香港六合彩|六合彩
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香港六合彩|六合彩

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彩对我显得非常满意,我的穿着本来就朴素,那天还故意戴了老大的金边平光眼镜,让人一不小心就真会把我当个知识分子.我也费了好大的劲儿作慈祥状摸了摸那小孩的头,干笑着说:阿勇好可爱!说完自己有点头晕想吐,象是煤气中毒.不过还好那小孩挺懂事,香港六合彩大喊一声别碰我混蛋!狠狠地扫开了我的手.于是我和香港六合彩的父母对望,故作会意微笑状. ...

彩对我显得非常满意,我的穿着本来就朴素,那天还故意戴了老大的金边平光眼镜,让人一不小心就真会把我当个知识分子.我也费了好大的劲儿作慈祥状摸了摸那小孩的头,干笑着说:阿勇好可爱!说完自己有点头晕想吐,象是煤气中毒.不过还好那小孩挺懂事,香港六合彩大喊一声别碰我混蛋!狠狠地扫开了我的手.于是我和香港六合彩的父母对望,故作会意微笑状.
我在心里已经把那小孩儿从六楼横丢了出去,看香港六合彩在空中划过一条优美的弧线,完成几个高难度动作后象堆鼻涕一样滩在马路中央.然后会有几个路人昂头大喊:喂!六楼的!别乱往下面扔垃圾!
香港六合彩谈好了条件——我都有点不好意思说出来,不过那个时候是这个价钱——八块钱一小时!!!当我是三斤萝卜!!!
香港六合彩还假腥腥地说:如果你不满意的话还可以商量啊.
我忙说满意满意——不管怎么说,总比当香港六合彩娘的经理好吧!八块钱一小时呢!!我老爹跟我吹香港六合彩小时候挑石灰一担子一分钱香港六合彩也干了,那我上一小时的课,我老爸就得挑上八百担石灰,就算香港六合彩一肩三担穿棱如风吧,一小时估计也赚不下这八块钱来.这么想想,我还是挺骄傲的!
当香港六合彩又提出每次家教都在香港六合彩家吃饭时,我毫不犹豫义无反顾地答应了,把香港六合彩吓了一跳,因为一般来说这个提法都只是礼节性的而已,

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  • 1. Danish CDM Project Development Facility in China 丹麦在中国设立的 CDM 项目开发基金 Presentation in Lanzhou   Casper van der Tak, Caspervandertak Consulting July 2005 兰州 范德华 Caspervandertak 咨询公司 2005 年 7 月
  • 2. Goals of the Presentation  演讲目的
    • Provide information about the Danish CDM Project Development Facility in China  提供有关丹麦在中国设立 CDM 项目开发基金的信息;
    • E ncourage project owners and consultants to submit projects and interest to provide consulting services.
    • 鼓励项目所有方和咨询顾问提交项目建议和咨询服务。 
    • Note : 注意
      • Project development facility is under development.  项目开发基金正在成立之中;
      • Procedures will be finalized later in July. Check out: www. caspervandertakconsulting .com/ Danida . htm
      •  工作程序会在 7 月下旬确定,请关注上面的网站;
      • Contact pdf @ caspervandertakconsulting .com for full procedures  
      • 请与上面的邮件地址联系,可了解整个工作程序;
  • 3. Background   背景
    • The Kyoto Protocol and European burden sharing agreement require Denmark to reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, PF5, HFCs)  
    •  京都议定书和欧盟的负担分摊协议都要求丹麦减少温室气体排放
    • Denmark needs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in 2008-2012 by about 20 million tons of CO2 eq.  
    •  丹麦需要在 2008 - 2012 年间减少温室气体排放约 2000 万吨 CO2 当量
    • Reductions to be achieved within Denmark and outside Denmark  
    •  可在丹麦国内和国外开展减排行动
    • One opportunity to obtain emission reductions – buy emission reductions achieved in countries without emission reduction obligations, for example China , through CDM . 获得减排量的一个机会就是从没有减排责任的国家,如中国,通过 CDM 活动购买减排量。
  • 4. What is CDM?  什么是 CDM
    • Investment in a project in countries without obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emission; for example China
    •  对没有减排责任的国家,如中国,进行项目投资;
    • The project results in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
    •  项目可以产生温室气体减排
    • Those greenhouse gas emission reductions would not happen in absence of CDM
    •  如果没有 CDM 活动,这些温室气体减排就不可能产生
    • Sale of the greenhouse gas emission reductions to a country that has the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; for example Denmark.
