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  • cycles through personal experience, organisation of that experience in narratives, and structuring of knowledge from these narratives through participation in a learning community.
  • cycles through personal experience, organisation of that experience in narratives, and structuring of knowledge from these narratives through participation in a learning community.
  • 10/05/09

Transcript

  • 1. From Experience to Abstraction through Narratisation and Conversation Yishay Mor http://www.yishaymor.org/
  • 2. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 http://www.yishaymor.org
  • 3.
      • “ enca” epistemic cycle
      • Education as designed learning
    Design projects Analytical projects Methodology Next: training educators as learning designers WebLabs CoMo Learning Patterns Planet FEASST PPW PhD From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 ML4D
  • 4. “ enca” Epistemic framework From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 5. Design..
    • “ The process of inventing physical things which display new physical order, organization, form, in response to function” (Alexander, 1964, p.1)
    • “ proposing the form of an artifact, system or process, which in turn drives its behaviour , which in turn can be compared with its desired function ” (Middleton et al. 2008, p. 22, original emphasis)
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 6. “ everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into desired ones” (Simon*, 1969, p 129)
    • A design approach is..
    • functional / pragmatic
    • Value laden
    • Representation dependant
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 * “the sciences of the artificial”
  • 7. Learning vs. Education opportunistic, ubiquitous, continuous, Inherent, Directed towards A defined agenda Education = Designed Learning From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 8.
    • 2002-2005, EU (FP6) project, Directed by Professors Richard Noss and Celia Hoyles
      • Partners in UK, Italy, Sweden, Bulgaria, Portugal, Cyprus “creating new ways of representing and expressing mathematical and scientific knowledge in European communities of young learners (10-14 years).”
    • My role : project coordinator, lead “number sequences” activities, lead design & development of WebReports platform.
    • http://projects.lkl.ac.uk/weblabs
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 9. ToonTalk www.toontalk.com From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 10. WebReports From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 11. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 12. Guess My Robot
    • Context
      • Groups of 4-25 children, age 11-14, different sites across Europe. Extra-curricular activity in school.
      • 3 iterations (years).
    • Challenge
      • Develop an understanding of the relationship between the rule of a sequence, its generative process and the resulting sequence.
      • Encounter concepts of proof, equivalence, argument.
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 13. Motivation
    • From pattern spotting to structural reasoning (Küchemann & Hoyles, 2005)
    • Process-object duality (Sfard, 1991; Tall & Gray, 1993)
    • Mathematics as a form of communication (Sfard, 2008; Yackel & Cobb, 1995)
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, Technion, Feb 2011
  • 14. Challenge From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 15. Response From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 16. Rita’s Robot From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 17. Rita’s Robot From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 18. Rita’s Robot From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 19. Rita explains.. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 To create my sequence I thought thus: My first term is 2 and each one of the other terms is gotten of the previous one adding 2 and multiplying 4 to the result. I created a box with 4 holes. In the first hole I put the first term (2), in the second hole I put the number that I wanted to add (2), in the third hole I put the number that I wanted to multiply (x4) and in the fourth hole I put a bird. I gave the box to the robot and I went in to the robot thought. In the robot thought, I copied with magic wand the first 2 and gave to the bird, I copied with magic wand the second 2 and put in the first hole, I copied with magic wand x4 and put in the first hole. I Clicked in Esc and I left the robot thought. I cleaned the first number of the robot thought box and I tested my robot... And my sequence born...
  • 20. But a few weeks later… From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 I can prove that my sequence and your sequence are equal with the process of algebraic representation used by Sofia group. Rita's sequence: A 1 = 2 A n+1 = ( A n+2 ) x 4, but if I using the distributive property of the multiplication relatively to the addition I can write that: A 1 = 2 A n+1 = A n x 4 + 8 that is the algebraic representation of the Cyprus's sequence. then I can prove that two sequences are equal.
  • 21. Rita’s Journey
    • Began with an active experience (constructing robots)
    • Articulated her experience in narrative form
    • Discussed it with peers and teachers
    • Sought a form suitable for mathematical arguments
    • Re-phrased her understanding in algebra
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 22. “ enca” Epistemic framework From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 23. Read all about it.. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 Mor, Y., & Noss, R. (2008). Programming as Mathematical Narrative. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning (IJCEELL) , 18 , 214-233. Mor, Y., Noss, R., Hoyles, C., Kahn, K., & Simpson, G. (2006). Designing to see and share structure in number sequences. the International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education , 13 , 65-78. Mor, Y., Tholander, J., & Holmberg, J. (2006). Designing for cross-cultural web-based knowledge building. In T. Koschmann, D. D. Suthers, & T.-W. Chan (Eds.), The 10th Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) conference (2005) (pp. 450-459). Matos, J. F., Mor, Y., Noss, R., & Santos, M. (2005). Sustaining Interaction in a Mathematical Community of Practice. Fourth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME-4) . Sant Feliu de Guíxols, Spain. Mor, Y., & Sendova, E. (2003). ToonTalking about Mathematics. In I. Derzhanski, N. Dimitrova, S. Grozdev, & E. Sendova (Eds.), History and Education in Mathematics and Informatics, Attracting Talent to Science; Proceedings of the International Congress MASSEE 2003, september 15-21, Borovets, Bulgaria . Latvia: University of Latvia.
