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Evolution and development of architecture and urbanism in kuwait
 

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    Evolution and development of architecture and urbanism in kuwait Evolution and development of architecture and urbanism in kuwait Presentation Transcript

    • Evolution and Development of Architecture and Urbanism in Kuwait Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture College of Engineering and Petroleum Kuwait University Lecture presented at Qatar University February 24, 2010
      • Biography
      • B.Sc. in Architecture, Ain Shams University, Egypt.
      • Doctorate in Architecture, The University of Michigan, USA.
      • Practiced and taught architecture in, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait.
      • Research Interests :
      • Socio-cultural aspects of architecture, Sustainability, Urbanization, Globalization, Post Occupancy Evaluation, and Professional practice.
      Dr. Yasser Mahgoub [email_address]
    • Introduction
      • The purpose of this lecture is to introduce both my research interests , writings and publications on the evolution and development of architecture and urbanism in Kuwait to a general audience.
    • My Homepage: http:// ymahgoub .fortunecity.com
    • My Homepage: http:// kuniv.academia.edu/ YasserMahgoub
    • Lecture Outline
      • Introduction
      • A Brief History of Kuwait
      • Urbanism in Kuwait
        • Development through Master Planning
        • Impact of Building Codes and Regulation
      • Architecture in Kuwait
        • Architecture Typology
        • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
        • Impact of Globalization
        • Socio-cultural Sustainability
      • Future Projects in Kuwait
      • Conclusions
    • Introduction
      • The lecture will focus on the social and cultural aspects that influenced and resulted from the dramatic changes that took place in Kuwait during the second half of the 20 th century.
    • Location
    • Change
      • Kuwait has passed through dramatic transformations of its architecture and urban environment after the discovery of oil in the second half of the 20 th century that were the result of economic, political, regional and global changes .
    • Timeline
      • The city-state of Kuwait has evolved during the second half of the 20 th century under influences of economic, international and global changes.
      Major events since the discovery of oil in Kuwait 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
    • 50 كويت ما قبل 19 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 50 كويت ما قبل 19 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 50 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 50 كويت ما بعد 19 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 60 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ 60
    • 70 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 80 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 80 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 90 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 90 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 2000 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 2000 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 2000 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • 2000 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
    • Urban Development Through Master Planning Related research and publications:
      • February 2006, 1st Gulf First Urban Planning and Development Conference, 20 - 22 February 2006, Kuwait. Paper presented and published titled: Socio-Cultural Sustainability and Urban Development in Kuwait .
      • November 2003. Published article titled: Urbanization in Kuwait: Readings in Architects Saba George Shiber Papers . AMAR: No. 76, November 2003, pp. 40-47.
      • December 2002, Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments (UN)BOUNDING TRADITION : The Tensions of Borders and Regions Hong Kong, December 12-15, 2002. Paper presented titled: Making Kuwait: Tradition vs. Modernity .
    • Arial view of Kuwait before the discovery of oil
    • The urban fabric of old Kuwait city
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    • Kuwait old walls
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    • Milestones of Change
      • Milestones of changes in Kuwait:
        • oil discovery during the 1940’s .
        • first master plan in 1952 and its execution during the 60’s .
        • economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973.
        • economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash.
        • experience of invasion and liberation during the 1990’s .
        • 2002 war on Iraq.
    • Kuwait Master Plans
      • Several master plans were developed to guide the rapid urbanization of Kuwait. They included:
      • The 1 st Master Plan by the British firm Monoprio, Spencely and Macfarlane in 1952 .
      • The 2 nd Master Plan by Colin Buchanan and Partners in 1968 .
      • First Review of the 2 nd Master Plan by Shankland Cox Partnership in 1977.
      • Re-examination of Master Plan by Colin Buchanan and Partners in 1983.
      • A proposed 3 rd Master Plan by. Kuwait Municipality in 1997 .
      • Kuwait Engineering Group and Colin Buchanan developed the 3 rd Master Plan that was issued in 2008 .