    •  向另一个具有减排责任的国家,如丹麦,出售温室气体减排量。
    • See http:// cdm . unfccc . int and http:// cdm . ccchina . gov . cn
    •  查阅这两个网址
  • 5. What type of projects are eligible for CDM? 什么类型的项目对 CDM 是合格的
    • Renewable energy projects – windparks, hydropower projects, biomass and biogas projects, geothermal, tidal...
    •  可再生能源项目-风电场,水电项目,生物质和沼气项目,地热,潮汐能,
    • Energy efficiency projects  能效项目
    • Fuel-switch projects   燃料转换项目
    • Landfill gas capture projects  垃圾填埋气回收项目
    • Coal-bed methane capture and utilization projects
    •  煤层甲烷气回收及利用项目
    • HFC capture and N2O capture   HFC 收集及 N2O 收集
    • Etc.  等等
  • 6. CDM Process (simplified) CDM 工作流程(简化)
    • Writing of Project Design Document (PDD) 编写项目设计文件
    • Obtain host government approval  获得东道国政府批准
    • Negotiate ERPA  进行减排量购买协议谈判
    • Validate PDD  对项目设计文件进行审定
    • Register Project  项目注册
    • Implement project, generate emission reductions  
    •  项目实施,产生减排
    • Verify emission reductions  核查减排量
    • Certification of emission reductions (CERs)  核证减排量
    • Deliver CERs to buyer  向买方交付核证减排量
    • Get paid for CERs  通过核证减排量获得支付款
  • 7. The Danish CDM Project Development Facility 丹麦 CDM 项目开发基金
    • Objectives  目标
    • Development of Chinese capacity to write PDDs
    •  培养中国人员编写 PDD 的能力
      • Technical support  技术支持
      • Financial support  资金支持
    • Purchase of Certified Emission Reductions by Denmark, from the projects it supports
    •  丹麦从其支持的项目中购买核证减排量
      • ERPA, with payment for Third-Party Costs
      •  减排量购买协议,含对第三方支付的费用
      • Number of projects and amount of CERs depending on supply
      • 项目的数量和核证减排量的数量取决于市场供应情况
        • At least 10 projects resulting in CER delivery
        • 至少有 10 个项目能实现核证减排量的交付
        • At least 10 million tons of CO2 eq. until 2012
        • 到 2012 年至少要交付 1000 万吨 CO2 当量的减排量
  • 8. Development of Chinese capacity to write PDDs – 1 培养中国人员编写 PDD 的能力- 1
    • Learning by doing: writing of PDD with technical and financial support
    •  边做边学:借助技术支持和资金支持编写 PDD
      • By Project Owner staff  项目所有方的人员
      • By Project Owner’s consultants  项目所有方的咨询人员
      • By hired consultants  聘用的咨询顾问
      • At least 50% of work and 50% of financial support to Chinese consultants, if Chinese consultants work with international consultants
      •  如果中国咨询顾问与国际顾问一起工作,中国咨询顾问至少会得到 50% 的工作量和 50% 的资金支持
  • 9. Development of Chinese capacity to write PDDs – 2 培养中国人员编写 PDD 的能力- 2
    • Technical support       Financial support
    •   技术支持      资金支持
    Time  时间
  • 10. How could Chinese CDM consultants participate? 中国 CDM 咨询顾问如何参与项目?