  • 24. My Journey
    • Designed a set of activities, and a set of tools to support them, based on combination of theory, intuition, and good luck.
    • Refined them until they worked.
    • Saw some positive results.
    • But what can be learned? What are the elements of design which led to success?
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 25. Design Patterns From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 [describe] a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice (Alexander et al., 1977) ‏
  • 26. Origins theory of architecture From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 27. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 1994 2010
  • 28. Learning Patterns From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
      • Kaleidoscope NOE JEIRP
      • 1 year, 7 institutes,
      • 6 countries, 15-20 members,
      • ~24 case studies, ~150 patterns
  • 29. Pattern: Guess my X From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 Use a CHALLENGE EXCHANGE game of BUILD THIS puzzles to combine construction and conversation, promoting an understanding of process-object relationships and leading to meta-cognitive skills such as equivalence classes, proof and argumentation.
  • 30. Guess my X: scheme of solution From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 31. The Learning Patterns Crop From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 32. Extracted from case studies From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 33. Collected at workshops From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 34. Read all about it.. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 Winters, N., Mor, Y., & Pratt, D. (2010). The distributed developmental network - d2n: a social configuration to support design pattern generation. In P. Goodyear & S. Retalis (Eds.), Technology-enhanced learning: Design Patterns and Pattern Languages (pp. 233-254). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Winters, Niall, & Mor, Y. (2009). Dealing with abstraction: case study generalisation as a method for eliciting design patterns. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (5), 1079-1088. Childs, M., & Mor, Y., Winters, N. et al., (2006). Learning Patterns for the design and deployment of Mathematical Games: Literature review. Mor, Y., & Winters, Naill. (2007). Games for learning: a design pattern approach (Workshop). Chais conference . Mor, Y., & Winters, Niall. (2008). Participatory design in open education: a workshop model for developing a pattern language. Journal of Interactive Media . Winters, Niall, & Mor, Y. (2008). IDR: a participatory methodology for interdisciplinary design in technology enhanced learning. Computers and Education , 50 , 579-600. Elsevier.
  • 35. Very nice, but..
    • Pattern shock
      • by the time participants “get the idea”, workshop is over.
      • Consequently, most participant contributions not usable.
    • Closing the loop
      • Need to validate patterns by use.
    • Us as component
      • “ great stuff, but I couldn't do it without you”
      • Dependency on guidance (Kali & Ronen-Fuhrman, 2011)
    • http://www.yishaymor.org/talks/e-learning-patterns09
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 36. Pattern Language Network (Planet) From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 JISC (UK) Funded, 15 months, 26 workshops, 6 groups, ~100 case stories, ~30 patterns
  • 37. Participatory Pattern Workshops Methodology
    • Problem
      • Acceleration -> need for effective protocols for sharing of design knowledge
    • Context
      • interdisciplinary communities of practitioners engaged in collaborative reflection on a common theme of their practice.
      • blended setting : co-located meetings + on-line collaborative authoring system.
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 38. PPW framework From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 39. And the outcomes.. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 Mor, Y. (2011). Embedding Design Patterns in a Methodology for a Design Science of e-Learning. In C. Kohls & J. Wedekind (Eds.), Problems Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors Solutions . Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. Mor, Y., Mellar, H., Pachler, N., & Daly, C. (2011). Formative e-Assessment: case stories, design patterns and future scenarios. In C. Kohls & J. Wedekind (Eds.), Problems Investigations of E-Learning Patterns: Context Factors Solutions (pp. 199-219). Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. Daly, C., Pachler, N., Mor, Y., & Mellar, H. (2010). Exploring formative e-assessment: Using case stories and design patterns. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education , 35 (5), 619-636. Pachler, N., Daly, C., Mor, Y., & Mellar, H. (2010). Formative e-assessment: practitioner cases. Computers and Education , 54 (3), 2010. Mor, Y. (2010). Guess my X and other patterns for teaching and learning mathematics. In T. Schümmer & A. Kelly (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP 2008)
  • 40. Yes, but is it science?* From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 *Apologies to Kelly, A. (Eamonn). (2004). Design Research in Education: Yes, but is it Methodological? Journal of the Learning Sciences , 13 , 115-128. Those among our theories which turn out to be highly resistant to criticism, and which appear to us at a certain moment of time to be better approximations to truth than other known theories, may be described, together with the reports of their tests, as “the science” of that time. Since none of them can be positively justified, it is essentially their critical and progressive character—the fact that we can argue about their claim to solve our problems better than their competitors—which constitutes the rationality of science.  Popper, K. R. (1963). Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge . Routledge. pp. xii
  • 41. Learning vs. Education opportunistic, ubiquitous, continuous, Inherent, Directed towards A defined agenda Education = Designed Learning From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 42. Design Based Research (DBR) From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
    • “ design processes subjected to standards of scholarship recognised by the scientific community.” Middleton et al (2008)
    • “ (a) help design innovations (b) explain their effectiveness or ineffectiveness, theoretically, and (c) re-engineer them where possible, while adding to the science of design itself” (Kelly et al, 2008, p. 5).
