Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 Styles

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Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub. These lectures on architectural design are addressed to first year design students.

Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub. These lectures on architectural design are addressed to first year design students.

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  • 1. Architectural Design Lectures Lecture 9 Architectural Styles Evolutionary Tree Lectures to Architectural Design 1 October 2009 By: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  • 2. Architectural Styles Evolutionary Tree May you be condemned to live in interesting times. A Chinese Proverb This is a brief coverage of the development of architectural styles throughout history using a timeline to provide a better visual overview.
  • 3. Architectural Styles Evolutionary Tree
  • 4. Antiquity Architecture Giza Pyramids Petra Stone Henge Abu Simbel Temple
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  • 9. Islamic Architecture Mecca Dome of the Rock Wikalat Al Ghuri Muhamad Ali Mosque Al Hambra Sultan Hassan
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  • 16. Architecture of the Late 20 th Century Frank Gehry Shtutgart Museum Mario Botta Peter Eisenman Renzo Piano Zaha Hadi Tado Ando Jean Nouvel
  • 17. Architectural Movements: Modern Architecture The Modern movement was an attempt to create a nonhistorical architecture of functionalism in which a new sense of space would be created with the help of modern materials . A reaction against the stylistic pluralism of the 19th century, believing that the 20th century had given birth to " modern man ," who would need a radically new kind of architecture . Le Corbusier F. L.. Wright Walter Gropius Mies Van Der Rohe
  • 18. Architectural Movements: Post-Modern Architecture The postmodernist movement began in America around the 1960’s/70’s and then it spread to Europe and the rest of the world. Postmodernism or Late-modernism began as a reaction to Modernism ; it tried to address the limitations of its predecessor. Its list of aims extended to include communicating ideas with the public often in a then humorous or witty way. Often, the communication was done by quoting extensively from past architectural styles , often many at once. In breaking away from modernism, it strived to produce buildings that were sensitive to the context within which they are built . This trend became evident in the last quarter of the 20th century as architects started to turn away from modern Functionalism which they viewed as boring, unwelcoming and unpleasant . They turned towards the past , quoting past aspects of various buildings and melding them together to create a new means of designing buildings. For example, pillars and other elements of premodern designs were adapted from Greek and Roman examples but not simply by recreating them, as was done in neoclassical architecture. Another return was that of the “wit, ornament and reference” seen in older buildings in terra cotta decorative façades and bronze or stainless steel embellishments of the Beaux-Arts and Art Deco periods. In post-modern structures this was often achieved by placing contradictory quotes of previous building styles alongside each other, and even incorporating furniture stylistic references at a huge scale. Contextualism influenced the ideologies of the postmodern movement in general. Contextualism was centered on the belief that all knowledge is “context-sensitive”. This idea was even taken further to say that knowledge cannot be understood without considering its context . This influenced Postmodern Architecture to be sensitive to context . Robert Venturi Philip Jonson Michael Graves Cesar Pelli
  • 19. Architectural Movements: High-Tech Architecture The high tech style emerged in the 1980s and remains popular. It involves the use of the materials associated with high tech industries of the 1980s and 1990s, such as space frames , metal cladding and composite fabrics and materials . High tech buildings often have extensive glazing to show to the outside world the activity going on inside. Generally their overall appearance is light , typically with a combination of dramatic curves and straight lines . In many ways high tech architecture is a reaction against Brutalist architecture, without the features of post-modernism. Sir. Norman Foster Renzo Piano Richard Rogers Jean Nouvel Pompidou Centre Munich Stadium Reichstag Dome Millennium Dome Hong Kong Bank London City Hall Lloyd's of London Institut du Monde Arabe
  • 20. Architectural Movements: Deconstruction Deconstruction is a school of philosophy that originated in France in the late 1960s , has had an enormous impact on Anglo-American criticism. Largely the creation of its chief proponent Jacques Derrida , deconstruction upends the Western metaphysical tradition. It represents a complex response to a variety of theoretical and philosophical movements of the 20th century, most notably Husserlian phenomenology , Saussurean and French structuralism , and Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis . In her book The Critical Difference (1981), Barbara Johnson clarifies the term: " Deconstruction is not synonymous with "destruction" , however. It is in fact much closer to the original meaning of the word 'analysis' itself, which etymologically means "to undo" -- a virtual synonym for "to de-construct." In the 1980's a new tendency was born: the deconstruction, which was also called "new modern architecture" in its beginning. It was meant to replace post modern architecture. The new slogan was " form follows fantasy " analogous to the tradition formula pronounced by Sullivan " form follows function ". In 1988 Philip Johnson organized an exposition called "Deconstructive Architecture" which finally brought these ideas to a larger audience. The idea was to develop buildings which show how differently from traditional architectural conventions buildings can be built without loosing their utility and still complying with the fundamental laws of physics . These buildings can be seen as a parallel to other modern arts, which also became more and more abstract , questioning whether a certain object is still art or not. Thanks to their significant differences to all other buildings, the deconstructive ones made clear to the observer, that architecture is an art and not just an engineering discipline . D. Libeskind Frank Gehry Peter Eisenman Zaha Hadid
