlSayyad
          • “ In cities throughout the world globalization led to creation of ‘third places’, in between spaces of ‘spatial reconciliation of incommensurable constructions of subcultures.” (AlSayyad, 2001)
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization does not in and of itself lead to loss of identity/heritage.
        • “ Globalization does not signal the erasure of difference but a reconstitution and revalidation of place, locality, difference.” (Jacobs, 1996)
        • “ The history of the world demonstrates a movement toward cultural differentiation and not homogenization and urbanism will continue to be an area where one can observe the specificity of local cultures and their attempt to mediate global domination.” (AlSayyad, 2001)
    • Stop Here
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • New Trend
        • The relevance of the nation-state is questioned.
        • City governments are emerging as the new centers of the ‘new’ global economy.
        • Transactions between multi-national corporations, financial centers, and cities .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • New Trend
        • Cities are assuming a powerful role.
        • Cities are viewed as a “ product ” that needs to be marked.
        • Attracting headquarters or regional branches of international companies and staging of ‘ mega-events ’.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • New Trend
        • Luxury housing , dining establishments and entertainment amenities to attract professional personnel required to operate these global activities.
        • Urban projects : trade centers, conference centers and hotels to encourage investment and tourism.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • New Trend and Architecture
        • Architecture is used as a “ tool ” to create ‘ eye-catching ’ impressions.
        • The Bilbao effect :
          • The Guggenheim museum in Bilbao was used to revitalize a ‘stagnant’ city.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The “ dual-city ”
        • Social polarization - Saskia Sassen
        • Due to the presence of these high-profile projects there is an influx of a highly skilled, and paid, workforce.
        • Low-wage employees are needed who form the backbone of corporate and financial activities.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Geographical/Spatial division
        • Areas with a high concentration of poor labor
        • Enclaves housing the very rich
      • Resentment, Social instability and conflict
      • Mega projects don’t necessarily lead to happiness of the cities !
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Visible aspect of globalizing cities is the ‘ quartering of urban space ”
        • Sharper division between rich and poor
        • Distinct residential cities
        • Protected enclaves of the rich
      ?
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Gated communities , private, high rise condominiums with heavy security
      • Expensive apartments in favorable locations
      • “ Wall some in and keep others out .”
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The Middle Eastern city has strong potential for examining these issues for a variety of reasons:
        • Colonialism in the 18th and 19th century.
        • Strategies at the urban and architectural levels
        • Attempts were made to wipe out the past and “ join ” the civilized west. (The case of Kuwait master plan)
        • Modernity ; History was abandoned in favor of ‘embracing’ a new age.
        • Impact on the spatial structure of many cities in the region. (Kuwait)
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • These are strong similarities to the political climate present today.
        • “ Colonialization ” has been replaced by “ Globalization ”!
        • Globalization: Free flow of goods, people, and information
        • Domination : political, social and cultural
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • A paradigm shift
      • A ‘ New Architecture ’ and ‘ Urbanism ’
        • Contemporary advances in information technology
        • Global communications
        • Technological and artistic advances at the beginning of the 21 st century revolutionized people’s sense of space and movement .
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The structure of the book
      • Explores:
        • Identity, globalization, hybridity, colonialization
        • Struggles, Strategies and Solutions
      • Selected cities:
        • Variety of types
        • Cities with rich tradition (Cairo, Tunis, Baghdad)
        • Cities that have not been explored sufficiently; or forgotten cities (Algiers, and Sana’a)
        • Newly emerging Gulf ‘oil’ cities (Dubai)
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Authors:
        • Belonging to, being raised in, or being a citizen of, the city.
        • Local voice
        • Insider vs. Outsider
        • Young Arab scholars educated in western universities (US and UK)
        • Fresh energetic views of the cities.
        • All architects focusing on the built environment emphasizing the spatial aspect.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Questions:
        • - To what extent did globalization influence the shape, urban form, and architecture of the city?
        • - What mechanisms were developed to protect heritage and identity?
        • - Using the idea of hybridity, how did respective cultures incorporate or integrate with foreign influences?
        • - Does the contemporary political climate of globalization, which dominates the urban and architectural discourse, have any spatial influence or manifestation?
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Scope and Scale:
        • Open
      • Time-frame:
        • From 19th century to the present day.
      • Book divisions:
        • 1- Overview and developments
        • 2- Case studies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Case Studies 1 : Overview and Developments
        • Algiers, Baghdad, and Sana’a
        • They have not responded o the globalizing influence occurring throughout the world.