      1 2 3 4
    • The First Master Plan in 1952
      • The matters which Monprio et al regarded as being of “ primary importance ” in the replanning of the town were as follows:
        • (a) the provision of a modern road system appropriate to the traffic conditions in Kuwait,
        • (b) the location of suitable zones for public buildings , industry, commerce, schools, and other purposes,
        • (c) the choice of zones for new houses and other buildings needed in residential areas, both inside and outside the wall,
        • (d) the selection of sites for parks, sports ground, school playing fields and other open spaces ,
        • (c) the creation of a beautiful and dignified town centre ,
        • (f) the planting of trees and shrubs along the principal roads and at other important points in the town, and
        • (g) the provision of improved main roads linking Kuwait with the adjoining towns and villages .
    • The 1 st Master Plan
    • The 1 st Master Plan
    • The 1 st Master Plan
    • Kuwait Planning and road systems.
    • The 2 nd Master Plan
    • The 3 rd Master Plan Proposal
    • Capacity of Current Urban Area Roads Water Sewage Electricity Housing Safe Warning Danger 2008 Mark 200 9 3 m
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    • Development Axis International Commerce Tourism The 3 rd Master Plan
    • إستراتيجية الخطة القومية الطبيعية The 3 rd Master Plan
    • From Master to Dynamic Planning
      • Rapid urbanization is posing great challenge to classic theories of master planning.
        • Spatial and Temporal dimensions.
        • Global and Local scales.
      • Conventionally urban planning process used only one kind of spatial imaginary; that of master plan and zoning .
      • From Master Planning to Dynamic Green/Sustainable Planning .
    • Impact of Buildings Codes and Regulations Related research and publications:
      • February 2006, 1st Gulf First Urban Planning and Development Conference, 20 - 22 February 2006, Kuwait. Paper presented and published titled: Socio-Cultural Sustainability and Urban Development in Kuwait .
      • 2002, Mahgoub, Y. (2002) The Development of Private Housing in Kuwait: The Impact of Building Regulations . Paper refereed and published in Open House International , Volume 27 Number 2, pp. 47-62.
      • October 2002, The First Housing Conference sponsored by Kuwait Society of Engineers. Paper presented titled: Built Environmental Transformation and Building Regulations in Kuwait .
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    • Impact of Building Regulations on the Development of Private Housing in Kuwait
      • Housing is usually discussed in terms of its social and cultural aspects , its materials and methods of construction , and its method of production and design .
      • Yet, building codes and regulations have great impact on the formation of the built environment in general and housing in specific.
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    • Comparison between key items of private housing regulations Same as 1996. For all lots less than 750m2: min. 2m from service street and min. 1.5m for the other three sides For all lots greater than 750 m2: min. 3 m from service street and 2m for the other three sides Total lot building allowance: ground floor on all sides except the service street side 50% of the length is allowed not exceeding 15m long and less than 5m high from the closest sidewalk average level It is not allowed to build the upper floors on the lot edge of the lot (some exceptions were mentioned) Owners could agree to build adjacent houses provided that they take into consideration the architectural design of the adjacent buildings so that the design matches the adjacent buildings' architectural style and claddings and that it does not cause architectural damage to other lots. It is also required that they provide natural ventilation and lighting and the privacy of their neighbors. Both architectural designs should submitted together. Min. 5m from main street Min. 3m from secondary streets Min. 2.5m from neighbor edge Min. 3m from pedestrian walkways or gardens It is permitted to build the ground floor up to the edge of the land but no more than 4m high. 1.5m min. in case of a ground floor setback from neighbor. It is allowed to construct adjacent buildings on the edge if there is an agreement between the two neighbors to follow a unified design. Setbacks Same as 1996 except that 120m2 are allowed in addition to the 1966 regulations It is permitted to build the ground, first and second floors using different building ratios according to the architectural design. 680m2 for lots<400m2 170% for lots 400-600m2 150% for lots >600m2 Basement not included Basement area 80% of lot not including courts Ground floor area 80% of lot area Other floors 65% of lot area 50m2 are allowed on top of the second floor + 25 m2 for stairwell 120% of land 40% of land per floor Basement not included Building one floor adjacent to neighbor 4m-height max. Building area 2000 Modifications 1996 1985 Item