    • The Danish CDM Project Development Facility is looking for consultants (individuals and companies)
    •  丹麦项目开发基金正在寻找咨询顾问(个人或公司)
    • Send description of experience and background
    •  发送工作经验和背景
      • Staff  员工
      • Company  公司
      • CDM projects   CDM 项目
      • International cooperation projects  国际合作项目
      • Language skills  语言技能
    • To: pdf @ caspervandertakconsulting .com
  • 11. How could Chinese CDM consultants participate? – 2 中国 CDM 咨询顾问如何参与项目? --2
    • Or: identify potential CDM projects 或者:识别潜在的 CDM 项目
    • Sign contract with the project entity 与项目实体签署合同
    • Submit the project to the Danish CDM Project Development Facility (discussed next)
    • 向丹麦 CDM 项目开发基金提交项目 ( 后面有详细介绍 )
    • If we select the project, we could hire the consultant to work on the project submitted (if the consultant is inexperienced with low financial support and high technical support) 如果我们选择了该项目,我们会聘请顾问为所提交的项目工作 ( 如果咨询顾问经验不足,资金支持程度会较低而技术支持程度会较高 )
  • 12. Purchase of CERs  购买核证减排量
    • Denmark will pay market prices, depending on risk distribution and delivery conditions
    •  丹麦愿意支持市场价格,取决于风险分担和交付条件
    • Takes risk by paying for: 通过支付以下费用承担风险
      • project development costs  项目开发费用
      • Third party costs     第三方费用
    • Different variants for transaction  交易的不同变量
      • Standard ERPA with call option 标有购买选择权的标准减排量购买协议
      • ERPA with put option (under discussion with the Climate Change Office)  
      • 标明选择权的减排量购买协议 ( 仍与气候变化办公室在商量之中 )
  • 13. Outline for procedure  工作程序大纲
    • Project owner reviews procedures, LOI and ERPA of the Facility  
    •  项目所有方审查基金工作程序、意向书和减排量购买协议
    • Project owner prepares PIN (WB format) with additional information , or PIN following facility format, and sends it to the facility:  
    • 项目所有方按照世界银行格式准备项目信息文件及补充信息,或按照基金格式准备项目信息文件,发往基金的工作邮箱: pdf @ caspervandertakconsulting .com
    • Facility screens and selects, in consultation with CCO
    •  基金与气候变化办公室共同筛选和选择项目
    • Signing of LOI  签署意向书
    • Development of PDD with support from the Facility
    •  在基金的支持下开发项目设计文件
    • ERPA Negotiations and signing  减排量购买协议谈判及签署
    • Host government approval, validation, registration
    •  东道国政府批准,项目审定及注册
  • 14. Information to be submitted (English language) 需要提交的文件 ( 采用英文 )
    • PIN 项目信息文件
    • Approval status (Project approval, feasibility study, environmental impact statement, power price agreement)
    • 项目批准情况 ( 项目批准函,可行性研究,环境评价表,购电协议 )
    • Outline of the additionality argument (two pages), use standard tool of the UNFCCC 额外性论文概述 ( 两页纸 ) ,采用 UNFCCC 标准工具
    • Methodology to be used (already approved, in process table, new methodology to be developed – check http:// cdm . unfccc . int /methodologies )
    • 所采用的方法学 ( 在进程表中填写,已经批准的方法学或要新开发的方法学,请查阅 http:// cdm . unfccc . int /methodologies )
    • Status of project financing 项目融资情况
    • Authorizations 授权书
    • Comments on the LOI and ERPA 对意向书和减排量购买协议的意见反馈
  • 15. Project selection criteria – 1 项目选择标准- 1
    • Chinese criteria  中方的要求标准
    • Project owner at least 51% Chinese enterprise
    •  项目所有方的中方企业股份至少为 51%
    • The project satisfies general Chinese laws for investment projects
    •  项目满足中国法律对项目投资的一般要求
    • International criteria  国际上的要求标准
    • Project results in the reductions of emissions CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, PFCs, HFCs
    •  项目能产生温室气体减排 CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, PFCs, HFCs
    • Emission reductions would not have occurred in absence of CDM
    •  没有 CDM 活动就不会产生该减排
    • Emission reductions should be established according to approved methodologies (newly developed or existing)
    •  应根据已批准的方法学(最新开发的或已经有的)确定减排量
  • 16. Project selection criteria – 2 项目选择标准- 2