      • External factors hindering the emergence of these cities as global players.
        • - Terrorism in Algiers
        • - Gulf war in Iraq
        • - Civil war in Yemen
    • Stop Here
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • Examine the urban transformation of Algiers during and after colonization from 1832 until present.
      • Superiority of the West
      • Inferiority of the Indigenous
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • The Casbah
        • The old city
        • Display of colonial policies
        • Destruction of parts of the Casbah
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • The Casbah
        • The old city
        • Display of colonial policies
        • Destruction of parts of the Casbah
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • Place d’Armes
        • Gathering and parades of troops.
        • Streets straightened and widened
        • Buildings transformed and adapted to new needs.
        • Attracted new immigrants who settled in the ‘Westernized’ part of Casbah
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • Arcaded Boulevard de la Republique
      • Symbol of colonial Algiers
      • Copy of similar projects in Paris
      Algiers - Boulevard de la République.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • Casbah was emptied of its original functions and its position as an urban center, becoming a ‘marginal’ quarter, ‘dilapidated’ and crowded with an indigenous proletarian population.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • Bidonville
      • Shanty towns
      • High population growth created a drastic housing shortage prompting migrants fro the countryside.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • 1970’s Foreign Architects - Oscar Niemeyer
      The basketball stadium in the Cité Olympique. Niemeyer has built quite a few projects in Algeria, and planned even more. He made a "Brasilia avant-la-lettre" urban planning for the entire Algiers area, which was never executed.  University of Constantine (1968) - Algeria
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • Globalization did not affect Algiers in the way it did in other African and Arab cities.
      • Local politics have played a role in the city’s isolation and in turn its inability to interact globally.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Karim Hadjri & Mohamed Osmani
      • The Spatial Development and Urban Transformation of Colonial and Postcolonial Algiers
      • Tourism never really blossomed either in Algiers or the rest of Algeria.
      • The decline of the Casbah , effectively becoming a ghetto.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • Events from the historical development of Baghdad’s architecture during the 20 th century show an inability to interact with international architectural movements.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • Impact of different ‘forms’ of globalization during the 20 th century on the contemporary architecture and urban design character of Baghdad.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • The role of:
        • International architectural firms
        • Local architects
        • Local users
      • How the shifting political and economic systems of the dominating ruling power influenced this process and how these shifts have affected the urban development and architectural character of Baghdad.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • Lessons to improve the process of developing local architecture in the present globalization era and the emergence of a “new” Iraq following the power shift in 2003.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • Post-war reconstruction projects in Iraq
      • The impact of international sanctions and the perpetual state of war on the city, its architecture, and its citizens.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • 1920’s
      • Colonial period
      • International architectural and construction firms
      • Significant role in shaping the contemporary character of Baghdad’s architecture.
      Iraqi Museum, 1930s                                                              
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • 1950’s
      • Political instability and power shifts during the 20 th century.
      • Squatter settlements.
      American Embassy in Baghdad Al Rashid St., 1960
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • The emergence of the Ba’sthist regime
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • The role of local architects in shaping architecture “shaped” by local needs.
      • Chadirji
      • Makiyya
      • Establish a “local” architectural language
      • Cultural roots
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Hoshiar Nooraddin
      • Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad
      • Conclusions
      • Directives to help in the current reconstruction effort.
      • The involvement of international firms due to ‘globalization’ culture should be balanced.
      • The development of local building regulations.
      • The development of local architectural knowledge
      • Interactive involvement of local architects in that process.
    • Stop Here
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Al Sallal
      • Sana’a: Transformation of the Old City and the Impacts of the Modern Era
      • Acquired identity through its unique ‘vertical’ architecture.
      • An Environmental perspective using socio-spatial model.
      • Principles that led to the success of Sna’a traditional environment.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Al Sallal
      • Sana’a: Transformation of the Old City and the Impacts of the Modern Era
      • Sana’a was isolated from the world beginning 1919 during the Imam regime until 1962 revolution which opened it up to the rest of the world.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Al Sallal
      • Sana’a: Transformation of the Old City and the Impacts of the Modern Era
      • The introduction of the horizontal Western style villas.
        • No identity
        • Lack of order and unity
        • Alienated in its society and environment
        • Gives minimum consideration to comfort issues.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Al Sallal
      • Sana’a: Transformation of the Old City and the Impacts of the Modern Era
      • Why has vernacular architecture in places like Sana’a proved to be more successful than contemporary architecture?