    • Comparison between key items of private housing regulations Same as 1996 Min room area 10m2 with min width 3m Min kitchen area 7.5m2 with min width 2m Min bathroom area 4m2 with min width 1.5m Min toilet are 1.5m2 with min width 1m Min corridor width inside housing unit 1.2m Min room area 12m2 Min kitchen are 7.5 m2 Min bathroom area 4m2 Min toilet area 1.5m2 Min room width 3m, kitchen 2 m, bathroom 1.75 and toilet 1m Min corridor width inside housing unit 1.2 m Min living/dining space 21 m2 Room areas Same as 1996 except: It is allowed to have different interior heights for the ground, first and second floors according to the needs of the design provided that the maximum height of 15m is maintained, measured from the sidewalk level till the level of the second floor roof not including the roof parapet nor the staircase. In case that the main building is adjacent to the edge of the lot in the gorund floor, the adjacent parts should not exceed 5m high from the level of the sidewalk level of the highest street. 15m max. not exceeding 3 floors including the ground floor. 3m clean floor height Max. basement level is 1.8m above the highest surrounding streets level The staircase and elevator casement might exceed the maximum building height by no more than 3m 2m max height of roof parapet 3m max height of outside fence for the lot and not less than 0.5m Building heights are measured from the service road sidewalk average level to the second floor roof level Floor height is measured from the tip of the floor level to the bottom of the roof slab of the following floor not exceeding 4m including the basement. 15m max. not exceeding 3 floors including the ground floor. 3m clean floor height 1.5m. max. basement level above court level 2.75m clean basement height The staircase might exceed the maximum building height by no more than 3m including the roof of the staircase. Trusses and mechanical equipment are permitted to exceed this limit according to the engineering requirements. 2m max height of roof parapet 2.5m max height of outside fence for the lot Building heights are measured from the sidewalk level to the roof level excluding the roof parapet, steel trusses, pergolas, and other mechanical equipment. Min floor height is measured from the tip of the floor level to the bottom of the roof slab. Building height 2000 Modifications 1996 1985 Item
    • Comparison between key items of private housing regulations Same as 1996
      • It is allowed for buildings built on the edge of the land to be projected for aesthetic purposes provided that the projection does not exceed the following:
      • 50cm max for shades, edges of doors and windows, cornices, and other projections considered to be part of the building.
      • 1m for the last surface of the cornice
      • Projection starts 2.2m above ground
      • Projections are allowed for buildings that are being built inside the land with setback as indicted in (a) and (b) provided that projections are considered when these setbacks are calculated
      • It is allowed for buildings built on the edge of the land to be projected for aesthetic purposes provided that the projection does not exceed the following:
      • 50cm max for shades, edges of doors and windows, cornices, and other projections considered to be part of the building.
      • 1m for the last surface of the cornice
      • 5 cm max for everything else
      Projections More than one staircase is allowed according to the requirements of the design provided that one is considered main and the other for service. The design should not allow the separation of each floor into a separate unit. Min clear width of main staircase and landing is 1.2m and the landing width must equal the stair width Stair riser is configured according to the following equation: 2 risers + 1 going = 60-65 cm provided that max stair riser is 17 cm Min clear height between stair or landing and ceiling is 2.2m No more than 14 goings are allowed in one direction if the building has more than one floor Adequate natural lighting and ventilation should be provided for the staircase by providing windows opening directly to the outside Staircases must be provided in buildings with more than one floor Min clear width of main staircase and landing is 1.2m and the landing width must equal the stair width Stair riser is configured according to the following equation: 2 risers + 1 going = 60-65 cm provided that max stair riser is 17 cm Min clear height between stair or landing and ceiling is 2.2m No more than 14 goings are allowed in one direction if the building has more than one floor Adequate natural lighting and ventilation should be provided for the staircase by providing windows opening directly to the outside Staircases must be provided in buildings with more than one floor Min clear width of main staircase and landing is 1.2m and the landing width must equal the stair width Stair riser is configured according to the following equation: 2 risers + 1 going = 60-65 cm provided that max stair riser is 17 cm Min clear height between stair or landing and ceiling is 2.2m No more than 14 goings are allowed in one direction if the building has more than one floor Adequate natural lighting and ventilation should be provided for the staircase by providing windows opening directly to the outside Staircase 2000 Modifications 1996 1985 Item
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    • Impact of Building Regulations on the Development of Private Housing in Kuwait
      • 1. The Streetscape: Pedestrians, Cars and Landscape
      • 2. Privacy
      • 3. Character, Style and Identity
      • 4. Informal urbanization and leftover spaces
      • 5. Social Interaction
      • 6. Historical Discontinuity
      • 7. Visual Pollution
    • Impact of Building Regulations on the Development of Private Housing in Kuwait
      • Building codes and regulations should be modified and rewritten to produce more sustainable built environment .
