AUK 2009 architecture and identitiy presentation

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AUK 2009 architecture and identitiy presentation

  1. 1. The Expression of Cultural Identity in Kuwaiti Architecture By: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture College of Engineering and Petroleum Kuwait University Lecture at the American University of Kuwait May 24, 2009
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The phenomenon of expressing cultural identity in architecture is recognized in many parts of the world . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>It started after the spread of the international style , during the second half of the 20th century. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>It intensified as a result of the spread of globalization as a dominating world view at the end of the 1 st millennium. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Identity is always pluralistic, fluid and unstable. </li></ul><ul><li>It is continuously constructed and reproduced by the collective imagination of the community. </li></ul>What is cultural identity?
  6. 6. Aims & Goals <ul><li>This presentation is an attempt to understand how cultural identity is expressed in architecture in Kuwait . </li></ul>
  7. 7. The traditional approach to Cultural Identity <ul><li>The Past </li></ul>The Present The Future
  8. 8. 50 كويت ما قبل 19 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  9. 9. 50 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  10. 10. 50 كويت ما بعد 19 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  11. 11. 60 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  12. 12. 50 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  13. 13. 70 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  14. 14. 80 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  15. 15. 80 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  16. 16. 90 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  17. 17. 90 19 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  18. 18. 2000 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  19. 19. 2000 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  20. 20. 2000 كويت ما بعد 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 ويت كــــ
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Past </li></ul>Another approach to Cultural Identity The Present The Future
  22. 22. Another approach to Cultural Identity <ul><li>The Future </li></ul>The Present The Past
  23. 23. The Future
  24. 24. The Future <ul><li>The Third Master Plan </li></ul><ul><li>City of Silk </li></ul><ul><li>The Traditional Village </li></ul><ul><li>New Universities </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>More Towers! </li></ul>إستراتيجية الخطة القومية الطبيعية
  25. 25. 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 1965 1975 1985 1995 2000 السكان 200 9 2.945 مليون 200 9 * * المصدر : وزارة التخطيط 2, 680 مليون 3,16 8 مليون 3,717 مليون 4,274 مليون 4,876 مليون 5,368 مليون التوقعات المستبقلية للسكان من فريق العمل بالدراسة الحالية 0.5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 عدد السكان ( مليون نسمة ) عدد السكان من الإحصاءات السابقة لوزارة التخطيط والهيئة العامة للمعلومات المدنية 2,2 28 مليون * 1,57 6 مليون * 1,697 مليون * 0.994 مليون * 0. 4 67 مليون * متوسط منحنى النمو السكاني في التسع وثلاثين سنة الأخيرة 1965 - 2004
