MAJOR TOPICS Meaning of Challenges to Democracy Broader challenges to democracy Different context different challenges- 103 Challenges an analysis all over the world- 104-107 Political reforms Case study- Doctor absenteeism and Political funding Redefine democracy- good democracy
DEMOCRACY Means rule by the people. It ensures that every citizen takes part in the decision making process either directly or indirectly through the elected representatives
MEANING- CHALLENGES TO DEMOCRACY A challenge in literal means a demanding situation that requires some kind action. Challenges to democracy means problems that comes while ensuring a democratic set up in the country. It discuss the issues that need to be solved to sustain democracy in the country
THREE CHALLENGES OF DEMOCRACYDemocracy means rule by the people. It ensures that every citizen takes part in the decision making process either directly or indirectly through the elected representatives. There are three broader challenges to democracy1. Foundational Challenge: Countries that do not have the democratic set up face the challenge of making a transition to the democratic style of government. In all over the world one fourth of the country still not under democratic government. They need to lay the foundation in terms of law and policies that would be followed under democratic set up
2. Challenge to Expansion: Countries already having the democratic set up face the challenge of expanding it to various social groups and regions. Such countries need to ensure that more social groups, regions and institutions follow democracy in their functioning. This also means that more power is distributed among the lower levels of the government3. Deepening of Democracy Faced by every democracy in one form or another. Every democratic country needs to strengthen the institutions that ensures democracy. It means strengthening the institution that help in people’s participation and control in the government.
PARTICULAR CHALLENGES TO INDIAN DEMOCRACYIndia is the largest democracy of the world. In the last six decades it has worked successfully and achieved a lot in various sphere. Indian constitution granted Fundamental rights to its citizen. It is very helpful for to meet the diversity in India. However it has failed very miserably in many sphere.1. Social and Economic Inequalities2. Poverty and Unemployment3. Illiteracy and Ignorance4. Casteism5. Communalism6. Population Explosion7. Regionalism8. Linguism9. Separatism10. Corruption11. terrorism
HOW WE COULD REFORM DEMOCRACY?All the challenges of democracy is linked to the possibility of reforms. Along with the challenges need to think about overcome the constrains. Generally all the suggestions or proposals about overcoming various challenges to democracy are called democratic Reform or Political Reform. All the countries do not have the same challenge so we can’t follow same recipe of political reform. In India we need to develop some proposals for reforms at the national level. But the real challenge not only at the national level, some challenges are facing at state and local level also
1. To introduce New Laws: The law has an important role to play in politicalreform. It would help to discourage wrong political practiceand encourage good ones. But legal constitutionalchanges by themselves cannot overcome the challengesof democracy. This is like the rules of cricket. A change inrules of LBW decision helped to reduce negative battingtactics. But no one ever think that the quality of cricketcould be improved mainly through changes in the rules.This is to be done mainly the players, coaches andadministers. Similarly, democratic reforms are to becarried out mainly political activists, parties, movementsand political conscious citizen
2. Need to analyze the result of the Law;Legal changes some times may be led to the counter productive. For example many states banned people who have more than two children from contesting panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor and women. Generally, laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in poitics. However the best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms. The Right to Information Act a good example of a law that empowers the people to find out what is happening in government and act as watchdogs of democracy. It would help control corruption and strict penalities
3. From Theory to Practical:Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political practice. The main focus of political reforms should be on ways to strengthen democratic practice. Any proposal for reform should think not only about what is a good solution but also about who will implement it and how. The legislature would pass the law and the citizens, organization and media needs to be implement.
DISCUSS SOME CERTAIN MEASURES TO DEEPEN DEMOCRACY1. To provide the education to all the citizen: A literate society is the most important resource for a country. Education brings qualitative changes in the people and enables them to use better tools and knowledge. It would bring awareness of political rights of a person. Individuals are aware of their political rights and exercise them.2. Fundamental Rights: provided by the constitution ensure that every citizen right are protected and secure. They cannot be taken away by any government. It would increase the faith of the people in constitution3. Freedom of Press: has the freedom to form the public opinion by giving views and news on the issues facing the country. It would make awareness to the people what happening in the society