1
 Hispaniola is an island that Christopher Columbustook possession of during his voyage of 1492. Hewas so enchanted with t...
3
 Spanish and French colonists grew cane sugar,indigo, cotton, and coffee, as these were the mostvaluable commodities for ...
 The farmland was divided up in 15 hectare portionsto farmers. As this land was passed down anddivided up within families...
 Today, only about 2% of the country’s originalforest cover remains. This forest remains at risk,because most of the peop...
 Species - All organisms genetically similar enoughto breed and produce live, fertile offspring innature. Population - A...
 Biomes - Areas sharing similar climate,topographic and soil conditions, and roughlycomparable communities. Includes all...
 Productivity refers to the amount of biomassproduced in a given are during a given time. Food Webs are series of interc...
10
 Organisms can also be identified by the kinds offood they consume: Herbivores – Primary consumers; eat plants. Carnivo...
12
 Most ecosystems have huge number of primaryproducers supporting a smaller number of herbivores,supporting a smaller numb...
14
 The main abiotic factor in determining ecosystemtype is climate. Temperature, precipitation, humidity, and windover a l...
16
 Latitude is the distance away from the equator,measured in degrees. Altitude is height above sea level.17
Prevailing windspick up moisturefrom an ocean.On the windwardside of a mountain range,air rises, cools, andreleases moistu...
 Water gains and loses heat much more slowly thanair. Biomes near a large lake or ocean generally havemore stable temper...
20
 A climatograph is acombination precipitationand temperature graph fora given biome. The average montlyprecipitation for...
22Elevation: 75feet above sea levelTemperature Conversions:30°C = 86°F20°C = 68°F10°C = 50°F0°C = 32°F
 Low moisture levels (less than 25cm of precipitation ayear) Rainfall is infrequent and unpredictable Often located on ...
 Hottest and driest land biome Located near the equator Lowest amount of plant and animal life
 Seasonal temperature changes More moisture than tropical deserts, less thangrasslands
 Hot during the summer, freezing during winter. Similar precipitation to temperate deserts, but moreas snow and ice
Large desert citiesSoil destruction by off-road vehicles and urbandevelopmentSoil sanitization fromirrigationDepletion of ...
 More precipitation and cooler temperatures thandeserts. Temperature fluctuate depending on the time of dayand time of y...
 Located near the equator, usually between desert andrainforest biomes. Precipitation is very seasonal Wet season: Most...
30Elevation: 1700m above sea levelTemperature Conversions:30°C = 86°F20°C = 68°F10°C = 50°F0°C = 32°F
 Found in the interior of continents Three types of grasslands: Temperate means seasonal; Hot summers and coldwinters ...
32Elevation: 400m above sea levelTemperature Conversions:30°C = 86°F20°C = 68°F10°C = 50°F0°C = 32°F
 Very cold most of the year, windy Dominated by grasses, lichens, and herbs. Located north of the Arctic circle Undern...
Fig. 5-14, p. 89
35Elevation: 15 meters
Natural Capital DegradationGrasslandsConversion of savanna andtemperate grasslands to croplandRelease of CO2 to atmosphere...
 Transition areas between arid grasslands and forests Hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Dominated with small, l...
38Elevation: 15 metersabove sea level
 Tropical Rainforests More than 200 cm annual rainfall Hot temperatures year-round. Usually located near the equator....
 Canopy Top layer of forest; Contains most of the fruits and flowers Also contains most of the animals Understory Re...
HarpyeagleTocotoucanWoolyopossumBraziliantapirBlack-crownedantpittaShrublayerCanopyEmergentlayerUnderstory0510152025303540...
42Elevation: 3280 metersabove sea level
 Anywhere in the world where rainfall is plentifuland there are four seasons. Deciduous trees shed leaves when water is ...
45Elevation: 300m abovesea level
 Large amounts of precipitation, high humidity,and moderate temperatures. Occur farther away from the equator than tropi...
 Located just below the Arctic Circle. Long, harsh winters Short growing season Mostly coniferous trees Produce cones...
Fig. 5-19b, p.
49
Fig. 5-20, p. 94Natural Capital DegradationForestsClearing and degradation of tropicalforests for agriculture, livestockgr...
 Located anywhere the elevation rises 3000 feet ormore above sea level. Climate changes quickly occur over very shortdis...
Fig. 5-22, p. 95Natural Capital DegradationMountainsLandless poor migratinguphill to surviveHydroelectric dams andreservoi...
 Ecotones - Boundaries between adjacentcommunities.53
 Ecological Succession Primary Succession - A community begins todevelop on a site previously unoccupied by livingorgani...
55
 Pioneer Community – Community that developsinitially. Climax Community – Mature community thatdevelops after many years...