  26. 26. وضع خطة هيكلية طموحة تهدف إلى إحتواء الزيادة السكانية المستقبلية المتوقعة والتي ستبلغ بحلول عام 2030 حوالي 5,368 مليون نسمة وتوزيعهم بما يتوافق مع التوزيع المكاني للموارد الطبيعية وبما يحقق الإستغلال الأمثل لفرص التنمية المأمولة داخل وخارج حدود الدولة السكان خارج المنطقة الحضرية 2.5 مليون عدد السكان بالدولة 5.3 مليون نسمــة السكان بالمنطقة الحضرية 2.8 مليون نسمة أهداف الخطة القومية الطبيعية لسنة الهدف - 2030 2.8 مليون نسمة 2.5 مليون نسمة
  27. 27. توجيه التنمية العمرانية خارج المنطقة الحضرية القائمة والتي ستبلغ أقصى طاقة إستيعابية لها عام 2008 ( 2.8 مليون نسمة ) وذلك باتجاه الإقليم الشمالي الإقليم الغربي الإقليم الجنوبي المنطقة الحضرية منهجية العمل لتحقيق الأهداف الإقليم الشمالي الإقليم الجنوبي الإقليم الـغربي
  28. 28. إستراتيجية الخطة القومية الطبيعية
  29. 29. مصادر طبيعية مصادر طبيعية مصادر طبيعية الخليج العربي سياحة عالمية مركز مالي عالمي مدينة الكويت تنمية سياحية مركز صناعي العراق إيران تجارة عالمية تنمية سياحية محاور للتنمية طرق إقليمية ودولية مقترحة محاور رئيسية قائمة من وإلى المنطقة الحضرية طرق ربط بحرية نقاط تقاطع رئيسية لمحاور التنمية موانئ بحرية جديدة
  30. 30. http://www.madinat-al-hareer.com/
  31. 31. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  32. 32. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  33. 33. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  34. 34. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  35. 35. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  36. 36. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  37. 37. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  38. 38. Madinat AL Hareer - City of Silk
  39. 51. المخطط الهيكلي للمدينة الجامعية الجديدة لجامعة الكويت بالشدادية
  40. 53. Location الموقع
  41. 54. Site Plan السالمية الجهراء Farwania Hospital Sheikh Jaber Stadium المخطط العام للموقع الشويخ
  42. 56. College Clusters مجمعات أحياء الكليات Cluster A Cluster B Cluster C
  43. 57. The Oasis الواحة
  44. 58. Arrival Gardens حدائق الوصــول
  45. 59. Student Allees ممرات الطلبة
  46. 60. Men’s Arrival مدخل الجامعة من حرم الطلبة
  47. 61. Women’s Arrival مدخل الجامعة من حرم الط ا لب ات
  48. 62. Men’s Galleria م مرات حرم الطلبة
  49. 68. MASTER PLAN Aerial View
  50. 69. MASTER PLAN Shaded Main Entrance
  51. 70. MASTER PLAN Aerial View of Academic Courtyard
  52. 71. New Towers
  53. 72. New Towers
  54. 73. Kuwait Business Town Towers, Kuwait City, Kuwait Designed by KEO International Consultants.
  55. 74. Sabah Al Ahmad International Financial Center Kuwait's first building pre-certified for LEED Gold status from USGBC. Wind turbines and PV panels are used to provide a renewable source of energy . Designed by KEO International Consultants.
  56. 75. Al Hamra Tower, Kuwait Designed by SOM International Consultants. Will be the tallest structure in Kuwait.
  57. 77. عمارة المستقبل : ألا براج
  58. 79. Tall Buildings in Kuwait Soon … Kuwait the city of high rise offices. 50 tall buildings with ore than 50 floors under construction in Kuwait. 24-1-2005
  59. 80. Tall Buildings in Kuwait Requests from investors to increase buildings heights regulations. 20-8-2005
  60. 81. Tall Buildings in Kuwait Municipal Council to discuss requests from investors to increase buildings heights regulations. 28-1-2006
  61. 82. Tall Buildings in Kuwait Municipality Council approves increase of Commercial buildings height to 100 floors. 31-1-2006
  62. 83. Tall Buildings in Kuwait Building up to 100 floors … Pros and Cons.
  63. 84. Tall Buildings in Kuwait Killing our capital for the second time! 15-3-2005
  64. 85. Tall Buildings in Kuwait 1972: No construction in DT. 2006: Up to 100 floors in DT! 26-3-2005
  65. 86. Future Tall Buildings in Kuwait!
