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Helen Walmsley: The e-Design Template: a pedagogic guide for elearning designers

Helen Walmsley: The e-Design Template: a pedagogic guide for elearning designers
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    Asld2011 walmsley Asld2011 walmsley Document Transcript

    • The e-Design Template: a pedagogic guide for e-learning designers Helen Walmsley, e-Learning Models coordinator, Staffordshire UniversityAbstractThe e-Design Template is a simple (Word-based) pedagogic template that guides teachers and tutors when planninge-Learning. It highlights a small number of principles for good e-Learning and invites users to focus on learningactivities that embed these principles. The template suggests activities for a range of delivery patterns includingdistance and blended learning and can be used to design curriculum-focused or tool-focused e-Learning. It has beenused successfully to design small courses, whole awards and to review existing e-Learning designs, and is available inan online community of practice that discusses and develops the template and the associated e-learning activities.IntroductionThe ‘eLearning Models’ project was launched at Staffordshire University in May 2006 as one of a number ofinitiatives aimed at loosening some of the perceived barriers (Stiles & Yorke, 2006) as well as enhancing the qualityand agility of e-Learning development at the University. Early objectives for the project included the development ofrepresentations of approaches to e-Learning which modelled good practice and which, it was hoped, would guidethe adoption of e-Learning by novices and more experienced practitioners alike (Walmsley & Yorke, 2010). A set ofmodels from a range of existing writers was gathered and made available in a community of practice.A community survey in Oct 2009 suggested that linking the models closely to research outputs was important andfeedback also revealed that members value the ability to share their experiences of designing and using technologyfor teaching and learning, reflect on their use and learn from each other in a supportive community of practice.Following this, it was decided to develop a new set of principles for quality e-learning from the existing models andresearch and map the models to it. Links to research would also be made clearer as well as ways to enable thedevelopment of new models for emerging technologies. From this, the new e-design template emerged and this hasnow been used successfully in a range of community activities and staff development sessions.PrinciplesA number of key learning principles were selected as the most appropriate to guide the planning and design of e-Learning by tutors. These were gathered from a range of writers (see bibliography) and summarised as: E-Learning is designed in timed chunks that emphasises time on task and expectations E-Learning is assessed using a range of types (self/peer/tutor) and options/choices E-Learning includes a variety of interactions between student/ tutors/ peers/ externals E-Learning is accessible, activity-led, collaborative and designed in phases that support, scaffolds and increases learner independenceSee figure 1 for an illustrationThe e-Design Template: a pedagogic guide for e-Learning Designers. Helen Walmsley 2011 Page 1
    • Self-organised Learner Tutor facilitates, student integrates, develops understanding and skills, open projects Range of student managed peer/tutor/external interactions, Range of summative/student designed assessment, presentation of portfolio Increasing diversity of interaction Facilitated Investigation Tutor coaches, student adopts, knowledge construction, open activities Range of tutor managed peer/tutor/external interactions, Range of self/peer/ student-designed assessments Guided Exploration Tutor guides, student extends, knowledge exploration, closed activities Range of student managed peer and tutor interactions, Range of self/peer formative assessments Active Induction Increasing Tutor instructs, student accesses multi-media accessible resources, diversity of socialisation, closed tasks Range of tutor managed student-tutor interactions assessment Range of self/tutor diagnostic/formative assessmentWeek 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9Figure 1: Best Practice Principles for e-LearningDelivery PatternsThe principles were then used to develop a range of suggested models for a selection of delivery patterns to suit arange of contexts, technologies and staff and student skills. Distance e-Learning: All teaching and learning is online with a focus on collaborative and group work. This will include a range of activities including online discussions, online tutorials, accessing online resources, creating and sharing resources, online assessment etc. See figure 2 for an illustration of this model. Blended e-Learning (integrated): This includes online activities to prepare for and reflect on classroom sessions. Each teaching and learning session is planned with three integral parts: (1) an online preparation, (2) the face-to-face and (3) an online reflection, follow-up, assessment etc part. Blended e-Learning (concentrated): In this model students have some face-to-face sessions, but study mainly online. The face-to-face sessions will include lectures/workshops/labs etc and the online learning will include online discussions, online tutorials, accessing online resources, creating and sharing resources, online assessment etc. e-Supported: In this model, all teaching is face-to-face, but students have access to a wide range of resources and informal learning opportunities online.The e-Design templates for each delivery pattern include a range of suggested activities that map to the principles.The activities are those suggested for the currently available tools and technologies at the institution. The activitiesare expressed in simple language that describes the essence of the learning activity that the student would beengaged in. The activities include those that are in common use and suggestions that are more innovative. SeeFigure 2 for an example for distance learning.The e-Design Template: a pedagogic guide for e-Learning Designers. Helen Walmsley 2011 Page 2