Land ecosystems and ecological succession (revised)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Land ecosystems and ecological succession (revised)

1,194 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,194
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
21
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Land ecosystems and ecological succession (revised)

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2.  Hispaniola is an island that Christopher Columbustook possession of during his voyage of 1492. Hewas so enchanted with the lush green island thathe called it “The Spanish Island”. As the island was colonized, most of its indigenoustribes died out from diseases and harsh workingconditions in Spanish gold mines. By 1517, the indigenous population was down to14,000 from an original population of 250,000. There were now 14,000 African slaves and 1,000Spanish colonists on the island.2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4.  Spanish and French colonists grew cane sugar,indigo, cotton, and coffee, as these were the mostvaluable commodities for trade. Much of the original forested land was cut downand cultivated for farmland. The slave population of the island revolted in 1804,gaining independence from French rule and theirown freedom. They named their new nation“Ayiti”, meaning “mother of the Earth.”4
  5. 5.  The farmland was divided up in 15 hectare portionsto farmers. As this land was passed down anddivided up within families, the average farm sizeshrunk to 1.5 hectares. Farmers began to overuse the land to continuesupporting themselves. When the land became infertile, they moved tosteep hills, overfarming them as well.5
  6. 6.  Today, only about 2% of the country’s originalforest cover remains. This forest remains at risk,because most of the people depend on charcoal asa source of heat. The lack of forests has made the country muchmore susceptible to flooding, mudslides, anderosion.6
  7. 7.  Species - All organisms genetically similar enoughto breed and produce live, fertile offspring innature. Population - All members of a species that live inthe same area at the same time. Biological Community - All populations living andinteracting in an area. Ecosystem - A biological community and itsphysical environment. Biotic – Living or once-living factors Abiotic – Non-living factors7
  8. 8.  Biomes - Areas sharing similar climate,topographic and soil conditions, and roughlycomparable communities. Includes all populations, communities, and abioticfactors.8
  9. 9.  Productivity refers to the amount of biomassproduced in a given are during a given time. Food Webs are series of interconnected foodchains in an ecosystem. Trophic Level refers to an individual’s feedingposition in an ecosystem.9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11.  Organisms can also be identified by the kinds offood they consume: Herbivores – Primary consumers; eat plants. Carnivores – Secondary or tertiary consumers; eatother animals. Omnivores – Secondary or tertiary consumers, eatboth plants and animals. Decomposers - Breakdown complex organic matterinto simpler compounds. Feed on all trophic levels.11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13.  Most ecosystems have huge number of primaryproducers supporting a smaller number of herbivores,supporting a smaller number of secondary consumers. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that someenergy is lost every time it is transferred in the form ofheat. Ecosystems not 100% efficient. The total energy transferred from one trophic level to thenext can be estimated with the 10% Rule. Only about 10% of the energy present in one trophic level can betransferred successfully to the next trophic level.13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15.  The main abiotic factor in determining ecosystemtype is climate. Temperature, precipitation, humidity, and windover a long period of time. Different than weather (short-term)15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17.  Latitude is the distance away from the equator,measured in degrees. Altitude is height above sea level.17
  18. 18. Prevailing windspick up moisturefrom an ocean.On the windwardside of a mountain range,air rises, cools, andreleases moisture.On the leeward side of themountain range, air descends,warms, and releases littlemoisture.Dry habitatsMoist habitats•Each side of a mountain range is affected differently by weatherpatterns.•The windward side is exposed to the wind first and gets moremoisture. The leeward side is left with very little moisture.
  19. 19.  Water gains and loses heat much more slowly thanair. Biomes near a large lake or ocean generally havemore stable temperatures. Often have higher levels of precipitation.19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21.  A climatograph is acombination precipitationand temperature graph fora given biome. The average montlyprecipitation for the areais displayed as a bar graph,while the average monthlytemperature is displayedas a line graph.21
  22. 22. 22Elevation: 75feet above sea levelTemperature Conversions:30°C = 86°F20°C = 68°F10°C = 50°F0°C = 32°F
  23. 23.  Low moisture levels (less than 25cm of precipitation ayear) Rainfall is infrequent and unpredictable Often located on the leeward side of mountains High number of succulent plants Can survive for long periods without water Animals bury themselves underground and sleepthrough the dry season.23
  24. 24.  Hottest and driest land biome Located near the equator Lowest amount of plant and animal life
  25. 25.  Seasonal temperature changes More moisture than tropical deserts, less thangrasslands
  26. 26.  Hot during the summer, freezing during winter. Similar precipitation to temperate deserts, but moreas snow and ice
  27. 27. Large desert citiesSoil destruction by off-road vehicles and urbandevelopmentSoil sanitization fromirrigationDepletion of undergroundwater suppliesLand disturbance andpollution from mineralextractionStorage of toxic andradioactive wastesLarge arrays of solar cellsand solar collectors usedto produce electricity
  28. 28.  More precipitation and cooler temperatures thandeserts. Temperature fluctuate depending on the time of dayand time of year. Mostly grasses, wildflowers, and shrubs. Few trees due to inadequate rainfall and high frequencyof fires.28
  29. 29.  Located near the equator, usually between desert andrainforest biomes. Precipitation is very seasonal Wet season: Most active time for animals and plants Dry Season: Grass fires occur frequently
  30. 30. 30Elevation: 1700m above sea levelTemperature Conversions:30°C = 86°F20°C = 68°F10°C = 50°F0°C = 32°F
  31. 31.  Found in the interior of continents Three types of grasslands: Temperate means seasonal; Hot summers and coldwinters More consistent precipitation than tropicalgrasslands.