  66. 88. The Present
  67. 91. كويت الحاضر
  68. 92. كويت الحاضر
  69. 152. The Past
  70. 166. The Process <ul><li>Changes in Kuwait started with the discovery of oil during the 1940’s , the first Master Plan in 1952 and its execution during the 50’s and 60’s, the economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973, the economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash, and finally the experience of invasion and liberation during the 1990’s. </li></ul>
  71. 167. The Process <ul><li>Changes in Kuwait started with the discovery of oil during the 1940’s , the first Master Plan in 1952 and its execution during the 50’s and 60’s, the economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973, the economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash, and finally the experience of invasion and liberation during the 1990’s. </li></ul>
  72. 168. The Process <ul><li>Changes in Kuwait started with the discovery of oil during the 1940’s, the first Master Plan in 1952 and its execution during the 50’s and 60’s , the economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973, the economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash, and finally the experience of invasion and liberation during the 1990’s. </li></ul>
  73. 169. The Process <ul><li>Changes in Kuwait started with the discovery of oil during the 1940’s, the first Master Plan in 1952 and its execution during the 50’s and 60’s, the economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973 , the economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash, and finally the experience of invasion and liberation during the 1990’s. </li></ul>
  74. 170. The Process <ul><li>Changes in Kuwait started with the discovery of oil during the 1940’s, the first Master Plan in 1952 and its execution during the 50’s and 60’s, the economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973, the economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash, and finally the experience of invasion and liberation during the 1990’s. </li></ul>
  75. 171. The Process <ul><li>Changes in Kuwait started with the discovery of oil during the 1940’s, the first Master Plan in 1952 and its execution during the 50’s and 60’s, the economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973, the economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash, and finally the experience of invasion in 1990 and liberation in 1991. </li></ul>
  76. 172. The Process <ul><li>Changes in Kuwait started with the discovery of oil during the 1940’s, the first Master Plan in 1952 and its execution during the 50’s and 60’s, the economic boom during the 1970’s following the dramatic increase of oil prices in 1973, the economic depression during the 1980’s following the stock market crash, and finally the experience of invasion in 1990 and liberation in 1991. </li></ul>
  77. 175. Kuwait: Planning
  78. 176. Implementation of The First Master Plan
  79. 177. Kuwait Master Plans <ul><li>Several master plans were developed to guide the rapid urbanization of Kuwait. They included: </li></ul><ul><li>The First Master Plan by Monoprio, Spencely and Macfarlane in 1952. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Master Plan by Colin Buchanan and Partners in 1968. </li></ul><ul><li>First Review of the 2nd Master Plan by Shankland Cox Partnership in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Re-examination of Master Plan by Colin Buchanan and Partners in 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed Third Master Plan by Kuwait Municipality in 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, Kuwait Engineering Group in collaboration with Colin Buchanan were commissioned to develop a new master plan review in 2003. </li></ul>1 2 3 4
  80. 178. The Transformation
  81. 179. التحول المعمارى والثقافى بعد النفط The Transformation
  82. 180. التحول المعمارى والثقافى بعد النفط The Transformation
  83. 185. التحول المعمارى والثقافى بعد النفط
  84. 186. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>It is a process , and not a ‘found’ object . </li></ul><ul><li>It is the trail left by a civilization as it moves through history . </li></ul><ul><li>Identity is not a self-conscious thing. </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot be fabricated , we develop our identity by tackling what we perceive to be our real problems . </li></ul>
  85. 187. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>Attempts towards expressing cultural identity in Kuwaiti architecture is not new . </li></ul><ul><li>It started with attempts by foreign architects who participated in the design of buildings after the implementation of the first master plan in Kuwait during the 1970’s. </li></ul>
  86. 188. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>The work of Jorn Utzon in the design of the Parliament Building , Reima Pietilae in the design of the new Sief Palace, and the Water Towers by Sony Lyndstrom are examples of landmarks designed by foreign architects expressing a cultural identity. </li></ul>
  87. 189. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>The work of Jorn Utzon in the design of the Parliament Building, Reima Pietilae in the design of the new Sief Palace , and the Water Towers by Sony Lyndstrom are examples of landmarks designed by foreign architects expressing a cultural identity. </li></ul>
