Kuwait University College of Engineering and Petroleum Department of Architecture <ul><li>Course title: </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Lecture 1 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
Context Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Ecology Resources Clim...
Context Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Sociology Psychology A...
Anthropometric Data <ul><li>Dimensions of the Human Figure </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory ...
Introduction <ul><li>Many buildings do not properly serve the functions for which they were designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Bu...
Introduction <ul><li>User requirements in the past have for the most part been defined by the personal experience of archi...
Introduction <ul><li>Interdisciplinary (Team) Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Building design today requires a team approach. T...
Introduction <ul><li>Common Vocabulary Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Several key issues stand in the way of effective cooperati...
<ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop games through which respondents express themselves by making a series of li...
<ul><li>Lecture 2 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
Introduction <ul><li>The Performance Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The performance approach demands a statement of performanc...
Background <ul><li>Pruitt Igoe Housing Project, St. Louis, Missouri, USA </li></ul><ul><li>A multi million dollar complex ...
Background <ul><li>User Requirements Information </li></ul><ul><li>New factors affecting design and requiring more attenti...
Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>Users are typically thought of as occupants, e.g. those who visit, res...
Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>The builder , or the organization financing construction, is an extrem...
Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>The Building Owner  , who rents space to others, is vitally concerned ...
Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>The Building Occupants  .  When we use the term “user” we refer to occ...
<ul><li>Lecture 3 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
Background <ul><li>Differences Among Occupants </li></ul><ul><li>While readily visible distinctions are apparent (e.g. gen...
Background <ul><li>Personal and Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul...
Background <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>One of the  most comprehensive and widely used schemes for definin...
Background <ul><li>Architects and Social Scientists </li></ul><ul><li>The architect is usually a team leader (or member) c...
Background <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication between social/behavioral scientists and engineers was ...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Systems Analytic Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>A system is an organized arrangement in...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>The Performance  Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The performance concept is an organized p...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>The Performance  Approach </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish the satisfaction of the use...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are a link between the user and the physical ...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Analysis of Activities </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Annotated Plan </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Hum...
<ul><li>Lecture 4 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Architectural Programming </li></ul><ul><li>The American Institute of Architects (AIA...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Architectural Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Programming enables the owner’s needs to ...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Building Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Post occupancy evaluation is a means of learn...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Design Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The complex activity called “designing” inte...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Types of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information used in designing tends to be ...
Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Design Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Designers continuously modify predictions ab...
<ul><li>Lecture 5 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
Scientific Research <ul><li>What is RESEARCH? </li></ul><ul><li>Research is more than just searching or just solving probl...
Research Projects <ul><li>Research projects begin with a good  definition of the research problem : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Research Strategies <ul><li>Research Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </...
Research Approaches <ul><li>Diagnostic Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic studies help you deepen your understanding of ...
Research Approaches <ul><li>Descriptive Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive studies describe and measure as precisely as...
Research Approaches <ul><li>Theoretical Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical studies set specific hypotheses suggested by...
Research Approaches <ul><li>Action research Studies </li></ul><ul><li>In action research studies changes are made and anal...
<ul><li>Lecture 6 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
Research Design <ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers use a case study design when they want to develop intensi...
Research Design <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>A survey design is useful when investigators want to find out in detail a...
Research Design <ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><li>An experimental design is appropriate when investigators want to me...
Research Design <ul><li>Parametric Study </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric research consists of the systematic manipulation of ...
Research Design <ul><li>Multivariant Study </li></ul><ul><li>In many situations, identifying one or even a restricted set ...
Research Settings <ul><li>Natural Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Natural settings offer researchers the unique opportunity to ...
Research Settings <ul><li>Contrived Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Contrived settings are planned and controlled research envi...
Research Evaluation <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>The validity of a measurement is concerned with whether the propert...
Research Evaluation <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability refers to whether other researchers performing simil...
<ul><li>Lecture 7 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
Research Methods <ul><li>Observing Physical Traces </li></ul><ul><li>Observing Environmental Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Fo...
Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces <ul><li>Observing physical traces means systematically looking at physical sur...
<ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><li>Unobtrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Obseving physical tracess is an unobtrusiv...
<ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Recording traces verbally and diagrammati...
Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated Diagrams </li></ul>Instr...
<ul><li>Lecture 8 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
<ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Sketches of traces and drawings can be extremely us...
<ul><li>What to look for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By-prooducts of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosions </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>What to look for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing Traces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erosions and leftovers in settings t...
<ul><li>Adaptation for Use </li></ul><ul><li>When some people find that their physical environment does not accommodate so...
<ul><li>Adaptation for Use   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Props </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When users add things to or remov...
<ul><li>Adaptation for Use   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical adaptations for us...
<ul><li>Displays of Self </li></ul><ul><li>People change environments to put their stamps on them - to say “This is mine a...
<ul><li>Displays of Self </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>People use environments to ...
<ul><li>Displays of Self </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>People use their environment...
<ul><li>Public Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Physical environments can be used to communicate to the public at large. Most, b...
<ul><li>Public Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unofficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals and groups also commu...
<ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>When looking at physical traces, researchers must keep in mind that they are trying to l...
<ul><li>Lecture 9 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
<ul><li>Observing behavior means systematically watching people use their environments: individuals, pairs of people, smal...
<ul><li>Observing behavior in physical settings generates  data about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people's activities  and the  ...
<ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Researchers observing peo...
<ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>As you look at people doing ...
<ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To look carefully at events, obser...
<ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable Intrusive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Researchers have ...
<ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Notation is the recording of beha...
<ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precoded Checklists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Descriptive notes (qua...
<ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recording activities on floor plans, ...
<ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Still photographs can capture ...
<ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul><ul><li>Designers make places for people to do things in - either alone or together wit...
<ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who  is  Actor </li>...
<ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Arch...
<ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Arch...
<ul><li>Lecture 10 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
<ul><li>Asking questions in research means  posing questions systematically to find out what people think, feel, do, know,...
<ul><li>Focused Interviews can be used with individuals or groups to find out in depth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how people d...
<ul><li>The Interview Guide </li></ul><ul><li>The interview guide is a loose conceptual map; a set of topics, elements, pa...
<ul><li>Objectives of Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of the Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An indiv...
<ul><li>Objectives of Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of Respondents’ Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De...
<ul><li>Basic Characters of Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons interviewed are known to have been involved i...
Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors ...
Research Methods: Focused Interviews  Probes   Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmenta...
<ul><li>1- Addition Probes to Promote Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Addition probes urge respondents to continue talking by conve...
<ul><li>2-  Reflecting Probes to Achieve Non-direction </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewer uses probes to see that the discu...
<ul><li>3-  Transitional Probes to Extend Range </li></ul><ul><li>The range of an interview is the number of topics it cov...
<ul><li>4-  Situational Probes to Encourage Specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity is a respondent’s ability to state w...
<ul><li>5-  Emotional Probes to Increase Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Depth in a focused interview is the degree to which the r...
<ul><li>6-  Personal Probes to Tie in Context </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions to environments have, as a rule, a dual chain of...
<ul><li>Focused Interviews in Groups </li></ul><ul><li>In a group, interviewers face many of the same problems and use man...
<ul><li>The Leader Effect </li></ul><ul><li>In most groups of people one or two persons will inevitably emerge as louder, ...
<ul><li>Lecture 11 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
<ul><li>Standardized questionnaires are used to discover regularities among groups of people by comparing answers to the s...
<ul><li>The Use of Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with hypotheses about which attributes relate to each other....
<ul><li>Qualities of the Method   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A great deal of findings in a short time.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Intrusiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents can change and distort answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responde...
<ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Rapport (agreement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research results are as v...
<ul><li>Precoding Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open ended questions  (free-responses) are time consuming and costly to ...
Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental ...
Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental ...
<ul><li>Visual Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cognitive, expressive, and perceptual information about respondents’ p...
Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental ...
Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental ...
<ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop games through which respondents express themselves by making a series of li...
<ul><li>Lecture 12 </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
<ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop games through which respondents express themselves by making a series of li...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9...
<ul><li>End </li></ul>Instructor:  Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1:  Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
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Human Factors in Architecture - Lectures

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Lectures of Human Factors in Architecture course at Kuwait University by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub.

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Human Factors in Architecture - Lectures

  1. 1. Kuwait University College of Engineering and Petroleum Department of Architecture <ul><li>Course title: </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Theory 1 Human Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub </li></ul><ul><li>Course title: </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Theory 1 Human Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub </li></ul><ul><li>Course Catalog Description: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics and principles of significant aspects of behavioral sciences such as environmental determinants of buildings design. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 <ul><li>Course Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The objectives of this course are to: (1) introduce the student to the area of Environment and Behavior and Human factors in built environment, (2) give the student a first hand experience in techniques and methods used to analyze and interpret built environments research data obtained in an architectural research context, (3) help the student to understand and apply research to environmental programming, design and evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture, discussions, guest lecturers and applied research project. </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Attendance is a must according to university regulations. 10% </li></ul><ul><li>2- Class participation and assignments 10% </li></ul><ul><li>3- Research projects 20% </li></ul><ul><li>4- Mid-term Exam 20% </li></ul><ul><li>5- Final Exam 40% </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Lecture 1 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  3. 3. Context Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Ecology Resources Climate Urban Planning Urban Design Buildings Interior Spaces Individual Groups Psychological Social Cultural Man Human Environment Built Environment Natural Environment
  4. 4. Context Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Sociology Psychology Anthropology Materials Electrical Mechanical Structural Civil Painting Sculpture Applied arts Architecture The Arts Science & Engineering Literature & Humanities
  5. 5. Anthropometric Data <ul><li>Dimensions of the Human Figure </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Many buildings do not properly serve the functions for which they were designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings are said to be made for people. Yet, ironically, those who actually occupy or otherwise use buildings are seldom able to influence the way buildings are designed. Rather, nearly all the important decisions are based on factors that have little to do with either the way people use buildings or the way buildings affect people. Those decisions are made by clients, builders, architects, and others who in most instances do not occupy the buildings which are ultimately constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>This lack of user participation has been cited as a major reason for dissatisfaction. Yet these same users can serve as valuable sources of information in the design and evaluation phases of the building cycle. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>User requirements in the past have for the most part been defined by the personal experience of architects and their clients. There has been little incentive to spend time and resources defining the requirements of building occupants. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to upgrade the quality and importance of user information employed in the design process. If buildings are to serve the people who occupy them, we must learn more about the way in which the built environment affects behavior and about how behavioral factors should influence building design. </li></ul><ul><li>Architects should become familiar with behavioral science information applicable to building users. Familiarity with this information will enable them to make better use of available design data dealing with user needs and to identify requirements for new and/or improved information. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>Interdisciplinary (Team) Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Building design today requires a team approach. The post World War II information explosion has made it impossible for one person to master the many activities which comprise building design. Architectural and Engineering firms increasingly use interdisciplinary teams. A close working relationship is needed between architects and social scientists if buildings are to better serve their occupants. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  9. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Common Vocabulary Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Several key issues stand in the way of effective cooperation between architects and social scientists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different, often conflicting professional goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of solving problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The two professions need to agree upon a vocabulary, designed to exchange information with a minimum of confusion. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  10. 10. <ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop games through which respondents express themselves by making a series of linked choice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the oldest such games is Wilson’s “ Neighborhood Game ”. Alternative degrees of attributes such as neighborhood physical quality and sanitation services each have a price tag attached. Respondents are given a set of chips representing the total amount of money they can spend to “buy” the amenities on the game board. With the amount of play money they have, they are forced to chose among attractive alternatives, not all of which they can afford. Their final judgements express not a linear series of individual choices but a balanced set of simultaneous ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another game developed by Zeisel and Griffin is the “ Dwelling Unit Floor Plan game ” in which respondents make a series of simple design decisions to develop their housing unit. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  11. 11. <ul><li>Lecture 2 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  12. 12. Introduction <ul><li>The Performance Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The performance approach demands a statement of performance in terms of function. Since buildings serve people, function as defined by the attributes is necessary to satisfy human requirements. The philosophy of the performance approach begins and ends with - and puts its principal emphasis on - the satisfaction of human needs. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary function of a building is to enable particular activities to be performed within it. Discussions between architects and clients are focused primarily on adequately identifying the activities of building occupants. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  13. 13. Background <ul><li>Pruitt Igoe Housing Project, St. Louis, Missouri, USA </li></ul><ul><li>A multi million dollar complex of relatively new apartment building which had to be destroyed because it was unsuitable for the occupants. Designers apparently failed to understand the life style of the people who were to occupy the housing. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  14. 14. Background <ul><li>User Requirements Information </li></ul><ul><li>New factors affecting design and requiring more attention to the needs and satisfaction of the users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term use of buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource limitations (financial and natural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicting priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The information explosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning of traditional values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern of quality of life. </li></ul></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  15. 15. Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>Users are typically thought of as occupants, e.g. those who visit, reside or work in buildings. Indirect users are those who make observations because they are nearby or have an unobtrusive view. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  16. 16. Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>The builder , or the organization financing construction, is an extremely important building user. The concern of the builder is to build a safe structure (meeting local regulation) which can be sold at a profit commensurate with the investment and risks taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for building acceptability is likely to be limited to those factors which influence the sales potential and market value of the building. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 <ul><li>Large Private and Governmental Organizations build and later occupy buildings. The success of such buildings is largely determined by their responsiveness to the requirements of those who occupy them. </li></ul><ul><li>These buildings do not have to compete in the marketplace - they are built to carry out the activities of te organization that built them. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>The Building Owner , who rents space to others, is vitally concerned that a building works adequately for its occupants. The returns of investment depend largely on the degree of success achieved in renting space profitably. Dissatisfaction by building occupants is therefore directly translated into unleased space. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 <ul><li>The Building Manager or Operator, responsible of for the smooth day-to-day functioning of a building, is a key link between the owners and occupiers of buildings. Building management problems include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The building and its subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction of people with the building and its subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications among management, ownership and occupants. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>The Building Occupants . When we use the term “user” we refer to occupants of buildings. Occupants should be seen in terms of the major activities performed in a building. For example, in a hospital the occupants are patients, nurses, doctors, technicians, maintenance people, and visitors. Each of these occupant groups perform important functions within the building, and these must be considered by the architect. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  19. 19. <ul><li>Lecture 3 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  20. 20. Background <ul><li>Differences Among Occupants </li></ul><ul><li>While readily visible distinctions are apparent (e.g. gender, age, etc.), many subtle psychological, cultural, and social factors exist which may be extremely iimportant for the designer to consider but which cannot be readily identified. People have memories of past events, the baililty to learn, a cultural and biological heritage, and many other attributes which serve to distinguish individuals from one another. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 <ul><li>For example, in the design of housing for elderly people, bear in mind likely difficulties in walking , seeing, and hearing. These factors should be considered when planning illumination levels, passageways, emergency signals, and exists. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Background <ul><li>Personal and Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic Heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes. </li></ul></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  22. 22. Background <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most comprehensive and widely used schemes for defining user needs was developed by A. Maslow (psychologist), who treated human needs as an ever-changing process. He assumes that complete satisfaction of needs is not possible because when one set of needs is satisfied, another one emerges. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Food, Clothing, Shelter Security Member of a group Status Self
  23. 23. Background <ul><li>Architects and Social Scientists </li></ul><ul><li>The architect is usually a team leader (or member) coordinating the activities of many experts working toward a group solution of a design problem. The most important role that the architect must play is his role as the professional liaison between arts/humanities and science/engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the architect is to complete a building which is functional, yet permits the expression of creativity and individuality. The basic procedure employed in design is the manipulation of spaces, forms, material, and objects - all having three-dimensional (tangible) characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the social scientist is a better understanding of human processes or relationships. Study findings take the form of documents, frequently dealing with the solution of one problem and the identification of others. Written reports often include tables of statistical information and are not readily understandable by laymen, including architects. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  24. 24. Background <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication between social/behavioral scientists and engineers was a major obstacle to smooth operation of design teams. The language barrier was very difficult to penetrate, especially among disciplines with rich bodies of theoretical and pragmatic data to call upon. The problem was best resolved whenever shared concepts and ideas served as bridges between the disciplines. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  25. 25. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Systems Analytic Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>A system is an organized arrangement in which each component part acts, reacts, or interacts in accordance with an overall design which adheres in the arrangement. It includes all equipment and associated personnel integrated to perform a defined task. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  26. 26. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>The Performance Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The performance concept is an organized procedure or framework within which it is possible to state the desired attributes of a material component or system in order to fulfill the requirements of the intended user without regard to the specific means to be employed in achieving the results. </li></ul><ul><li>The user is considered the starting point of the design. The key to successful design is user satisfaction with the end product. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  27. 27. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>The Performance Approach </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish the satisfaction of the user with the end product we must: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Determine the nature of user requirements as a prerequisite for design, and </li></ul><ul><li>2) Be able to evaluate buildings after occupancy to determine whether the requirements were met. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  28. 28. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are a link between the user and the physical environment. They can be considered as external manifestations of needs. They can be related to other activities and further analyzed into components. Activity descriptions enable one to identify relationships with design characteristics - at the scale of buildings and even communities, as well as at the scale of desired features of objects. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  29. 29. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Analysis of Activities </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  30. 30. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Annotated Plan </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  31. 31. <ul><li>Lecture 4 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  32. 32. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Architectural Programming </li></ul><ul><li>The American Institute of Architects (AIA) has defined architectural programming as the process by which criteria are developed for the design of a space, building, facility, physical environment, and for any unit of the environment. It is the means through which data about the needs of the ultimate building user are determined and expressed for the instruction of the architect in the development of a design solution. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  33. 33. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Architectural Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Programming enables the owner’s needs to be defined and translated into specific design instructions. Conflicts must be identified and resolved during the programming stage. The analyses and reports produced during programming are the basis for design. They are the link between the owner’s needs and the architect’s plans. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  34. 34. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Building Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Post occupancy evaluation is a means of learning how well the plan worked in practice and the extent to which the goals were achieved. “ ( M. Brill, “Evaluating Buildings on a Performance Basis,” in Designing for Human Behavior: Architecture and the Behavioral Sciences, ed. J. Lang, Stroudsburg, 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the completed projects - post occupancy or post construction evaluations - is conducted for several reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To modify or correct and existing building, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide guidelines for future construction of the same building type, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To evaluate programming criteria and design effectiveness, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide data on how people use and respond to the built environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation must be an integral part of the total design process. </li></ul><ul><li>A major difficulty with many evaluations is that they concentrate on general attitudes and prefernces of respondents to environments, without adequately specifying the design characteristics of the building being evaluated. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  35. 35. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Design Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The complex activity called “designing” interconnects three constituent activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaging is the ability to go beyond the information given and form a mental picture of a part of the world. This activity is often called “real creativity” by laypersons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers sketch, draw plans, build models, take photographs, and in many other ways externalize and communicate their images. Designers present ideas to make them visible so that they themselves and others can use and develop them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisals, refutations, criticisms, judgements, comaprisons, reflections, reviews, and confrontations are all types of tests. Testing is a feed-back and feed-forward process, adjusting the relation between a design product as it develops and the many criteria and qualities the product is intended to meet. </li></ul></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  36. 36. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Types of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information used in designing tends to be useful in two ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as a heuristic catalyst for imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as a body of knowledge for testing </li></ul></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  37. 37. Research and Design Concepts <ul><li>Design Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Designers continuously modify predictions about their final results I response to new information and insight. The design process is thus a series of conceptual shifts or creative leaps. Designers aim to reach one acceptable response within a range of possible solution. This domain of acceptance is measured largely by how well a product is adapted to its environment and how coherent constituent parts of the peoduct are with one another. Conceptual shifts and product development in design occur as the result of repeated, interative movement through the three elementary design activities. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  38. 38. <ul><li>Lecture 5 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  39. 39. Scientific Research <ul><li>What is RESEARCH? </li></ul><ul><li>Research is more than just searching or just solving problems. Research can provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deeper insight into a topic, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better understanding of a problem, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more clearly defined opportunities and constraints on possible action, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measurement of regularities, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ordered descriptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resaerchers want to use their experience to learn something to identify and help solve new problems. Presented with a problem, researchers draw on theory, training, accumulated knowledge, and expersicne to generate tentative ideas about how to solve it. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  40. 40. Research Projects <ul><li>Research projects begin with a good definition of the research problem : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you know about the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to know about the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to do with the results? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then you commit yourself to a way of working : focusing on a particular problem and deciding on the research design and setting that will solve your problem best. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to find out? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What design will give you useful information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What setting will use your resources effectively? </li></ul></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  41. 41. Research Strategies <ul><li>Research Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrived </li></ul></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  42. 42. Research Approaches <ul><li>Diagnostic Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic studies help you deepen your understanding of a setting: they provide suggestive evidence on a broad realm. They offer insight into the structure and dynamics of a whole situation. For trustworthiness of findings, diagnostic studies rely on the consistency, clarity, and coherence of the insights they develop in the situation being studied. Researchers who want more precise measurements of particular attributes of a group or situation may carry out a descriptive study based on conceptual frameworks developed in diagnostic ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The Urban Villagers </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  43. 