      • There is a need to understand the intricate relationship between culture, environment, and architecture.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Al Sallal
      • Sana’a: Transformation of the Old City and the Impacts of the Modern Era
      • Historical development of Sana’a
        • Pre-Islamic period
        • Islamic period
        • The revolution
      • Changes affecting Yemeni society after the revolution and how these changes influenced the city and its architecture.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Al Sallal
      • Sana’a: Transformation of the Old City and the Impacts of the Modern Era
      • The vast growth of the city population, migration from the villages to Sana’a, and the return of labour migrants in the Gulf.
      • Social changes preclude people from living within the traditional environment.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Al Sallal
      • Sana’a: Transformation of the Old City and the Impacts of the Modern Era
      • The city has ‘two disconnected worlds’
        • The traditional
        • The modern
      • “ Rupture” – Either live I the past or become modern.
      • Using the traditional as a resource offering “cultural and ecological values to create an appropriate contemporary urban environment.”
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Case Studies 2 : Redrawing Boundaries
        • Tunis, Cairo, and Dubai
        • Attempt to become global players, with varying degrees of success.
      • Engaged in large-scale urban projects meant to attract visitors and investors to the city.
        • The creation of new city – Tunis
        • The proliferation of gated communities – Cairo
        • The emergence of palm-shaped islandss – Dubai
      • To Engage in the new global economy.
      • The emergence of Dubai as a truly global center.
      • Cairo emulating Dubai !
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Bechir Kenzari
      • Lake Tunis, or the Concept of the Third Center
      • Reading a Middle East city and its relation to globalization through and ecological perspective.
      • Three forms of centrality:
        • The traditional medina
        • The European city
        • Lake Tunis projects (Lac Nord and Lac Sud)
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Bechir Kenzari
      • Lake Tunis, or the Concept of the Third Center
      • “ A city within the city” not directly related to other parts of Tunis.
      • Caters to hi-tech and international clients, a center for diplomacy and international business.
      • Isolated next to the airport.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Bechir Kenzari
      • Lake Tunis, or the Concept of the Third Center
      • 1- Medina :
        • The traditional medina
        • Ottoman origins
        • French Colonialism in 1881 surrounded the medina with a ring road, and a European city housing non Tunisians encircled the medina .
        • Independence in 1956, the medina became ‘slummy, decaying’ area.
        • Slum clearance, destruction of large areas within the historical fabric to facilitate vehicular traffic.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Bechir Kenzari
      • Lake Tunis, or the Concept of the Third Center
      • 2- The European city
        • Western planning principles
        • Rich and diverse architecture
        • An architectural style incorporating “Tunisianity” was used by the French as architecture portraits of Tunisia.
        • The suburbs, uncontrolled, spontaneous settlements.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Bechir Kenzari
      • Lake Tunis, or the Concept of the Third Center
      • 3- Lake Tunis Project
        • Began in mid 1980s.
        • An ecological endeavour
        • Environmental problems led to the decision to sanitize the lake and reclaim land.
        • New city is emerging, facing the Mediterranean (Europe?) and somehow turning its back to the old medina and European city.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Bechir Kenzari
      • Lake Tunis, or the Concept of the Third Center
      • 3- Lake Tunis Project
        • Middle East investment
        • Dutch technology
        • Hundreds of hectares were reclaimed and a new urban zone emerged.
        • A direct response to globalization.
        • Tunis’s emergence as a leading site for financial and specialized services and the 1995 EU agreement.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Bechir Kenzari
      • Lake Tunis, or the Concept of the Third Center
      • The Lake project
      • Bi-polar situation ( medina vs. European city)
      • The goals of planning and the weight of market and political decisions in the age of globalization and ecological consciousness.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
      • Journey spanning the century from early 20 th century to the present.
      • Two projects – Two developers – Two time-zones
      • Capitalism – Colonialism – Globalization
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
      • 1890s vs. 1990s
      • Heliopolis – Dreamland
      • Socio-political and economic backgrounds.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
      • The colonial economy and agrarian capitalism
      • The emergence of a modern market system
      • The opening of the Suez canal in 1869, international traffic, increase linkage with the outside world.