      • Building regulations should encourage the creation of sustainable, supportive neighborhood environment that equally accommodate, cars, people, and buildings ; and positively impact the health, safety, belonging, privacy, community life, territoriality of children and adults alike.
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    • تطور قوانين البناء في الكويت 1. جميع فئات القسائم التي تقل مساحتها عن (750 م 2): ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي المكون من أرضى وطواق عليا عن الحد المطل على شارع الخدمة عن (2 م ) ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي عن الحدود الثلاث المتبقية عن (1.5 م ) 2. لجميع فئات القسائم التي تكون مساحتها (750 م 2) واكبر من ذلك : ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي المكون من أرضى وطوابق عليا عن الحد المطل على شارع الخدمة عن (3 م ). ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي عن الحدود الثلاثة المتبقية عن (2 م ). 1. جميع فئات القسائم التي تقل مساحتها عن (750 م 2): ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي المكون من أرضى وطوابق عليا عن الحد المطل على شارع الخدمة عن (2 م ) ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي عن الحدود الثلاث المتبقية عن (1.5 م ) 2. لجميع فئات القسائم التي تكون مساحتها (750 م 2) واكبر من ذلك : ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي المكون من أرضى وطوابق عليا عن الحد المطل على شارع الخدمة عن (3 م ). ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي عن الحدود الثلاثة المتبقية عن (2 م ). ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي عن الحد المطل على الشارع عن (5) أمتار إذا لم يكن للأرض سوى واجهة واحدة على الشارع . ألا يقل الحد الأدنى لارتداد البناء الرئيسي عن الحدود المطلة على اكثر من شارع عن (5) أمتار بالنسبة للشارع الرئيسي وثلاثة أمتار بالنسبة للشوارع الأخرى . جـ - ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي من حد الجار عن 2.5 متر . د - ألا يقل ارتداد البناء الرئيسي عن الحد المطل على ممر مشاة أو ساحة مكشوفة أو حديقة عن (3) أمتار . الارتداد عن الشوارع قسائم مساحتها أقل من ( 400 م 2) لا تتجاوز مساحة البناء الإجمالية فيها عن 680 م 2. قسائم مساحتها من (400 م 2) إلى (600 م 2) تكون نسبة بناءها الإجمالية 170% من مساحة القسيمة . قسائم مساحتها تزيد عن (600 م 2) تكون نسبة بناءها الإجمالية 150% من مساحة القسيمة أو (1020 م 2) أيهما أكبر . قسائم مساحتها اقل من (400 م 2) لا تتجاوز مساحة البناء الإجمالية فيها عن 680 م 2. قسائم مساحتها من (400 م 2) إلى (600 م 2) تكون نسبة بنائها الإجمالية 170% من مساحة القسيمة . قسائم مساحتها تزيد عن (600 م 2) تكون نسبة بنائها الإجمالية 150% من مساحة القسيمة أو (1020 م 2) أيهما اكبر . يكون مجموع مساحة البناء بواقع 120% من مساحة الأرض على أن لا تزيد نسبة البناء لكل طابق على 40%. مساحة البناء الإجمالية قرار رقم ( م ب / ف 3/27/3/2000) قرار رقم (21 لسنة 96 ) قرار رقم (30 لسنة 85) الاشتراط
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    • Architecture Typology Related research and publications:
      • March 2008, Mahgoub, Y. (2008) The Impact of War on the Meaning of Architecture in Kuwait . Paper refereed and published in The International Journal of Architectural Research (Archnet-IJAR), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 232-246.
      • July 2001, EDRA 32/2001: Old World - New Ideas, Edinburgh, Scotland. Paper presented titled: Old Ideas in a New World: The Case of the Gulf Region .