43. Research Approaches <ul><li>Descriptive Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive studies describe and measure as precisely as possible one or more characteristics and their relations in a defined group. Developing clear concepts and translating these into something that can be counted as a manifestation of the concept are particularly crucial problems in descriptive research. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Study of Fear Among Residents of the Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project in St. Louis </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  44. 44. Research Approaches <ul><li>Theoretical Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical studies set specific hypotheses suggested by experiences elsewhere or primarily derived from more comprehensive theory. Such studies tend to increase general insights and to focus more on the conceptual framework of a problem than on the precise nature of the group they are observing. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Social Pressures in Informal groups </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  45. 45. Research Approaches <ul><li>Action research Studies </li></ul><ul><li>In action research studies changes are made and analyzed that have direct and lasting consequences on people beyond those in the research project. Comparative action research settings may occur naturally or may be created analytically by careful sampling. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Twin Rivers New Town </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  46. 46. <ul><li>Lecture 6 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  47. 47. Research Design <ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers use a case study design when they want to develop intensive knowledge about one complex object. They are used to describe and diagnose single, internally complex objects: individuals, buildings, episodes, institutions, processes, societies. </li></ul><ul><li>A case study is appropriate when investigators are interested mainly in information specific to the particular study object and context, rather than information easily generalizable to a large population. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  48. 48. Research Design <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>A survey design is useful when investigators want to find out in detail about a phenomenon, such as housing satisfaction, or about a class of elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey researchers who study large populations often choose to gather data that are easy to quantify and therefore less time-consuming to analyze than qualitative data. For this reason frequent research methods used in surveys are mail questionnaires, observing physical traces, observing behavior, and interviews. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  49. 49. Research Design <ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><li>An experimental design is appropriate when investigators want to measure the effects that an action has in a particular situation. In an experiment you want to be able to focus observation on a small number of attributes at one time. To do so, you need control , so that you can be as sure as possible that the effects you observe result from experimental changes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group and Experiment group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before and After the action </li></ul></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  50. 50. Research Design <ul><li>Parametric Study </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric research consists of the systematic manipulation of one variable (Independent), and making measurements on another variable (Dependent) though to be directly influenced by the independent variable, while keeping all other conditions constant by means of control variable </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  51. 51. Research Design <ul><li>Multivariant Study </li></ul><ul><li>In many situations, identifying one or even a restricted set of variables is difficult - especially in the case of behavioral studies of building environments where many physical and personal factors are present. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  52. 52. Research Settings <ul><li>Natural Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Natural settings offer researchers the unique opportunity to observe people in settings they choose to come to, engaged in activities a contrived setting could not re-create. Natural settings are particularly appropriate for diagnostic studies in which investigators want to find out what is actually going on - what elements, relationships, and dynamics are salient. </li></ul><ul><li>In natural settings you can also carry out an experiment, by manipulating a part of a physical environment, a particular social behavior, or a policy. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  53. 53. Research Settings <ul><li>Contrived Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Contrived settings are planned and controlled research environments in which to observe people and gather data from them. One such setting is the experimental laboratory, in which investigators control the setting, choose participants randomly, effect controlled changes, and measure some attribute of the subjects after those changes. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  54. 54. Research Evaluation <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>The validity of a measurement is concerned with whether the property being measured is what should be measured - i.e., are we measuring the right thing? </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  55. 55. Research Evaluation <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability refers to whether other researchers performing similar studies obtain equivalent results. </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  56. 56. <ul><li>Lecture 7 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  57. 57. Research Methods <ul><li>Observing Physical Traces </li></ul><ul><li>Observing Environmental Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Asking Questions: Topics and Answers </li></ul><ul><li>Archives </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  58. 58. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces <ul><li>Observing physical traces means systematically looking at physical surroundings to find reflections of previous activity not produced in order to be measured by researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Traces may have been unconsciously left behind (for example, paths across a field), or they may be conscious changes people have made in their surroundings (for example, a curtain hung over an open doorway or a new wall built). </li></ul><ul><li>From such traces researchers begin to infer how an environment got to be the way it is, what decisions its designers and builders made about the place, how people actually use it, how they feel toward their surroundings, and generally how that particular environment meets the needs of its users. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of the use of this method: Sommer’s observation of furniture placement in a mental hospital ward and corridor (1969). </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  59. 59. <ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><li>Unobtrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Obseving physical tracess is an unobtrusive method. It does not influence the behavior that cause the trrace. Unobtrusiveness is particularly valuable when gathering data about which respondents are sensitive or when respondents have a stake in a certain answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Durable </li></ul><ul><li>Many traces have the advantage for researchers that they do not quickly disappear. Investigators can return to a research site for more observations or counting and can document traces with photographs r drawings. Earlier traces can encourage later ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul><ul><li>Physical-trace observation is generally inexpensive and quick to yield interesting information. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  60. 60. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Recording traces verbally and diagrammatically requires little preparation and no skill. Agreement among researchers on a set of standard symbols will increase comparability of the data within a project. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  61. 61. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated Diagrams </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  62. 62. <ul><li>Lecture 8 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  63. 63. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Sketches of traces and drawings can be extremely useful in final reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally valuable to document both easily photographed outdoor traces and indoor traces.Consideration should be given to research requirements and respondents’ sensitivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Black and white photos - color photos - color slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Counting </li></ul><ul><li>Certain traces yield their full value only when their quantity is taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Each way of recording traces catches another dimension of the trace and provides researchers with new data. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  64. 64. <ul><li>What to look for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By-prooducts of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use can wear away parts of the environment: grass is trampled where people walk from one place to another. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leftovers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical objects as the result of some activities get left behind. Leftovers may indicate activities that have been planned for and unplanned for. Leftovers help to locate: (1) places that accommodated planned-for activities, (2) places that only partly accommodate expected activities, and that are used in unanticipated ways. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  65. 65. <ul><li>What to look for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing Traces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erosions and leftovers in settings tell us about what people do. When we see neither of these, or even very few such traces, it tells us about what people do not do. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  66. 66. <ul><li>Adaptation for Use </li></ul><ul><li>When some people find that their physical environment does not accommodate something they want to do, they change it. No matter what the original designer wants or expects, people who use environments redesign them. Adaptive traces are significant for designers because they are direct manifestations of design by users. People change settings to better support activities: to facilitate and sustain them. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  67. 67. <ul><li>Adaptation for Use </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Props </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When users add things to or remove things from a setting, they create new opportunities for activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes may separate spaces formerly together, increasing such qualities as privacy, control, and darkness or more sharply dividing territories. Separations can be particularly informative about side effects of design decisions. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  68. 68. <ul><li>Adaptation for Use </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical adaptations for use may connect two places, enabling people to interact in new ways. Connections can indicate that the original designer overlooked a common behavior that requires being able to move, see, hear, or talk between one space and another or that such activity developed since that place was designed. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  69. 69. <ul><li>Displays of Self </li></ul><ul><li>People change environments to put their stamps on them - to say “This is mine and it says something about me.” Displays of self may be directed toward other people, but just as often the changes mean something mainly to the person who makes them. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  70. 70. <ul><li>Displays of Self </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>People use environments to express their uniqueness and individuality. By observing how parts of the environment are useful as display cases, you can improve your ability to design environments that provide opportunities for displays of self. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  71. 71. <ul><li>Displays of Self </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>People use their environments to enable others to identify them more easily. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group Membership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In addition to displaying their individuality, people also display their membership in formal groups and organizations: religious, academic, political, ethnic, cultural, professional.Group-membership signs are often carried around on more mobile display cases: car bumpers, jackets with emblems, T-shirts. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  72. 72. <ul><li>Public Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Physical environments can be used to communicate to the public at large. Most, but not all, public messages appear in public places. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Official public messages usually appear in environments designed for that purpose. Names of commercial establishments, advertisement signs, street names, and traffic signs are examples of official messages. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  73. 73. <ul><li>Public Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unofficial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals and groups also communicate publicly by means of settings not designed specifically for that purpose. Unofficial messages usually announce short-term events and are often accepted and even expected on surfaces in public places. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illegitimate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Messages to the general public which are not planned for and which are considered by many to be illegitimate uses of public environments. The most frequent example of illegitimate public messages is graffiti. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  74. 74. <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>When looking at physical traces, researchers must keep in mind that they are trying to look beyond the trace itself to understand a larger picture. That larger picture can emerge only if you see the context of what you observe. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  75. 75. <ul><li>Lecture 9 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  76. 76. <ul><li>Observing behavior means systematically watching people use their environments: individuals, pairs of people, small groups, and large groups. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do activities relate to one another spatially? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do spatial relations affect participants? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does a physical environment support or interfere with behaviors taking place within it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What side effects does the setting have on relationships between individuals or groups? </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  77. 77. <ul><li>Observing behavior in physical settings generates data about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people's activities and the relationships needed to sustain them ; about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regularities of behavior ; about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expected uses , new uses , and misuses of a place ; and about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavioral opportunities and constraints that environments provide. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  78. 78. <ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Researchers observing people soon get a feeling for the character of a situation. Observers may assume that the way they personally feel in a situation is the way everyone else feels. They also run the risk of overlooking differences between people, unless they formulate their feelings into testable hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondents often hesitate to report that they break formal rules. People also tend not to report to interviewers activity they think is trivial and therefore not worth reporting. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  79. 79. <ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>As you look at people doing things, what you see changes : activities affect other activities. The role of time in the life of an environment is important. In complex situations observers begin to get a sense of chain reactions; the effects of effects. When you observe behavior, you soon become aware of repetitive activities in identifiable places. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  80. 80. <ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To look carefully at events, observers continually question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whether they see the whole event, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whether they see all the participants, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whether something significant has been missed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing down predictions and test also helps observers avoid the trap of thinking that false starts have really been well tested and enables them to review their own work later with a clearer mind. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  81. 81. <ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable Intrusive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Researchers have to decide how far they will intrude and from what social and physical vantage point they want to participate in observed events. Observers can choose to be outsiders or participant observers in any situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observers’ Vantage Points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secret Outsider </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized Outsider </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marginal Participant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full Participant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  82. 82. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Notation is the recording of behavior in verbal and diagrammatic notes. It demands that observers decide what to describe and what to overlook on the spot. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  83. 83. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precoded Checklists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Descriptive notes (qualitative observations) can be used to develop a precoded checklist for counting. For each activity on a checklist, observers record characteristics of participants (alone or in group), place, time, and other relevant conditions, such as the weather. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  84. 84. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recording activities on floor plans, diagrams, or maps is particularly convenient if researchers want to observe and analyze several people in one general area at the same time. Maps are also useful to record sequences of behavior in settings where people have a choice of several paths. