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Enlightened Revolutions: Jennifer, Jinwoo and Neo
 

Enlightened Revolutions: Jennifer, Jinwoo and Neo

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    Enlightened Revolutions: Jennifer, Jinwoo and Neo Enlightened Revolutions: Jennifer, Jinwoo and Neo Document Transcript

    • Jennifer, Jinwoo, NeoViva la Revolucion!
    • Jennifer, Jinwoo, Neo GLORIOUS REVOLUTION KING JAMES II VS WILLIAM III OF ORANGE AND MARY II.Character BioKing James IIKing James II was a Catho-lic King who re-establishedCatholicism and issued theDeclaration of Indulgence.William III of OrangeHusband of Mary II, a Prot-estant man who was askedby the Protestant nobles toovertake the throne.Mary II SettingWife of William III and Sis- Took placeter of King James II helpedrule England with William in EnglandIII. from 1688 to 1689. William III of Orange Mary II King James II 1
    • Jennifer, Jinwoo, NeoTHE PROBLEMThe Glorious Revolution started when King James II had ason. The Protestant nobles wanted justice because theywere soon going to have a Catholic heir to the throne. Theydidn’t like how King James II re-established the Catholicreligion back into England. They went to William III of Orangebecause he is the husband of Mary II, sister of James II. 2
    • Jennifer, Jinwoo, NeoThe GOALThe Goal of the Protestantnobles was so that WilliamIII of Orange could overtakethe throne and replace KingJames II, thus continuingProtestantism. 3
    • Jennifer, Jinwoo, NeoTheEventsWilliam III of Orangebrought his army to Torbay.His army marched toLondon, unopposed.Scared and fearful, KingJames II fled away toFrance.Later, King James IIassembled an army that hebuilt from France and triedto re-take his throne, butwas defeated. He fledback to France and diedas an exile. 4
    • Jennifer, Jinwoo, NeoThe EndingWhen King James II was overthrown, theWilliam and Mary became the rulers ofEngland. They signed a Bill of Rightswhich allowed monarchs to have limitedpower. They also established the power ofthe Parliament as well as a Constitutionalmonarchy. 5
    • THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 6
    • Great Brit-The ain andSetting taken ad- vantage of.When the This begancolonists towards thegot to the end of theAmericas, 18th cen-they did not tury.expect to begoverned bythe British.However,they beganto be heav-ily taxed by 7
    • The Prob- gan to rebel against the Britishlem government inThe taxes and un- words and withfair representa- actions. The wartion infuriated99 began on Aprilthe colonists, and 19th, 1775, withmany believed in many strugglingindependence. for freedom.Soon, people be- 8
    • THE GOAL Many colonists wanted to com-wished for freedom pletely separatein a new country, from the countrywithout suffering they had come from.from the taxes of theBritish. They 9
    • Forge, on DecemberThe Events 19th, 1777, and theThe fighting lasted 8 adoption of the Arti-years, with the last cles of Confederation,major battle ending on March 2nd, 1781.in Yorktown, Virginia,when General Corn-wallis surrendered tothe Americans on Oc-tober 19th, 1881.Important events be-fore this include theBattle of Bunker Hill,on June 17th, 1775,the winter at Valley 10
    • The Ending Americans had successfully de-Although the last feated the British,major battle the most powerfulended in 1781, it nation at thewas not until Sep- time, due to theirtember 3rd, 1783, homeland advan-when the Treaty tage and motiva-of Paris was tion.signed, that thewar officiallyended. The 11
    • THE FRENCH1700s REVOLUTION THE SETTING Between 1787 to 1799, a were the First Estate, the revolutionary movement took Second Estate, and the Third place in France. This was Estate. The outraged Third called the French Revolution. Estate’s spokesman was Although France was known Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyés. as one of the most successful countries in Europe in the 1700s, the French people were not very happy with the laws and the monarchs, such as Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. France had three main social classes, which 12
    • The Problem because of the monstrous MONARCHS spendings of Louis XVI and MarieThe First Estate and the Second Antoinette. Louis XVI was a weakEstate, made up of clergy of the ruler. He did not give attention toRoman Catholic Church and the his government officials and hadrich nobles, ignored the little patience. He was alwaysEnlightenment ideas, did not have hesitant on his decisions andto pay taxes, and had access to allowed problems to drift untilhigh offices. The Third Estate, they got worse. He decided tomade up of the bourgeoisie, solve the economic crisis byurban lower classes, and peasant enforcing taxes on the nobility.farmers, however, embraced theEnlightenment ideas, had to payhigh taxes, and loathed the Firstand Second Estates. This wasobviously very unfair to the ThirdEstate. The French governmentwas also deeply in debt, mostly First, Second, & Third Estates Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinette was the queen, but a very un- popular one. The French loathed her from the very day she came to France. She distracted Louis when he was deal- ing with the government and often gave him bad advice. She also spoiled herself with expensive gowns, jewels, and gifts. She became known as “Madame Deficit.” 13
    • The Third Estate Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyés made a sig- nificant speech about how the Third Estate deserves to have all the rights and privi- leges as the First Estate and the Second Estate.The GoalThe Third Estate were very motivated to make changes to the government. They wantedto replace to Old Regime. The Old Regime was the old style of government, with themonarchs having all the power and the citizens having no say. The main desire was tooverthrow Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette and also declare an end to the absolutemonarchy. They also wanted equality with the First and Second Estates.The Third Estate mainly just wanted a fair government with a justconstitution. Did they achieve it? 14
