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Eduserv Digital Identities Workshop Eduserv Digital Identities Workshop Presentation Transcript

  • Planet: bringing learning design knowledge to the forefront
      • Yishay Mor
      • Eduserv Digital Identities Workshop, London, Oct. 2008
  • Note I: Acceleration
    • The world is changing. Fast. Faster.
    • Teachers are learners.
    • Students are researchers.
    • We are all designers of our and our peer's learning.
    Son, this was my dad's mobile. I want you to have it.
  • Note II: The design divide
    • the gap between those who have the expertise to develop high-quality tools and resources and those who don’t (Mor & Winters, 2008*)‏
    • Low cost, mobile, connected devices create a potential of a level playing field – but also an illusion of one.
    • The critical obstacle to development is not lack of means of production, but lack of knowledge how to use them.
    * http://telearn.noe-kaleidoscope.org/open-archive/browse?resource=223
  • Note III: The void The Prophets will tell you what should be done The Explorers will tell you what they did Current discussion of learning and technology alternates between the abstract theoretical and the anecdotal. In between there is a shortage of design-level discourse. ?
  • Where am I? What do I do now? You're in a hot air balloon You should find where you want to go and land there. Did I tell about the time I crossed the Himalayas in a Zeppelin?
  • Wanted: a design science of learning
    • A science of design has -
    • A value dimension
    • A functional axis of decomposition
    • Attention to representation
    • (Mor & Winters, 2007)‏
    Herbert Simon (1969): we need a scientific study of the man-made. At its core, the science of design. “ everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into desired ones ”
  • The Design Knowledge Problem Expert := one who solves problems in a particular domain Expert := has domain design knowledge Experts do, Consultants talk Experts talk in jargon But..
  • Anyone seen a common language? Learners? Design Knowledge in TEL Developers Policy makers Teachers Researchers
  • Solution: sharing stories
    • Stories (narratives) are a fundamental form of generating / sharing knowledge. (Bruner)‏
    • Thick descriptions of problems & solutions.
    • Everyone likes a good story.
    http:// www.slideshare.net/yish/case -study-how-to-presentation
  • Narrative (i.e. stories)‏
    • Something happened to someone under some circumstances *
    •  
    •  
    • it
    * and there's a reason for me to tell you about it. William Hogarth, a rake's progress
  • Narratives – where do they come from, Where do they go?
  • The “good” case: There and back again Context Challenge Success Reflection
  • Tell me a story
    • S ituation
      • Set the scene (I wasn't there)‏
    • T ask
      • What problem where you trying to solve?
    • A ctions
      • What did you do?
    • R esults
      • What happened?
    • R eflections
  • A few tips
    • I wasn’t there
    • Stick to the story
    • Tell it like it was
    • … and then tell what you learnt
  • I wasn’t there Don’t assume that I am familiar with your context. What you take for granted, for me is a new world. Take your time to set the scene: who, where, when. 3 May. Bistritz.--Left Munich at 8:35 P.M., on 1st May, arriving at Vienna early next morning; should have arrived at 6:46, but train was an hour late. Buda-Pesth seems a wonderful place, from the glimpse which I got of it from the train and the little I could walk through the streets. I feared to go very far from the station, as we had arrived late and would start as near the correct time as possible. In the war of Troy, the Greeks having sacked some of the neighbouring towns, and taken from thence two beautiful captives, Chryseis and Briseis, allotted the first to Agamemnon, and the last to Achilles. Chryses, the father of Chryseis, and priest of Apollo, comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her; with which the action of the poem opens, in the tenth year of the siege. There was no possibility of taking a walk that day.  We had been wandering, indeed, in the leafless shrubbery an hour in the morning; but since dinner (Mrs. Reed, when there was no company, dined early) the cold winter wind had brought with it clouds so sombre, and a rain so penetrating, that further out-door exercise was now out of the question. Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, 'and what is the use of a book,' thought Alice 'without pictures or conversation?' Stately, plump Buck Mulligan came from the stairhead, bearing a bowl of lather on which a mirror and a razor lay crossed. A yellow dressinggown, ungirdled, was sustained gently behind him on the mild morning air. He held the bowl aloft and intoned: Introibo ad altare Dei .
  • Stick to the story
    • Actually, it is half the art of storytelling to keep a story free from explanation as one reproduces it. [...] The most extraordinary things, marvelous things, are related with the greatest accuracy, but the psychological connection of the events is not forced on the reader. It is left up to him to interpret things the way he understands them, and thus the narrative achieves amplitude that information lacks.
    •  
    • Walter Benjamin (The storyteller, in Illuminations, p. 86)‏
  • Tell it like it was
    • You don’t know
    • Would have happened..
    • Could have happened..
    • Should have happened..
    • Will Happen…
    You DO know, and only YOU know What happened
  • … and then tell what you learnt
    • This is your story, and what you learned is part of it.