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  85. 85. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Still photographs can capture subtleties that other methods may not record. Photographs are useful throughout a research project because of their illustrative quality. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videotapes and Movies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Whenever time is a significant element, motion photography - videotape or movies - ought to be considered. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  86. 86. <ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul><ul><li>Designers make places for people to do things in - either alone or together with other people. A structure for looking at environmental behavior useful to designers results in data to help physical designers make decisions that improve places for people. </li></ul><ul><li>The better information designers have about how the people they design for behave in physical settings and how those people relate to or exclude other people, the better they can control the behavioral side effects of the design decisions they make. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers must also know how the context of observed activities affect the activities, because in different sociocultural and physical settings the same behavior can have different design implications. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  87. 87. <ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is Actor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>doing what Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with whom ? Significant Other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In what relationship , Relationships (aural, visual, tactile, olfactory, symbolic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in what context , Sociocultural Context (situation, culture) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and where? Physical Setting (props, spatial relations) </li></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  88. 88. <ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  89. 89. <ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  90. 90. <ul><li>Lecture 10 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  91. 91. <ul><li>Asking questions in research means posing questions systematically to find out what people think, feel, do, know, believe, and expect . Focused interviews are particularly suited to the needs of researchers interested in reactions to particular environments. </li></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  92. 92. <ul><li>Focused Interviews can be used with individuals or groups to find out in depth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how people define a concrete situation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what they consider important about it, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what effects they intended their actions to have in the situation, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how they feel about it. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  93. 93. <ul><li>The Interview Guide </li></ul><ul><li>The interview guide is a loose conceptual map; a set of topics, elements, patterns, and relationships that the interviewer tentatively intends to cover. </li></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  94. 94. <ul><li>Objectives of Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of the Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An individual’s definition of a situation is the way he or she sees and interprets it. This definition influences the way he or she responds to that event. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how participants define a situation – the meaning they give to it – helps to to interpret data gathered through other methods, no matter how unreasonable the respondent’s definition sounds. </li></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  95. 95. <ul><li>Objectives of Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of Respondents’ Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designers can better control the side effects of their decisions if they know the strength of respondents’ feelings about these decisions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only by asking the actors what their intentions are can researchers distinguish conscious intent from unintentional side effects . </li></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  96. 96. <ul><li>Basic Characters of Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons interviewed are known to have been involved in a particular concrete situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher has carried a situational analysis to provisionally identify hypothetically significant elements, patterns, and processes of the situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher develops an interview guide , setting forth major areas of inquiry and hypotheses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is an effort to ascertain persons definitions of situations. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  97. 97. Research Methods: Focused Interviews Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 <ul><li>Focused Interviews Probes </li></ul><ul><li>The probe is a major focused-interview tool that is used by the interviewer to find out if a respondent’s definition of the situation differs from the hypothesized one. </li></ul><ul><li>Probes are primarily questions that interviewers interpose to get a respondent to clarify a point, to explain further what he meant, to continue talking, or to shift the topic. </li></ul>
  98. 98. Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  99. 99. <ul><li>1- Addition Probes to Promote Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Addition probes urge respondents to continue talking by conveying the researcher’s interest in what is being said. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement Uh-huh, I see, Yes, Good, That’s interesting, I understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body movement nodding of head, leaning forward, looking directly at the respondent, hand to chin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attentive silence wait for respondent to begin speaking </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  100. 100. <ul><li>2- Reflecting Probes to Achieve Non-direction </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewer uses probes to see that the discussion covers all the hypothesized topics, leaving room for the respondent to raise additional one. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question-to-question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echo Probe repeat in the form of a question the respondent’s last phrase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attentive-listening listen to the implied meaning and repeat as a question </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  101. 101. <ul><li>3- Transitional Probes to Extend Range </li></ul><ul><li>The range of an interview is the number of topics it covers relevant to the respondent and to the situation. Probes extend range by making certain that the topics listed in the guide are discussed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cued a remark or an allusion to ease the interviewee into a new topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversion a superficial connection to bring up a topic insufficiently covered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation blatantly change the subject </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  102. 102. <ul><li>4- Situational Probes to Encourage Specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity is a respondent’s ability to state with precision which elements in a situation he or she reacted to and in what way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-presentation photographs or drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk-through ask questions while walking through the environment that is the topic of the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstruction ask respondents to think back to particular events in a place </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  103. 103. <ul><li>5- Emotional Probes to Increase Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Depth in a focused interview is the degree to which the respondent’s feelings about a situation are explored. Interviewers use emotion probes to determine how strongly a person feels about a response he has given. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling feel or feeling in a question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection ask about feelings of another hypothetical person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attentive-listening listen to the implied meaning and make it implicit </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  104. 104. <ul><li>6- Personal Probes to Tie in Context </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions to environments have, as a rule, a dual chain of causes, the environment and characteristics of the reacting person . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-description request respondent to describe themselves and why they react the way they do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel request respondents to find parallel situations in their own lives </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  105. 105. <ul><li>Focused Interviews in Groups </li></ul><ul><li>In a group, interviewers face many of the same problems and use many of the same probes as they do with individuals. You have to keep the flow of discussion moving, remind people of specific details you are interested in, and maintain sufficient range. </li></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  106. 