the critical resource is not the capacity to produce, but the knowledge to do it right. Problem: The Design Divide the gap between those who have the expertise to develop high-quality tools and resources and those who don’t (Mor & Winters, 2008*)
When, Where, Who What are we trying to achieve / solve? Cookbook: ingredients, procedure, expected outcomes C o n t e x t Problem Solution
A burda pattern.. Season: Fall For: Women Garment Type: Dress Style: Classic, Evening Wear, Romantic Material: Taffeta “ if I copy a dress, I can only create the same dress. If I have a pattern, I can create many dresses” (Yim Ping LENDEN)
Son, this was my dad's mobile. I want you to have it.
The Participatory Pattern Workshops Methodology
Collaborative reflection workshop Facilitate on-going design-level conversation between designers and practitioners involved in diverse aspects of the problem domain. Open, trusting and convivial. And at the same time Critical, focused and output-directed.
formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios Caroline Daly, Harvey Mellar, Yishay Mor, Norbert Pachler, Institute of Education, University of London http://feasst.wlecentre.ac.uk/
From: ‘practice’ assessment, or serial (or repeated) summative assessment
To: synonymous with learning
The use of digital means to support formative assessment
Formative features of assessment, which are afforded by specific features of digital media
OK, so what do we mean by Formative Assessment?
“ An assessment functions formatively when evidence about student achievement elicited by the assessment is interpreted and used to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions that would have been made in the absence of that evidence”
"... These create "moments of contingency," in which the direction of the instruction will depend on student responses. Teachers provide feedback that engages students, make time in class for students to work on improvement, and activate students as instructional resources for one another."
Learner’s conception as practice = 20% Learner’s conception = 10% teacher’s Teacher’s conception Other learner’(s) conceptions Teacher-designed task practice environment Other learner’(s) conceptions as practice Offers answers, ideas Questions, offers ideas Feedback on action Action to achieve goal Shares practice attempt Adapts approach to task to current conception Adapt a Task practice environment for learners’ needs Reflects on feedback in relation to task and action Reflects on alternative practice Reflects on learners’ practice Hints, comments Present concepts Task goal Revises action This animation represents the full use of the Conversational Framework through a combination of Teaching Methods, such as lecture/book/web resource + tutorial/discussion environment + fieldwork/lab/simulation + collaboration environment Presents conception as product Questions Learner’s conception = 20% teacher’s Learner’s conception = 40% teacher’s Learner’s conception as practice = 40% Learner’s conception = 50% teacher’s Learner’s conception as practice = 50% Adapts approach to task to current conception Shares practice attempt Learner’s conception as practice = 60% Learner’s conception = 60% teacher’s It illustrates how the iteration between theory and practice, between teacher and learner, and other learners, is expected to contribute to enable the learner to approach an understanding equivalent to the teacher’s. Discursive/theoretical level Practice/practical level
A bespoke string (sequence) comparator was designed; uses fine-granularity sequence comparison to compare correct language strings to a user’s answer. Students answer questions and the comparator marks up errors in their input using colour coding (and font style) to highlight the different types of error. If an answer contains errors the student is given a second attempt in which to correct the submission based on the feedback received.
Open mentor (Denise Whitelock) http://purl.org/planet/Cases/OpenMentor
Try Once, Refine Once (Aliy Fowler) http://pul.org/planet/Patterns/TryOnceRefineOnce
Problem Lack of immediate feedback for students leads to fossilisation of errors and misconceptions providing immediate feedback in an iterative fashion can also hinder effective learning since students are able to "grope their way" step-by-step to a correct solution without necessarily having to think about each answer as a whole.
Embed a mechanism in the learning and teaching system that regularly captures tutor feedback, analyses it, and presents them with graphical representation of the types of feedback they have given. Ideally, this should also include constructive advice as to how to shift from less to more effective forms.
In computer supported environments (e.g. VLEs), this mechanism could be integrated into the system, providing tutors with immediate analysis of their feedback, as well as long-term aggregates.