    • Danish criteria 丹麦的要求标准
    • At least 20,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year 至少每年产生 2 万吨 CO2 当量
    • Market-based CER prices  市场确定 CER 价格
    • Little contractual difficulties expected  很少会产生签约困难
    • Project should have good chances of being approved (preference for approved methodologies, clear additionality, no adverse social and environmental impacts)
    •  项目获得批准的条件比较好(采用已批准的方法学,额外性清晰,没有负面的社会和环境影响)
    • Project should be financially viable with the CDM revenues included, and technically feasible
    •  项目得到 CDM 收入支持后应该具备财务可行性和技术可行性
    • No sink projects  不包括碳汇项目
    • No big dams (hydropower projects) that do not comply with the World Commission on Dam recommendations
    •  水电项目建设的大坝要符合世界大坝委员会推荐的标准
  • 17. Advantages of the procedure 工作程序的优势
    • Upfront clarity about procedures and legal documents:
    •  预先清楚地说明了工作程序和法律文件:
    • Standard LOI and ERPA will be posted on the web, with Chinese translation, and indicating between square brackets [...] what can be negotiated  标准意向书和减排量购买协议会在网站公开,配有中文翻译,并用[]标明可以谈判项目
    • FAQ list will explain standard LOI and ERPA  
    •    FAQ 会列出对标准意向书和减排量购买协议的解释
    • Review of standard LOI and ERPA requested when submitting a project to the Danish Facility  
    •   向丹麦基金提交项目时要求对标准意向书和减排量购买协议进行审阅
    • Project owner should indicate when applying which clauses in standard LOI and ERPA they do not like  项目所有方提交申请时应表明对标准意向书和减排量购买协议哪个条款就不同看法
    • Facility can assess whether negotiations can be expected to be very difficult and time-consuming  these projects will be avoided  in the interest of both Denmark and project owner  基金会对谈判是否进展困难以及所耗时间进行评估  会避开这类项目  为了丹麦和项目所有方的共同利益
    • LOI narrows negotiation space, but takes comments project owner on ERPA in account.
    •   意向书限定了谈判的空间,但考虑了项目所有方对减排量购买协议的意见
  • 18. On the web 网站内容
    • Website 网址 : www. caspervandertakconsulting .com/ danida
      • Outline of the facility 基金简介
      • World Bank PIN and preferably Facility PIN format
      • 世界银行 PIN 格式及基金推荐使用的 PIN 格式
      • Standard additionality tool of the UNFCCC
      • UNFCCC 额外性论证的标准工具
      • Additional information required (only if using the World Bank PIN)
      • 所需的额外信息 ( 仅在采用世界银行 PIN 格式时需要提供 )
      • Standard LOI and ERPA (with Chinese translation)
      • 意向书和减排量购买协议的标准文本 ( 含中文翻译 )
      • FAQ 常见问题
      • Presentations 演讲幻灯片
      • News 新闻
  • 19. About Caspervandertak Consulting Caspervandertak 咨询公司简介
    • New company based in the Netherlands 一家新成立的荷兰公司
    • Cooperation with Chinese organizations 与中国机构有长期合作
    • Work areas 业务领域
      • Development cooperation 项目开发合作
      • Feasibility studies and soft loans 可行性研究及软贷款
      • CDM CDM 项目
        • Capacity development 能力培养
        • Services to project owners (PDD writing, marketing CERs, ERPA negotiations, …) 为项目所有方提供服务 ( 编写项目设计文件,销售核证减排量,进行减排量购买协议谈判等 )
        • Procurement services to buyers (Project identification, PDD writing, ERPA negotiations, …)
        • 为买方提供采购服务 ( 项目识别,项目设计文件编写,减排量购买协议谈判等 )
    • Website 网站 : www. caspervandertakconsulting .com
  • 20. Contact information 联系信息 jeschr @um. dk E-mail: pdf @ caspervandertakconsulting .com - Mobile: +86-13001294612 +86-10-65322439 Fax: +86-10-84505758 +86-10-65322431 Telp: +86-10-84505756 Royal Danish Embassy 丹麦大使馆 Caspervandertak Consulting Jes Brinchmann Christensen Casper van der Tak 范德华
  • 21. Contact Information in Lanzhou
    • Joost van Acht Caspervandertak Consulting Tel (mobile) : 139 931 25 147 E-mail: pdf@caspervandertakconsulting.com
  • 22. Alternative website and e-mail addresses Per 15 July E-mail: pdf @ cdmasia .org E-mail: pdf @ cdmchina .org Website: www. cdmasia .org/ danida . htm Website: www. cdmchina .org/ danida . htm