    • Architectural Typological Analysis
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    • Architectural Typological Analysis Vernacular Architecture Materials and Technical Influences Regional Influences
    • Urbanization Influences Acculturation Influences Economic Influences Modernization Influences
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture Related research and publications:
      • November 2005 to February 2007. Principal Investigator of a research grant from the Research Council of the Kuwait University. Research titled: &quot; Architecture and Identity in Kuwait &quot;. Final research report submitted February 14, 2007.
      • April 2007, Mahgoub, Y. (2007) Architecture and the Expression of Cultural Identity in Kuwait . Paper refereed and published in The Journal of Architecture , Volume 12, Number 2, pp. 165-182.
      • March 2007, Mahgoub, Y. (2007) Hyper-Identity: The Case of Kuwaiti Architecture . Paper refereed and published in The International Journal of Architectural Research , Volume 1 Number 1, pp. 70-84.
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    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • Attempts towards expressing cultural identity in Kuwaiti architecture is not new .
      • It started with attempts by foreign architects who participated in the design of buildings after the implementation of the first master plan in Kuwait during the 1970’s.
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • The work of Jorn Utzon in the design of the Parliament Building , Reima Pietilae in the design of the new Sief Palace, and the Water Towers by Sony Lyndstrom are examples of landmarks designed by foreign architects expressing a cultural identity.
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • The work of Jorn Utzon in the design of the Parliament Building, Reima Pietilae in the design of the new Sief Palace , and the Water Towers by Sony Lyndstrom are examples of landmarks designed by foreign architects expressing a cultural identity.
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • The work of Jorn Utzon in the design of the Parliament Building, Reima Pietilae in the design of the new Sief Palace, and the Water Towers by Sony Lyndstrom are examples of landmarks designed by foreign architects expressing a cultural identity.
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • Some architects express cultural identity by borrowing from traditional architecture believing that the sources of cultural identity are derived from the past , while others who express a cultural identity that relates to contemporary conditions and future ambitions .
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • In recent years the issue of cultural identity in contemporary architecture has become essential in creating uniqueness and local identity in a competitive environment on a global level .
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • Examples that represent Kuwaiti architecture from traditional and contemporary.
      • Traditional examples included: old Seif palace, old houses, diwaniyas , schools, mosques, neighborhoods, and souqs.
    • Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture
      • Contemporary examples included: water towers, Kuwait towers, Parliament buildings, Souq Sharq, Souq Al-Zul Wa Al-Bishut, Arab Organizations Headquarter, and the New Seif palace.
    • Public State/Official Governmental Kuwaiti Regional Gulf Arab Islamic International Private Pragmatic Metaphoric Canonic Iconic Analogic Symbolic Semi-Public Institutional Expression of Cultural Identity in Architecture A Model
    • Expression of Cultural Identity in Architecture A Model
    • Conclusions
      • Buildings alone are not sufficient to convey the cultural identity .
      • The context of architecture provides an important background against which architecture is understood .
      • The character of a town is the sum of its multiple and often fragmented inter-relationships in space between buildings , the social mix of people , its activities and events , and the wider geographical setting of the town .
      Conclusions
      • There is always a cultural identity being expressed in architecture.
      • The expression might differ from one architect to the other and from one building to the other .
      Conclusions
      • The collective image of these identities conveys the degree of agreement or disagreement , commonalities and differences , harmony and contrast between the members of the society at any given period of time.
      Conclusions
    • Recommendations
        • The establishment of an urbanscape coordination act and committee to coordinate the efforts and overcome chaos in the urban environment.
        • Public awareness should be fostered by public lecture, professional writings and the media.
    • Recommendations
        • Building codes and regulations should be revised and integrate lessons from the traditional architecture of the country.
        • Sustainable architecture and urban development responsive to and expressive of its geographical and climatic situation should be encouraged and become common practice.
    • Impact of Globalization Related research and publications:
      • May 2008, Mahgoub, Y. (2008) Kuwait – Learning From a Globalized City . A book chapter published in a book edited by Yasser Elsheshtawy titled The Evolving Arab City , and published by Routledge, pp. 152-183.
      • July 2002, THE 17th IAPS Conference - 24 – 27th July 2002 - Galicia, Spain. Paper presented titled: Globalization and Architecture: The case of Kuwait .