    • THE EVENTS Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyés created Swiss guards were coming tothe National Assembly out of the Third kill French citizens. EveryoneEstate. The National Assembly would started collecting weapons tothen pass laws and reforms in the defend the city. On July 14,name of the French people. The Third the Bastille, a Paris prison,Estates delegates agreed with this was attacked by a mob.idea. On June 17,1789, the National They killed many guards The Attack atAssembly was officially established. and the prison com- the BastilleTennis Court Oath mander. Many were be- The National Assembly was locked headed. Soon, the were Many nobles and officers of theout of their own meeting room, so they marching around the streets with church were horrified also, so theybroke a down a door to an indoor ten- dead men’s heads on pikes. joined the National Assembly. Theynis court. The Third Estate delegates The Great Fear spoke about their love for liberty andall pledged that they would stick to the The rebellions caused the panic to equality. The National Assembly wereNational Assembly until they estab- spread to the countryside. More ru- taking the First and Second Estates oflished a new constitution. This became mors formed, such as one saying that their privileges one by one. Soon, theknown as the Tennis Court Oath. the nobles were hiring criminals to commoners were equal to the nobles Many First and Second Estate citi- threaten the peasants. The terrified and the clergy and the Old Regimezens who liked this idea teamed up peasants broke into the nobles’ man- was gone.with the Third Estate delegates. Louis ors and burned down legal docu-XVI hired Swiss guards around Ver- ments. Many women were angry andsailles. demanded that the National AssemblyProtest At the Bastille took responsibility. Soon, they de- Rumors were spreading in Paris manded that Louis and Marie An-about how Louis XVI was using mili- toinettte be exiled to Paris. Soon, they agreed and left their palace. This exiletary forces to get rid of the NationalAssembly. Others were saying that the was the start of the reform. “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.” This was the National Assembly’s slogan. The French adopted these revolutionary ideas from the Americans. They created the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citi- zen. This document declared that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights.” 15
    • The Ending had much less power, but still had some power to enforce laws. There were also three groups within the Most of the revolutionary ideas that were Legislative Assembly. Radicals opposed the put into use were focused on the Church. The idea of a monarchy and were desperate for National Assembly was now in charge of the many changes in the government. Moderates Church lands and the church officials were desired changes in the government, but not as elected as state officials. The Church no longer much as the radicals. Conservatives supported had its lands and its political independence. The the limited monarchy and wanted only a couple Church lands helped pay off France’s big debt. changes in the government. This made the church and the state have a mu- There were the Émigrés,nobles and others tual relationship with each other; the Church who were not part of the Legislative Assembly was now part of the state. who wanted to bring back the Old Regime. Louis XVI had heard that France was an Many wars broke out, and in 1793, a man Maximilien Robespierre unsafe place to be for the monarchy. He was named Maximilien Robespierre gradually gained warned by his advisers that him and his family power. He became the dictator of France for a were in danger. He tried to escape France into small period of time. The time of his rule was the Austrian Netherlands, but failed near the known as the Reign of Terror. However, in July border when he was caught by the Paris under 1794, his followers turned their backs on him guard. His failed attempt increased the influence and declared that got arrested and killed. The of his governmental enemies. death of Robespierre brought an end to the In September 1791, the new constitution French Revolution’s age of terror. was completed by the National Assembly. It now Finally, France got a great military leader had a Legislative Assembly, or the legislative named Napoleon Bonaparte. He defeated many body, who had the power to create laws and to battles for France. He also created the Napole- approve or reject declarations of war. The king onic Code, which was the uniform set of laws which rid of any injustices.Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon created hisown empire. He was abrilliant militaryleader. He fought many The guillotine,great battles and won, which is the machinebut also lost some that used to behead peo- plecost him the fall ofhis empire. 16
    • s Bibliography1688, January. "The Open Door Web Site : History : The "Glorious Revo-lution" of 1688." The Open Door Web Site : Home Page. Web. 24 Sept.2011. <http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/chap4013.html>."Glorious Revolution." The Victorian Web: An Overview. Web. 24 Sept.2011. <http://www.victorianweb.org/history/Glorious_Revolution.html>"BBC - History - James II." BBC - Homepage. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.<http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_ii.shtml>."James II (of England)." Unlimited Broadband | 24Mb High Speed Broad-band - TalkTalk. Web. 24 Sept. 2011.<http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0020037.html>."25 Most Evil People of the 16th Century CE | King James II of England."One-Evil.Org | The Unified Understanding, Revelation and Truth of Evil.Web. 24 Sept. 2011.<http://one-evil.org/people/people_17c_James_II.htm>."FRENCH REVOLUTION." World History International: World HistoryEssays From Prehistory To The Present. Web. 28 Sept. 2011.<http://history-world.org/french_revolution.htm>. 17