  88. 190. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>The work of Jorn Utzon in the design of the Parliament Building, Reima Pietilae in the design of the new Sief Palace, and the Water Towers by Sony Lyndstrom are examples of landmarks designed by foreign architects expressing a cultural identity. </li></ul>
  89. 191. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>Some architects express cultural identity by borrowing from traditional architecture believing that the sources of cultural identity are derived from the past , while others who express a cultural identity that relates to contemporary conditions and future ambitions . </li></ul>
  90. 192. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>In recent years the issue of cultural identity in contemporary architecture has become essential in creating uniqueness and local identity in a competitive environment on a global level . </li></ul>
  91. 193. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>Examples that represent Kuwaiti architecture from traditional and contemporary. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional examples included: old Seif palace, old houses, diwaniyas , schools, mosques, neighborhoods, and souqs. </li></ul>
  92. 194. Expressing Cultural Identity in Architecture <ul><li>Contemporary examples included: water towers, Kuwait towers, Parliament buildings, Souq Sharq, Souq Al-Zul Wa Al-Bishut, Arab Organizations Headquarter, and the New Seif palace. </li></ul>
  93. 195. Conclusions <ul><li>Kuwait’s location on the tip of the Arabian Gulf and its history of sea trading, pearl catching, fishing is part of its traditional cultural identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Many architects employ the metaphors of the pearl shells and boats making and sails in their buildings . </li></ul>
  94. 196. Public State/Official Governmental Kuwaiti Regional Gulf Arab Islamic International Private Pragmatic Metaphoric Canonic Iconic Analogic Symbolic Semi-Public Institutional Conclusions
  95. 197. Conclusions <ul><li>The impact of the religion on the culture is very significant and essential for understanding the needs of individuals for privacy, family interaction, and space configuration and orientation . </li></ul>
  96. 198. Conclusions <ul><li>These needs are currently being modified under the influence of higher economic standards and globalization . </li></ul>
  97. 199. Conclusions <ul><li>There is an agreement that there are elements, vocabularies, proportions, and materials that distinguish traditional Kuwaiti architecture , but there is no agreement on whether they should be used again or not. </li></ul>
  98. 200. Conclusions <ul><li>There is recognition that buildings alone are not sufficient to convey the cultural identity . </li></ul><ul><li>The context of architecture provides an important background against which architecture is understood . </li></ul>
  99. 201. Conclusions <ul><li>The traditional city spaces provided an important dimension to the human experience and provided a meaningful reading of traditional architecture buildings . </li></ul>
  100. 202. Conclusions <ul><li>When placed against modern streets and buildings, traditional elements and vocabularies read more like Disney World than authentic architecture. </li></ul>
  101. 203. Conclusion <ul><li>The quest for identity should be applied on all levels . I t is the whole building fabric, rather than individual buildings that matters most to the identity and of a setting . </li></ul>
  102. 204. Conclusion <ul><li>The character of a town reside in the sum of its multiple and often fragmented inter-relationships in space between buildings themselves , the social mix of people , its activities and events , and the wider geographical setting of the town . </li></ul>
  103. 205. Conclusion <ul><li>There is always a cultural identity being expressed in architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The expression might differ from one architect to the other and from one building to the other . </li></ul>
  104. 206. Conclusion <ul><li>The collective image of these identities conveys the degree of agreement or disagreement, commonalities and differences, harmony and contrast between the members of the society at any given period of time . </li></ul>
  105. 207. Recommendations <ul><ul><li>The establishment of an urbanscape coordination act and committee to coordinate the efforts and overcome chaos in the urban environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The public awareness should be fostered by public lecture, professional writings and the media. </li></ul></ul>
  106. 208. Recommendations <ul><ul><li>Building codes and regulations should be revised and integrate lessons from the traditional architecture of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable architecture and urban development responsive to and expressive of its geographical and climatic situation should be encouraged and become common practice. </li></ul></ul>
  107. 209. Thank You .
  108. 210. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Do you agree that there is something called “cultural identity”? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that it should be expressed in architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, how do you thing that it should be represented? </li></ul><ul><li>If no, what does or should architecture represent? </li></ul>

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