    • Globalization
      • Aspects of globalization:
      • Telecommunications and information technology has produced a need for a new type of technological infrastructure, building types and design requirements.
      • Transportation technology affected urban and city planning and produced changes in understanding space and proximity.
      • Building technology suggested new methods of construction and materials that require new methods of expression.
      • The global marketplace liberated professional services and labour, building materials and construction methods, trade and investment from the limitations of national boundaries.
      • The rise of human rights awareness pointed to issues of the right to housing; housing of marginalized populations, and housing for the poor.
    • Globalization
      • Aspects of globalization (cont.):
      • New work habits revived forms of home-work environment and mixed use planning that existed centuries ago.
      • Interaction and communication over the internet , permitting &quot;virtual&quot; social interaction with people all over the globe.
      • The lifestyle of fast food chains, luxurious shopping centres, and other commodities is available all over the world today.
      • The culture of the &quot;global village&quot; disregarded cultural differences and increased similarities in lifestyles around the world through &quot;icons&quot; of globalization .
      • Architectural practice trends of international firms to establish branches in different parts of the world utilizing the time difference to keep their business running 24 hours a day.
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    • Globalization
      • Kuwait is experiencing, as all other developing countries, the tension between the forces of globalization and localization .
      • On one hand, people are eager to enjoy the luxuries of modern life that they can afford to have while retaining a cultural identity and satisfy special social requirements .
      • It is expected that recent political changes will release the countries eagerness to develop and catch up with its Gulf neighbours after more than a decade of political unrest in the region .
      • Learning from the pros and cons of past experiences is most meaningful way to create a better future.
    • Globalization
      • The impact of the religion on the culture is very significant and essential for understanding the needs of individuals for privacy, family interaction, and space configuration and orientation .
    • Globalization
      • These needs are currently being modified under the influence of higher economic standards and globalization .
    • Globalization
      • The clash of styles that exists in the built environment in Kuwait is a product of the rapid process of globalization that swept the country since the middle of the 20 th century.
      • A dichotomy between cultural forces of globalization and localization is shaping today's built environment, i.e. Modern-Traditional , Islamic-Western , Local-Global , etc.
      • While some architects employ fashionable styles of architecture in order to integrate the local architecture into global trends, others are trying to revive the traditional architectural style as a mean to enforce the local identity and heritage.
      • The resulting built environment lacks shared identity and sense of place .
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    • Socio-cultural Sustainability Related research and publications:
      • October 2009, Mahgoub, Y. (2009) Modifications of Governmental Housing Projects in Kuwait , Paper presented and published in the proceeding of 2009 International Conference on Social Science and Humanities, October 10-12, 2009, Singapore (ICSSH 2009), pp. 109-114.
      • March 2009, Mahgoub, Y. (2009) Socio-Cultural Sustainability of Future Learning Environments . Open House International on: Shaping the Future of Learning Environments: Emerging Paradigms and Best Practices, Vol 34, No.1, March 2009. pp: 68-74.
    • Sustainability
      • This concept comprises three key strands:
      • Environmental sustainability involves using ‘best practice’ in the management of energy, transport, waste and pollution;
      • Social and Cultural sustainability concerns the ‘greening’ of trade, investment and service industries and the notion of improved ‘personal’ responsibility for all members of society, and finally,
      • Economic sustainability involves self-reliance and the objective of local equity.
    • Modifications of Governmental Housing Projects in Kuwait
      • The phenomenon of altering and modifying governmental housing units by their end users is a common practice in governmental housing neighborhoods in Kuwait.
      • They result in changing the environment of governmental housing projects from planned neighborhoods composed of repeated typical units into neighborhoods composed of irregularly modified units .
    • Modifications of Governmental Housing Projects in Kuwait
      • The impact and consequences of these modifications and changes are numerous:
        • The quality of the resulting physical environment after the application of these changes is questionable.
        • There is a concern over wasted time and cost of construction and modifications.
        • Lastly, the appropriateness of the design of the governmental neighbourhoods and housing units in meeting social and cultural needs of the occupants is in doubt.
    • Introduction
      • There are two opposing points of views regarding this phenomenon:
      • The supportive view asserts that people have needs and desires that are not satisfied by the prototype units provided by the government.