  32. 32. 32Elevation: 400m above sea levelTemperature Conversions:30°C = 86°F20°C = 68°F10°C = 50°F0°C = 32°F
  33. 33.  Very cold most of the year, windy Dominated by grasses, lichens, and herbs. Located north of the Arctic circle Underneath the topsoil, there is permafrost Permanently frozen soil
  34. 34. Fig. 5-14, p. 89
  35. 35. 35Elevation: 15 meters
  36. 36. Natural Capital DegradationGrasslandsConversion of savanna andtemperate grasslands to croplandRelease of CO2 to atmosphere fromburning and conversion ofgrassland to croplandOvergrazing of tropical andtemperate grasslands by livestockDamage to fragile arctic tundra byoil production, air and waterpollution, and off-road vehicles
  37. 37.  Transition areas between arid grasslands and forests Hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Dominated with small, leathery, waxy leaves. Evergreen shrubs Fires common component of landscape.37
  38. 38. 38Elevation: 15 metersabove sea level
  39. 39.  Tropical Rainforests More than 200 cm annual rainfall Hot temperatures year-round. Usually located near the equator. Rapid plant growth causes the soil to be very nutrientpoor. Thin soil cannot support continued farming, and issusceptible to erosion. Higher diversity of plants and animals than any otherbiome.39
  40. 40.  Canopy Top layer of forest; Contains most of the fruits and flowers Also contains most of the animals Understory Receives only 5% of sunlight Few branches and leaves in this layer. Shrub Layer Shorter plants with wide, flat leaves to catch as muchsunlight as possible. Ground Layer Very bottom Mostly occupied by decomposers40
  41. 41. HarpyeagleTocotoucanWoolyopossumBraziliantapirBlack-crownedantpittaShrublayerCanopyEmergentlayerUnderstory051015202530354045Height(meters)Fig. 5-17, p.Groundlayer
  42. 42. 42Elevation: 3280 metersabove sea level
  43. 43.  Anywhere in the world where rainfall is plentifuland there are four seasons. Deciduous trees shed leaves when water is scarceor ground is frozen. High variety of trees and animals; not as diverse asthe rainforest Plants grow in layers Canopy: Tall, mature trees Understory: Small trees and shrubs Forest floor: Ferns, herbs, mosses43
  44. 44. 45Elevation: 300m abovesea level
  45. 45.  Large amounts of precipitation, high humidity,and moderate temperatures. Occur farther away from the equator than tropicalrain forests and are not as warm. Example: Pacific Northwest Located near the Pacific Ocean Windward side of the Olympic Mountains46
  46. 46.  Located just below the Arctic Circle. Long, harsh winters Short growing season Mostly coniferous trees Produce cones instead of flowers Needle-like leaves Do not shed leaves in winter Waxy coating minimizes water loss. Allow snow to fall to the ground easier47
  47. 47. Fig. 5-19b, p.
  48. 48. 49
  49. 49. Fig. 5-20, p. 94Natural Capital DegradationForestsClearing and degradation of tropicalforests for agriculture, livestockgrazing, and timber harvestingClearing of temperate deciduousforests in Europe, Asia, and NorthAmerica for timber, agriculture, andurban developmentClearing of evergreen coniferousforests in North America, Finland,Sweden, Canada, Siberia, and RussiaConversion of diverse forests toless biodiverse tree plantationsDamage to soils from off-roadvehicles
  50. 50.  Located anywhere the elevation rises 3000 feet ormore above sea level. Climate changes quickly occur over very shortdistances Effect of elevation: Air gets colder and drier asyou get higher and higher Windward vs. leeward slopes: The side facingthe wind/weather patterns gets more moisture. Tops covered in ice and snow Reflects sunlight; Stay cooler and maintainsnow.
  51. 51. Fig. 5-22, p. 95Natural Capital DegradationMountainsLandless poor migratinguphill to surviveHydroelectric dams andreservoirsIncreasing tourism (suchas hiking and skiing)Air pollution from industrialand urban centersIncreased ultraviolet radi-ation from ozone depletionTimber extractionMineral resource extractionSoil damage from off-roadvehicles
  52. 52.  Ecotones - Boundaries between adjacentcommunities.53
  53. 53.  Ecological Succession Primary Succession - A community begins todevelop on a site previously unoccupied by livingorganisms. Secondary Succession - An existing community isdisrupted and a new one subsequently develops atthe site.54
  54. 54. 55
  55. 55.  Pioneer Community – Community that developsinitially. Climax Community – Mature community thatdevelops after many years. Animals and plants are well-established K-strategists Community becomes resistant to further change.56

×