Kurt Lewin [1890 - 1947] Kurt Lewin was an American psychologist and having contributed to science group dynamics & action research, but perhaps he is being well known for developing force field analysis
LEWIN’S THREE-STEP MODEL OF LEWINORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Driving Forces Restraining Forces Equilibrium
WHAT IS A FORCE-FIELD ANALYSIS? Force-field analysis is a problem-solving tool that is used to identify the reasons (“forces”) that support two positions to a question and the strength of each force.
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Force Field Analysis is a technique for explaining forces that will drive and resist a change. It portrays driving forces and restraining forces that affect a central question or problem. A force field diagram can be used to compare any kind of opposites, actions and consequences, different points of view, and so on to set the stage for making change possible.
Changes will not occur when the driving forces and restraining forces are equal, or the restraining forces are stronger than the driving forces. For change to be possible, the driving forces must overcome the restraining forces.
Field Force Process is … Unfreezing--melting away resistance Change--departure from the status quo Refreezing--change becomes routineWHY TO USE?Force-field analysis focuses our attention on ways of reducingthe hindering forces and encouraging the positive ones.
. How is a force-field analysis conducted? The following steps are followed to conduct a force-field analysis: 1.State the question that is to be answered. Make sure that all participants agree on how the question is posed. It needs to be worded so that there are only two acceptable responses. 2.Use a flip chart or a blackboard and label one side of the paper or board as one of the acceptable responses, in this case “Yes,” and label the other side as the other acceptable response, in this case “No.” See sample chart.
Should ABC establish an office in Singapore? Yes NoHigh demandToo far from Japan Travel costs too greatStable economy Too much investmentLack of competition No employees are culturally awareCollege graduates available to work for Japan can coverABC DictatorshipBusiness plan shows high potentialprofit
4.Once the team can provide no new information to thebrainstorming session, the items provided should be reviewedfor clarification, duplication, and so on. Items should bereworded, if necessary, for clarification.5.The next step is to identify how strong a force each item is.There are many ways to do this. One simple way is to treat eachitem with a five-point Likert scale. The facilitator may handlethis process in the following manner:
“if you believe that the statement I read is a very strong argument for establishing an office in Singapore, hold up five fingers. If you believe that is a very weak argument for the position, hold up only one finger. How strong an argument do you think „High demand‟ is?”The facilitator will then do a quick scan of the group andcount the participants‟ responses. This number is then writtenon the chart. See sample chart on the following page
Conducting a Force-Field Analysis (continued) Yes NoHigh demand No existing customersToo far from Japan Travel costs too greatStable economy Too much investmentLack of competition No employees are culturally awareCollege graduates available to work Japan can coverfor ABC DictatorshipBusiness plan shows high potentialprofit
6. Items that are perceived to be low in interest should be eliminated from the chart. In the sample chart above, items with a 1 or 2 would be removed. See sample chart below.Should ABC establish an Yes No office in Singapore? 5 High demand 5 Too much investment 3 Too far from Japan 5 Japan can cover 4 Stable economy 3 Dictatorship 5 Business plan shows high potential profit
7. Given the arguments that remain, participants would tryto decide the question. Current Driving forces Restraining forces situation
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Recommended Solutions1.AD-HOC2.Construction of semi-permanent cross functional teams with real decision makingpower .3.Back on track4. focus on r &D -approach5.Capitalize on the available human capital in the company.6.Tackling with the forces on the priority basis,.7.Strengthen the already positive forces
• Brings into the open factors which will work for and against the closing of a gap• Identified by a needs analysis.• Helps to recognize circumstances which can and cannot be changed.• Provides a means to analyze ways to minimize or eliminate barriers to goal attainment.
• Process is subjective and requires collaborative thinking and agreement• Concerning forces for and against the solution to a particular problem.• May oversimplify the relationships between factors that impact a problem.• All aspects of a problem may not be identified.
Conclusion:This tool has a long history and still maintainsits utility despite its apparent simplicity. Use itwhen your team is blocked in some way or youneed to see the wider picture in a changeprogram. It is an essential tool in the armory ofa consultant and despite its simplicity is aprofound way of looking at an organization