    • Principles Active Guided Facilitated Self-organised Induction Exploration Investigation LearnerE-Learning is Join online discussion Contribute to online Lead online discussion Plan and moderate onlinedesigned in timed discussion discussionchunks thatemphasises time on Read/share online case Read/share and respond to create and use online case develop online case studytask and studies in forum online case studies in forum studies in forum from own experience andexpectations share in forum Join group for online Contribute to online Plan and participate in online design and participate inE-Learning is collaboration on wiki collaboration in wiki collaboration in wiki online collaboration withassessed using a peers in wikirange of types Use online reading list and Create and share accessible create and use accessible E- produce and use accessible(self/peer/tutor) and web links E-resource (e.g. PPT, Doc, resource with peers (e.g. PPT, E-resource with peers andoptions/choices video, Pebblepad page etc) Doc, video, Pebblepad page externals (e.g. PPT, Doc, etc) video, Pebblepad page etc)E-Learning includes a Access RSS feeds and Problem solving – modelling Problem solving – decision Problem solving invariety of announcements on mobile tasks or content in making with simulation simulationinteractions between simulationstudent/ tutors/ Self-assessment via quiz Self-assessment via create online quiz and share Professional colleaguepeers/ externals quiz/model answers with peers feedback on authentic workE-Learning is Students follow tutor on Evaluate information Peer-assessment using evaluate E-learning inaccessible, activity- Twitter for news and sources in forum marking criteria surveyled, collaborative and updatesdesigned in phases Students discuss marking Students refer to marking Students evaluate andthat support, criteria in forum criteria reflect on process ofscaffolds and learning in Pebblepadincreases learnerindependenceFigure 2: e-Design Template for distance e-LearningE-Learning activities/tools / subjectsThe e-Design template is scalable and can be used to design an award, module or lesson. In addition, the templatecan be used to illustrate suggested activities that map to the principles for a particular tool or technology. Modelshave been developed for a wide range of learning activities/tools including: e-portfolios; Virtual worlds; Blogs; Socialbookmarking; Online discussion; e-assessment; Electronic Voting Systems; Mind maps; Podcasting; Twitter; Web-conferencing; Wikis; Digital Storytelling; Mobile Technologies; Interactive Whiteboards. Work is progressing onmodels for subject areas that will suggest online activities suitable for different disciplines mapped to the principles.Case studies / communityThe e-Design Template, suggested templates for delivery patterns, activities and tools have all been shared with theonline community and suggestions, comments and additional activity ideas have been incorporated into the ongoingdevelopment of the models. A number of case studies illustrating a variety of e-learning designs on the e-DesignTemplate have been contributed for sharing in the community. A blank template can be downloaded and used freelyto create e-learning activities for new contexts and emerging tools. To join the community and access the materials,please go to: http://learning.staffs.ac.uk/bestpracticemodels/ConclusionThe e-Design Template has been developed from a range of research writings and in conjunction with a communityof practice. It is a pedagogical guide to designing e-learning that can be used by novice developers, experts and thosereviewing their e-learning designs. Feedback from users suggests that it is simple to use and easy to share andalways in Beta!The e-Design Template: a pedagogic guide for e-Learning Designers. Helen Walmsley 2011 Page 3
    • ReferencesChickering, A. W., & Ehrmann, S. C. (1996). Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever. [Online]. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from http://www.tltgroup.org/programs/seven.htmlJohnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The State of Cooperative Learning in Postsecondary and Professional Settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), 15-29.Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking university teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. London: Routledge.Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2010). Evaluation of Evidence-based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://edicsweb.ed.gov/edics_files_web/03898/Att_References and Glossary.docNicol, D. (2009). Assessment for learner self-regulation: enhancing achievement in the first year using learning technologies. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34(3), 335-352.Race, P. (2010). Making Learning Happen: A Guide for Post-Compulsory Education (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications Ltd.Salmon, G. (2004). E-Moderating: The Key to Online Teaching and Learning. London: Routledge.Stephenson, J., & Coomey, M. (2001). Online Learning: it’s all about dialogue, involvement, support and control according to the research. In J. Stephenson (Ed.), Teaching and Learning Online: New Pedagogies for New Technologies (Creating success) (p. 239). London: Kogan Page.Swan, K. (2005). A Constructivist Model for Thinking About Learning Online. In J. Bourne & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Elements of Quality Online Education: Engaging Communities. The Sloan Consortium.Walmsley, H., & Yorke, J. (2010). eLearning Models: a Web 2.0 approach to staff development in Higher Education. In D. Parkes, L. Hart, & G. Walton (Eds.), Web 2.0 and Libraries: Impacts, Technologies and Trends. Oxford: Chandos Publishing (Oxford) Ltd.Waterfield, J., & West, B. (2006). Inclusive Assessment in Higher Education: A Resource for Change. [Online]. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/pages/view.asp?page=10494Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity (Learning in Doing: Social, Cognitive and Computational Perspectives). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.The e-Design Template: a pedagogic guide for e-Learning Designers. Helen Walmsley 2011 Page 4