      • Urban and architectural development.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
      • The origins and development of Heliopolis
      • The “Garden City” concept by Ebenezer Howard
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
      • The founder of Heliopolis, the Belgium Baron Empain
      • Use of neo-Arabic elements
      • Create a tourist destination
      • A Fantasy environment
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss Map of Heliopolis, circa 1913
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
    •  
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
      • Late 1991
      • Postcolonial and mixed capitalism
      • Neoliberalism
      • Commodification and privatization of spaces for ‘cultural consumption’
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Khaled Adham
      • Cairo’s Urban déjà vu: Globalization and Urban Fantasies
      • Dreamland
      • Oriental vision of the Occident
      • A gated community for upper class
      • Western taste
      • North American developers
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • “ Disneyland’
      • A place designed solely for consumption and fun.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Join the club of world cities.
      • Heliopolis was not anymore authentic than the Dreamland of today.
      • The production of fantasy and entertainment for promoting their commodity
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • They are ‘deliberately fomulaic and fabricated illusions of the Orient and the Occident
    • Stop Here
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • A newly emerging global city
      • Source of envy and emulation
      • Architecture events, megaprojects
      • Puzzlement !!!
      • Some of the problems which are associated with such rapid urban growth.
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The Gulf region in particular has been an area of contention and struggle.
        • Portuguese
        • British
        • America
      • Dubai lends itself to being a ‘global’ entity and could be a potential model for other cities in the region.
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • 2 projects
      • Burj Al-Arab, a 7-star hotel shaped like a sail.
      • Two palm shaped islands (Palm Jumeirah and Jebel Ali)
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The current globalization discourse
        • Hybridity
        • Polarization
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Rapid growth witnessed during the last two decades.
      • Dramatic urban transformations
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Megaprojects – Gigantic Global scale
      • City of many cities.
      • They represent a unique response to the current globalization discourse.
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Direct symbols
        • Sail
        • Palm
      • These symbols reflect desire to connect with the past and to construct an identity.
      • The Arabs fascination with the sea.
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Downside of globalization
      • Polarization – Exclusiveness
      • Dubai – unburdened by history and heritage
      • The city is constantly being reinvented
      • Typical development of global cities in the world
      • Constant “redrawing of boundaries”
      • The evacuation of the national
      • Fragmentation of the urban environment
      • Elite elements geared towards tourist, real estate speculators, and multi-national corporate executives.
      • Warning – Uncover the real Dubai Creek and market places.
      • Yasser Elsheshtawy
      • Redrawing Boundaries; Dubai, an Emerging global city
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The prevalent view of globalization is that it is a phenomenon externally imposed upon nations, which are helpless witnessing their cities and countries taken over by multinational corporations.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization is not simply something that is exogeneous*. While some processes may seem to come from outside yet these are processes which are activated from the inside by local actors.
        • (*refers to an action or object coming from outside a system)
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The global city represents the endogenizing of key dynamics and conditionalities of the global economy.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Many of the projects discussed were initiated by local governments without any (overt) external intervention.
      • They are meant to serve the local population and became
      • National symbols.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The shift of power in the Middle East to the ‘East’ – Gulf region – and in turn a re-configuration of traditional cities to ‘become like Dubai’ are real and observable phenomena.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • In Cairo and elsewhere projects are developed with Gulf investment.
      • “ Local colonialism!”
      • Concluding Remarks
      Emaar Misr - Uptown Cairo Emaar Middle East - Jeddah Gate Emaar Tunis - Cedar village
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
    • Emaar Development. A detail from a rendering of the King Abdullah Economic City, on the Red Sea. It is one of six new cities planned by Saudi Arabia as it works to diversify its economy beyond oil exports.
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The whole notion of globalization being another form of domination (i.e. colonization) is an outdated one and has contributed to the underdevelopment of many cities in the region.
      • A city comes into being only through ‘the wisdom of its citizens’ – all its citizens and not just a select few.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Our modern representation of the city should celebrate multi-dimensionality, and we should encourage parallel and conflicting representations to coexist.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • The sacred and the secular can coexist, and the perceived conflict between them should only help to enrich urban studies in our region.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • This book has attempted to shift the ‘globalization versus fundamentalism’ discourse – in which globalizing tendencies are perceived as a threat to local culture – a popular view in our region.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Political and social underpinnings of urban design are dismantled, thus uncovering the potentially ‘positive’ qualities of globalization which is moulded by city residents needs and desires.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Planning Middle Eastern Cities Chapter 1: The Middle East City: moving Beyond the Narrative of Loss
      • Globalization becomes an expression of the political climate in each country, modified by local conditions, and should be understood in that context.
      • Concluding Remarks
    • END!