  • 21. Architectural Movements: Minimalism Architecture Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. The term Minimalism was coined as a means of describing the works by protagonists of the American scene in the late Fifties and Sixties. In the field of architecture, the term Minimalism was used to connote the works of architects from profoundly different origins and cultural backgrounds, who had based their own work on a reduction in expressive media , a rediscovery of the value of empty space and a radical elimination of everything that does not coincide with a programme , also with minimalistic design overtones, of extreme simplicity and formal cleanliness . Architect Mies van der Rohe adopted the motto "Less is More" to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a building to create an impression of extreme simplicity , by enlisting every element and detail to serve multiple visual and functional purposes. In minimalism, the architectural designers pay special attention to the connection between perfect planes, elegant lighting, and careful consideration of the void spaces left by the removal of three-dimensional shapes from an architectural design . Tadao Ando Luis Barrag‡n Álvaro Siza John Pawson Ando - Historical Museum Barrag‡n - Entrance Mies - Barcelona Pavilion Siza - Home Pawson- Tetsuka House - Tokyo "Less is more“ Ludwig Mies van der Rohe “ Clarity and comfort do not depend on quantity but on an absolute quality of space. John Pawson "Gravity builds space, light builds time, and gives reason to time. These are the central questions of architecture: control of gravity and dialogue with light." Alberto Campo Baeza
  • 22. Architectural Movements: Critical Regionalism Critical regionalism is an approach to architecture that strives to counter the placelessness and lack of meaning in Modern Architecture by using contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning . The term critical regionalism was first used by Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre and later more famously by Kenneth Frampton . Frampton put forth his views in " Towards a Critical Regionalism : Six points of an architecture of resistance." He evokes Paul Ricoeur's question of " how to become modern and to return to sources; how to revive an old, dormant civilization and take part in universal civilization ". According to Frampton, critical regionalism should adopt modern architecture critically for its universal progressive qualities but at the same time should value responses particular to the context. Emphasis should be on topography, climate, light, tectonic form rather than scenography and the tactile sense rather than the visual . Frampton draws from phenomenology to supplement his arguments. As put forth by Tzonis and Lefaivre, critical regionalism need not directly draw from the context, rather elements can be stripped of their context and used in strange rather than familiar ways . Here the aim is to make aware of a disruption and a loss of place that is already a fait accompli through reflection and self-evaluation. Critical regionalism is different from regionalism which tries to achieve a one-to-one correspondence with vernacular architecture in a conscious way without consciously partaking in the universal . Critical regionalism is considered a particular form of post-modern (not to be confused with postmodernism as architectural style) response in developing countries . It can be argued that the following architects have used such an approach in some of their works: Alvar Aalto, Jørn Utzon, Studio Granda, Mario Botta, B.V.Doshi, Charles Correa, Alvaro Siza, Rafael Moneo, Geoffrey Bawa, Raj Rewal, Tadao Ando, Mack Scogin / Merrill Elam, Ken Yeang, William S.W. Lim, Tay Kheng Soon, Juhani Pallasmaa, and Tan Hock Beng. Jorn Utzon Alvar Aalto Mario Botta K. Frampton Utzon - Sydney Opera House Aalto - Finlandia Hall Botta -
  • 23. Architectural Movements: Sustainable Architecture
    • The 1987 Brundtland Report , defined sustainable development as development that " meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs ".
    • Sustainable Architecture describes an approach to architectural design that minimizes sustenance or resource consumption so as to prolong the availability of natural resources . The real power of the concept of sustainability lies in its integration of economic, social, and ecological systems, previously studied and dealt with separately.
    • What is a sustainable building?
    • Uses key resources more efficiently – energy, water, materials and land.
    • Reduces ecological loading – greenhouse gases, ozone-depleting substances, wastes.
    • Creates healthier environments for people - to live, work and learn
    • Has lower overall lifecycle costs
    Ballard Library & Neighborhood Service Center Solar Umbrella House Westcave Preserve
  • 24. Architectural Movements: THE NEW PARADIGM IN ARCHITECTURE Charles Jencks A new paradigm in architecture will reflect changes in science, religion, and politics. one can discern the beginnings of a shift in architecture that relates to a deep transformation going on in the sciences - in time, permeate all other areas of life. The new sciences of complexity - fractals , nonlinear dynamics , the new cosmology , self-organizing systems - have brought about the change in perspective. We have moved from a mechanistic view of the universe to one that is self-organizing at all levels, from the atom to the galaxy. Illuminated by the computer, this new worldview is paralleled by changes now occurring in architecture. Several key buildings show promise - those by Americans Frank Gehry, Peter Eisenman, and Daniel Libeskind . There is also a vast amount of other work on the edge of the new paradigm by the Dutch architects Rem Koolhaas, Ben van Berkel, and MVRDV ; or the Europeans Santiago Calatrava and Coop Himmelblau ; or those who have moved on from high-tech in England, such as Norman Foster . These architects, as well as those that flirted with Deconstruction - Hadid, Moss, and Morphosis - look set to take on the philosophy. In Australia, ARM (Ashton Raggatt MacDougall) has been mining the territory for many years and another group, LAB , is completing a seminal work of the new movement, Melbourne's Federation Square. Soon there will be enough buildings to all this is more than a fashion, or change of style. The emergent grammar is constantly provoking. It varies from ungainly blobs to elegant waveforms , from jagged fractals to impersonal datascapes . It challenges the old languages of classicism and modernism with the idea that a new urban order is possible, one closer to the ever-varying patterns of nature . One may not like it at first, and be critical of its shortcomings, but second glance it may turn out to be more interesting, more intune with perception than the incessant repetition of colonnades and curtain walls. LAB with Bates Smart Federation Square Melbourne 1997-2002 Santiago Calatrava City of Arts and Sciences Valencia 1991–2000 Rem Koolhaas, [OMA] The CCTV Headquarters, to be completed for the Beijing Olympics 2008 Daniel Libeskind Imperial War Museum North, Trafford , Manchester 1998–2002 MVRDV Dutch Pavilion EXPO 2000 Hannover
  • 25. Architecture of the early 21 st Century Cybertecture Nano Materials Parametric Design
  • 26. Thank you Dr. Yasser Mahgoub