      • The opposing view proclaims that people are damaging the houses provided to them by the government.
    • Interior Modifications
      • Interior modifications included:
      • major changes such as:
      • change of distribution and size of rooms - by altering the location of interior walls to change the size of a room, expansion or division of spaces, creation of storage spaces, staircases, changing the intended use of space from one function to another.
      • minor modifications such as; repositioning of openings; doors and windows, installation of curtains for separation or privacy purposes, and the repainting of walls.
      Interior modifications
    • Exterior Modifications
      • Exterior modifications included: altering elevations to create more fashionable facades instead of the typical facades, addition of fences and gates to create identified entrances and provide more privacy for the interior of the unit, raising roof parapets and closing up exposed balconies to provide more privacy for the rooms, for use as an extra room or as an extension of an existing room, and making openings in walls for new windows .
      Exterior modifications
    • Exterior Modifications
      • Modifications of ground floor included additions and extensions to create new rooms and diwania – a social gathering room for men.
      • Vertical and horizontal extensions are rare due to structural limitations.
      Exterior modifications
    • Quantity and Quality of Modifications
      • On average , the cost of modification and changes made by an end user is 15,000 KD , which is approximately 37% of the total cost of the unit paid by the government- which is approximately 40,000 KD .
    • Quantity and Quality of Modifications
      • Most of the removed building materials are discarded in junkyards and garbage dumps.
      • 52% of the respondents indicated that they through away the material,
      • 41% indicated that they have sold the material , while only
      • 7% indicated that they have reused the material .
    • Conclusions
      • It is not only materials and cost that are wasted in this process, but also time that is spent to do them before being able to use the units.
      • The model illustrates the process of producing the unit and the impact of applying modifications on time and cost .
    • The New Kuwait University in Shedadiyah Master Plan
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    • Location of the New University City
    • Site Plan
    • College Clusters مجمعات أحياء الكليات Cluster A Cluster B Cluster C
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    • Campus Sections Men Oasis Women
    • The Oasis
    • The Oasis
    • Men’s Arrival
    • Women’s Arrival
    • Car Parking – Surface
    • Car Parking – Basement Parking
    • Future Projects in Kuwait Related research and publications:
      • December 2007, Remaking of Kuwait . An article published in THE BIG PROJECT Magazine, Issue 11, pp. 16-25.
      • November 2006, The Silk City . An article published in AMAR : No. 103, September/October/November 2006, pp. 24-30.
      • November 2008, Mahgoub, Y. and Al Omaim, A. (2008) Tall Identity ... Lost Sustainability . An article published Viewpoints Special Edition: Architecture and Urbanism in the Middle East, 2008. pp 37-40
    • Future Projects in Kuwait
      • A new wave of development , in the form of large scale projects, public buildings, new towns, and housing developments, is expected to sweep the country in the coming few years.
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    • Madinat AL Hareer – City of Silk KUWAIT
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    • مشروع القرية التراثية شرق - الكويت The Heritage Village Sharq - Kuwait
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    • MASTER PLAN Aerial View
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    • Al Hamra Tower, Kuwait
    • Al Hamra Tower, Kuwait
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    • Kuwait's first LEED rated building KEO design is pre-certified for LEED Gold status KEO International Consultants has been notified by the U.S. Green Building Council that the 1.2 million sq ft project, Sabah Al Ahmad International Financial Center , has been officially registered with the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and is now pre-certified to get Kuwait’s first LEED certification . The client, gave KEO the incentive to pursue a sustainable design using guidelines and tools outlined in the Green Building Rating System in late 2007. In addition to creating an iconic 40 storey tower consisting primarily of high end offices and a hotel , KEO was given the task of achieving a LEED® Gold from the USGBC. As well as meeting or exceeding a series of green requirements, the tower employees a series of wind turbines and PV panels to provide a renewable source of energy .
    • Conclusions
    • Conclusions
      • Urgent measures that should be taken include:
        • the renovation and reconstruction of badly damaged traditional buildings ,
        • the development of mixed use downtown development strategy ,
        • the provision of appropriate housing units to encourage of Kuwaitis to live in the downtown ,
        • the integration of housing and commercial activities , and
        • implementation of revitalization projects for the downtown area .
    • Thank You .