106. <ul><li>The Leader Effect </li></ul><ul><li>In most groups of people one or two persons will inevitably emerge as louder, more dominant, or more opinionated. Such a person can easily take over an interview, divert it from its focus, and inhibit others from talking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal for equal time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking for a vote </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews Probes Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  107. 107. <ul><li>Lecture 11 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  108. 108. <ul><li>Standardized questionnaires are used to discover regularities among groups of people by comparing answers to the same set of questions asked of a large number of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires can be delivered by mail or administered over the phone or in person by interviewers trained to ask the questions in the same way. Questionnaires provide a useful data when investigators begin with a very well defined problem, knowing what major concepts and dimensions they want to deal with. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of questionnaire responses can provide precise numbers to measure variables, e.g. degrees, percentages, .etc. </li></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  109. 109. <ul><li>The Use of Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with hypotheses about which attributes relate to each other. (Example: Type of previous dwelling influences satisfaction with apartment living.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out particularly thorough preliminary diagnostic research. Use focused interviews and observation methods to determine how people similar to intended questionnaire respondents define a situation: what is important; what names they use for places and things; the types of answers they give. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure and develop the questionnaire to include all the variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretest the questionnaire with more people like the expected respondents by administering it to self-conscious respondents while asking them to comment on it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer the questionnaire and analyze the results. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  110. 110. <ul><li>Qualities of the Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A great deal of findings in a short time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting quantitative data often convince other people of arguments qualitative data do not . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of the investigation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ordering of questions and answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency, cost, and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition and ease of comparison of responses from different responses and with other situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build cumulative body of data </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  111. 111. <ul><li>Intrusiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents can change and distort answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents can be directed by the questions themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convincing rigor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis of questionnaire data contributes precision to knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make research convincing to others </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  112. 112. <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Rapport (agreement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research results are as valid as the relationship between interviewer and respondent is open and non-defensive. Rapport can be established by introducing oneself and the purpose of the interview clearly, honestly, realistically, and without threatening the respondents. Start the questionnaire with questions that request positive answers to achieve friendly atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early questions can influence the way respondents answer later ones. A good rule to follow is to go from general to specific questions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents get tired after half an hour or so. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To maximize information and minimize fatigue, try to group questions relating to a topic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid confusing respondents with irrelevant questions. </li></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  113. 113. <ul><li>Precoding Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open ended questions (free-responses) are time consuming and costly to analyze. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precoding is to partition possible response alternatives into a set of categories for respondents to choose from. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes and no </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information (age) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes (opinion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rank-ordering of Items </li></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  114. 114. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Ordinal Questions Information Attitudes Meaning
  115. 115. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Rank-ordering of Items
  116. 116. <ul><li>Visual Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cognitive, expressive, and perceptual information about respondents’ physical surroundings may be better expressed visually than verbally, through nonprecoded techniques, such as freehand area maps, base-map additions, drawings, photographs taken by respondents and games. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive maps are the mental pictures of the surroundings that people use to structure the way they look at, react to, and act in their environment. If designers know how people who use their environments see them, they can better control the side effects of design decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freehand Maps (Kevin Lynch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additions to Base Maps (Zeisel and Griffin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings (Sanoff and Barbour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  117. 117. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Freehand maps Drawings
  118. 118. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999 Additions to Base Maps
  119. 119. <ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop games through which respondents express themselves by making a series of linked choice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the oldest such games is Wilson’s “ Neighborhood Game ”. Alternative degrees of attributes such as neighborhood physical quality and sanitation services each have a price tag attached. Respondents are given a set of chips representing the total amount of money they can spend to “buy” the amenities on the game board. With the amount of play money they have, they are forced to chose among attractive alternatives, not all of which they can afford. Their final judgements express not a linear series of individual choices but a balanced set of simultaneous ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another game developed by Zeisel and Griffin is the “ Dwelling Unit Floor Plan game ” in which respondents make a series of simple design decisions to develop their housing unit. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  120. 120. <ul><li>Lecture 12 </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  121. 121. <ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop games through which respondents express themselves by making a series of linked choice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the oldest such games is Wilson’s “ Neighborhood Game ”. Alternative degrees of attributes such as neighborhood physical quality and sanitation services each have a price tag attached. Respondents are given a set of chips representing the total amount of money they can spend to “buy” the amenities on the game board. With the amount of play money they have, they are forced to chose among attractive alternatives, not all of which they can afford. Their final judgements express not a linear series of individual choices but a balanced set of simultaneous ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another game developed by Zeisel and Griffin is the “ Dwelling Unit Floor Plan game ” in which respondents make a series of simple design decisions to develop their housing unit. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  122. 122. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  123. 123. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  124. 124. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  125. 125. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  126. 126. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  127. 127. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  128. 128. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  129. 129. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  130. 130. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  131. 131. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  132. 132. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999
  133. 133. <ul><li>End </li></ul>Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Architectural Theory 1: Human Environmental Factors 9-1999

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