  • 43. Theory Practice Design Science Yishay Mor – Alpine Rendez Vous 2011
  • 44. The design experiment cycle (McKenney et al, 2006; Gravemeijer and Cobb, 2006; Cobb and Gravemeijer, 2008; Gorard, Roberts and Taylor, 2004; Cobb et al, 2003; Bannan-Ritland, 2003)
  • 45. Embedded in a meta-cycle From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 (Middleton et al., 2008; Gravemeijer and Cobb, 2006; Pratt, 1988)
  • 46. Wanted: scientific representation of design knowledge From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 47. Representations of Design Knowledge in Education From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 Design Narratives (Barab et al, 2008; Bell, Hoadley and Linn, 2004) Design Principles (Fuhrmann, Kali and Hoadley, 2008; Kali, 2006; 2009; Bell, Hoadley & Linn, 2004) Design Patterns (Retalis et al, 2006; Haberman, 2006; Derntl & Motschnig-Pitrik, 2005; Goodyear et al. 2004) Activity Sequences (Dalziel 2006) EML / IMS-LD (Koper & Tattersall, 2005; Koper & Olivier, 2004) Scripts (Miao et al., 2005; Kobbe et at., 2007)
  • 48. Representations of Design Knowledge in Education From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 Design Narratives (Barab et al, 2008; Bell, Hoadley and Linn, 2004) Design Principles (Fuhrmann, Kali and Hoadley, 2008; Kali, 2006; 2009; Bell, Hoadley & Linn, 2004) Design Patterns (Retalis et al, 2006; Haberman, 2006; Derntl & Motschnig-Pitrik, 2005; Goodyear et al. 2004) Activity Sequences (Dalziel 2006) EML / IMS-LD (Koper & Tattersall, 2005; Koper & Olivier, 2004) Scripts (Miao et al., 2005; Kobbe et at., 2007)
  • 49. Design Narratives
    • “ A design narrative describes the history and evolution of a design over time. [..] Narrative is only one way of making sense of design-based research. [..] To really convey what happened, though, requires a story” (Hoadley, 2002, p 454)
    • Neither data not analysis; they are the design-researchers’ interpretation in the space between the two.
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, Technion, Feb 2011
  • 50. Formalising Design Narratives From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, Technion, Feb 2011 Taxonomy Structure Collation Criteria Template Designer Narrative Criteria Method & Organisation Researcher Narrative Learner Narrative Teacher Narrative Participant Narrative Future Scenarios
  • 51. Beyond Narratives From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, Technion, Feb 2011
  • 52. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 53. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 Data Collection Methods Qualities of Design Narratives Methods for Aggregating Design Narratives Design Narrative Template Methods for Extracting Patterns from Narratives Qualities of Design Patterns Design Pattern Template Types of Design Narratives
  • 54. The Patterns From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 55. From Narratives to Patterns From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 56. The details..
    • http://www.yishaymor.org/phd/
    • [ Watch this space ]
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 57. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 58. Next: training educators as learning designers
    • If education is designed learning, then educators are learning designers (Or should be) .
    • The link between practice and theory in education is problematic (Wittmann, 2001; 1995; Laurillard, 2008; Mellar, Oliver and Hadjithoma-Garstka, 2009).
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 59. The challenge
    • “ Engaging students in design [..] proved to be a productive way for students to examine their own epistemological beliefs, negotiate them with peers and experts, and explore them in relation to theory.” (Fuhrmann,Kali & Hoadley, 2008)
    • But -
    • “ there are as yet few signs that tertiary teachers are flocking to become more deeply engaged in design.” (Markauskaite & Goodyear, 2009)
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, Technion, Feb 2011
  • 60. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 61. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 62. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 63. From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011 STELLAR noe theme team, 8 EU partners, 1 year, started April 2011 (I am the team leader)
  • 64.
    • “ Because design knowledge differs qualitatively from knowledge in other disciplines, it has to be taught differently from other disciplines. […] Design knowledge may not be easy to pin down, but it does exist, and it can be passed on if we respect how it is different from other ways of knowing” (Hoadley & Cox, 2009)
    From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, Technion, Feb 2011
  • 65.
      • “ enca” epistemic cycle
      • Education as designed learning
    Design projects Analytical projects Methodology Next: training educators as learning designers WebLabs CoMo Learning Patterns Planet FEASST PPW PhD From Experience to Abstraction: Yishay Mor, University of Haifa, May 2011
  • 66. Thank you http://www.yishaymor.org