    • After you’re reported on the context, the events and the consequences – report on your learning experience.
    In the midst of the word he was trying to say, In the midst of his laughter and glee, He had softly and suddenly vanished away – For the Snark was a Boojum, you see.
  • What do you see? After a case story is presented, ask the audience to identify the primary points from their perspective. What is the key message you take from this story?
  • The three hats
    • Work in small groups
    • One tells a story, second writes it down, third presents it.
  • highlight concepts Hazard: needs definition Asset: Key common concept
  • map them
  • But..
    • Narratives are not enough:
    • The Aha! Factor
      • How do we identify the key design element in a story?
    • The fantasy factor
      • How do we know its true?
    • The (cognitive) load factor
      • The world is changing too fast for us to take in all the good stories.
  • Design patterns [describe] a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice (Alexander et al., 1977) ‏ C o n t e x t Problem Solution
  • Problem Keep the rain out Context Cold, wet, poor. Method of solution Thatched roof Related Timber frame, Slanted roof, Chimney
  • example: activity nodes Design problem Community facilities scattered individually through the city do nothing for the life of the city. Design solution Create nodes of activity throughout the community, spread about 300 yards apart. http://www.uni-weimar.de/architektur/InfAR/lehre/Entwurf/Patterns/030/ca_030.html
  • The long way from cases to patterns
    • The bull can't see his horns.
      • Practitioners are often too close to their story, the key element of success seems obvious to them.
    • “ Oh, that's common sense”
      • there's nothing common about common sense.
    • The “make something useful” pattern (aka “like, duh? ”) ‏
      • Avoid stating the obvious*
        • (yes, this is an example) ‏
  • Some questions to ask a case..
    • What are you about ? What are you an example of ?
    • What was successful?
    • What made it successful?
    • What in the context was necessary for it to be
    • successful?
    • When might it not work?
    • Do we have any other examples of this?
  • I see a pattern!
    • Name it (and rename later)‏
    • Write it in 30 words - NOW !
    • Fry it
    • Sing it
    • Draw it
    C o n t e x t Problem Solution
  • Some questions to ask a pattern
    • What's your problem?
    • What would we do without you? (why do we need you) ‏
    • How are you different from X?
    • What are your boundaries? (when are you not relevant) ‏
    • Walk me through the steps
  • Huston. We have a problem If there isn't a problem, there's no need to design. Problems are your friends! A good problem description is half the solution. But, describing a problem is a problem Colliding forces: we want A, but need to satisfy B Elimination: Where would we be without this? Exclusion: What does this solve that a cheaper alternative couldn't C o n t e x t Problem Solution
  • It depends (on the ...)‏ Too broad : applicable everywhere, but hard to apply Too narrow : immediate to apply but rare application Feature deletion: Start from a story context, delete non-essential detail Boundaries: Note where this pattern doesn't apply Fusing: Find two examples, note common features C o n t e x t Problem Solution
  • [describe] a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice (Alexander et al., 1977)‏ C o n t e x t Problem Solution
  • Back to stories: rule of three (revised*)‏
    • Find two more examples of this pattern
    • Find one “near-miss”: similar story that doesn't match
    • Interrogate the stories, adjust the pattern.
    • Link
    • * http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?RuleOfThree
  • ..and back to the pattern
    • Link to related patterns
    • Refine distinctions & refactor if needed
      • Draw clear lines between this and other patterns.
      • Identify part-of / instance-of relations
      • If needed, split into sub-patterns, add super-patterns, or merge redundant patterns.
    • Revisit the name & summary
    • Present for review
  • Repeat. http://xkcd.com/289/
  • Coming up..
  • Mark Kramer: Reflections of a Nomadic Learner in the Age of Ubiquitous Communication, Jan. 9 @LKL Ubiquitous communication and mixed-reality computing scenarios are becoming commonplace and are influencing in the way in which individuals communicate and relate with others and their surroundings. This talk will present reflections of a nomadic learner who is examining how existing and emerging information & communications technologies and services are redefining formal and informal learning scenarios. The expected result of this talk will be to ultimately inspire those in attendance to gain a clearer perspective on how we are shaping the future of learning.
  • Deadline: December 23rd 2008 [email_address] http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/e-learning-patterns/
    • Review on formative e-Assessment
    • Paper on the CoMo case study
    • Symposium on pattern methodologies
    • http://www.cal-conference.elsevier.com/
  • July 8-12, 2009, Irsee Monastery, Bavaria Deadline : February 14, 2009 http://www.hillside.net/europlop/ http://flickr.com/photos/ademaraguiar/
  • Thank you The pattern language network project: http://patternlanguagenetwork.org Yishay Mor http://www.lkl.ac.uk/people/mor.html yishaym@gmail.com This presentation