Note III: The void The Prophets will tell you what should be done The Explorers will tell you what they did Current discussion of learning and technology alternates between the abstract theoretical and the anecdotal. In between there is a shortage of design-level discourse. ?
Where am I? What do I do now? You're in a hot air balloon You should find where you want to go and land there. Did I tell about the time I crossed the Himalayas in a Zeppelin?
Herbert Simon (1969): we need a scientific study of the man-made. At its core, the science of design. “ everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into desired ones ”
The Design Knowledge Problem Expert := one who solves problems in a particular domain Expert := has domain design knowledge Experts do, Consultants talk Experts talk in jargon But..
Anyone seen a common language? Learners? Design Knowledge in TEL Developers Policy makers Teachers Researchers
I wasn’t there Don’t assume that I am familiar with your context. What you take for granted, for me is a new world. Take your time to set the scene: who, where, when. 3 May. Bistritz.--Left Munich at 8:35 P.M., on 1st May, arriving at Vienna early next morning; should have arrived at 6:46, but train was an hour late. Buda-Pesth seems a wonderful place, from the glimpse which I got of it from the train and the little I could walk through the streets. I feared to go very far from the station, as we had arrived late and would start as near the correct time as possible. In the war of Troy, the Greeks having sacked some of the neighbouring towns, and taken from thence two beautiful captives, Chryseis and Briseis, allotted the first to Agamemnon, and the last to Achilles. Chryses, the father of Chryseis, and priest of Apollo, comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her; with which the action of the poem opens, in the tenth year of the siege. There was no possibility of taking a walk that day. We had been wandering, indeed, in the leafless shrubbery an hour in the morning; but since dinner (Mrs. Reed, when there was no company, dined early) the cold winter wind had brought with it clouds so sombre, and a rain so penetrating, that further out-door exercise was now out of the question. Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, 'and what is the use of a book,' thought Alice 'without pictures or conversation?' Stately, plump Buck Mulligan came from the stairhead, bearing a bowl of lather on which a mirror and a razor lay crossed. A yellow dressinggown, ungirdled, was sustained gently behind him on the mild morning air. He held the bowl aloft and intoned: Introibo ad altare Dei .
Actually, it is half the art of storytelling to keep a story free from explanation as one reproduces it. [...] The most extraordinary things, marvelous things, are related with the greatest accuracy, but the psychological connection of the events is not forced on the reader. It is left up to him to interpret things the way he understands them, and thus the narrative achieves amplitude that information lacks.
Walter Benjamin (The storyteller, in Illuminations, p. 86)
How do we identify the key design element in a story?
The fantasy factor
How do we know its true?
The (cognitive) load factor
The world is changing too fast for us to take in all the good stories.
Design patterns [describe] a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice (Alexander et al., 1977) C o n t e x t Problem Solution
Problem Keep the rain out Context Cold, wet, poor. Method of solution Thatched roof Related Timber frame, Slanted roof, Chimney
example: activity nodes Design problem Community facilities scattered individually through the city do nothing for the life of the city. Design solution Create nodes of activity throughout the community, spread about 300 yards apart. http://www.uni-weimar.de/architektur/InfAR/lehre/Entwurf/Patterns/030/ca_030.html
What would we do without you? (why do we need you)
How are you different from X?
What are your boundaries? (when are you not relevant)
Walk me through the steps
Huston. We have a problem If there isn't a problem, there's no need to design. Problems are your friends! A good problem description is half the solution. But, describing a problem is a problem Colliding forces: we want A, but need to satisfy B Elimination: Where would we be without this? Exclusion: What does this solve that a cheaper alternative couldn't C o n t e x t Problem Solution
It depends (on the ...) Too broad : applicable everywhere, but hard to apply Too narrow : immediate to apply but rare application Feature deletion: Start from a story context, delete non-essential detail Boundaries: Note where this pattern doesn't apply Fusing: Find two examples, note common features C o n t e x t Problem Solution
[describe] a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice (Alexander et al., 1977) C o n t e x t Problem Solution
Mark Kramer: Reflections of a Nomadic Learner in the Age of Ubiquitous Communication, Jan. 9 @LKL Ubiquitous communication and mixed-reality computing scenarios are becoming commonplace and are influencing in the way in which individuals communicate and relate with others and their surroundings. This talk will present reflections of a nomadic learner who is examining how existing and emerging information & communications technologies and services are redefining formal and informal learning scenarios. The expected result of this talk will be to ultimately inspire those in attendance to gain a clearer perspective on how we are shaping the future of learning.
Deadline: December 23rd 2008 [email_address] http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/e-learning-patterns/