Culture and change blindness Masuda, T. and R. Nisbett (2006).  Cognitive Science 30(2 ): 381-399.
Change Blindness <ul><li>看不到改變,在沒有給提示的情況下,很多細節的改變是看不到的。 </li></ul><ul><li>在受試者被要求在一視覺區搜索時,改變的盲視也常常發生的。 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rensink et al., 1997; Scholl, 2000  : </li></ul><ul><li>一般 Change Blindness 的實驗常用的 Flicker paradigm ,並得到的結果是人傾向於注視...
文化的觀點 <ul><li>Nisbett and his colleagues (Ji, Peng, & Nisbett, 2000; Nisbett, 2003; Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & </li></ul><ul><...
文化的觀點 <ul><li> 東方人看外界事物是整體性 (holistical) ,看整個區塊 (field) 還有與物件之間的關係 </li></ul><ul><li> 西方人看外界事物是分析性 (analytical) ,主要是看較明顯...
解釋東西方人在注意力上差異的原因 <ul><li>First, East Asians are  socialized to attend to contexts , including both physical and socioemoti...
前人做過的實驗 <ul><li>Masuda and Nisbett (2001): </li></ul><ul><li>讓美國和日本大學生看一段小動畫關於水底下的世界,然後問他們看到什麼。 </li></ul><ul><li>結果: </li...
本篇文章要問的問題 <ul><li>東方人和西方人在注意力上是否有差異。 </li></ul>
假設 <ul><li>與美國人相較,日本人較傾向注視 背景 資訊。 </li></ul>
實驗一 <ul><li>刺激: the original flicker paradigm (Rensink et al., 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>一對前後的影像,只會有一個改變。改變能是在是在 focal objec...
例子
 
 
 
例子
 
 
 
分析 <ul><li>A 2 (culture: Americans vs. East Asians) × 2 (type of change: object vs. context) analysis of </li></ul><ul><li...
看 (1) type of change 時: FO’s RT : USA<EA, CI’s RT : USA>EA (2) EA 在 Focal info.  和  Contextual info. ,兩者速度一樣快。 推論:與美國人相比,東...
外界世界是連續和動態的 <ul><li>Levin & Simons, 1997; Simons & Chabris, 1999; Simons & Levin, 1998  :  </li></ul><ul><li>Several resea...
<ul><li>Research in that paradigm finds American participants to be more sensitive to changes in focal objects than to cha...
實驗二 <ul><li>動畫裡有 focal objects 的改變,同時也有 contextual information 的改變。 </li></ul><ul><li>播放兩段影片 (clip 1 和 clip 2) ,然後要受試者看完後是...
Clip 1
連續動畫中的最先前影像
播放 20 秒後,連續動畫中的最後影像
Clip 2
連續動畫中的最先前影像
播放 20 秒後,連續動畫中的最後影像
Example of changes in Focal and contextual information The airline logo and the landing gear depicted in the left picture ...
 
結果 computed the mean number of detections of focal object changes and the mean number of detections of context changes acr...
<ul><li>   Japanese participants were more likely than American participants to detect changes in contextual information,...
實驗三 <ul><li>對實驗二做修改: </li></ul><ul><li>因為實驗二的場景都是美國的場景,在這個實驗三加入一些日本的場景。 </li></ul><ul><li>實驗目標: </li></ul><ul><li>要區分出來是不是...
<ul><li>讓受試者以 1~7 先評哪些動畫是日本式的,哪些動畫是美國式的。 (1:  很日式風格的, 7:  代表很美國是風格的。 ) </li></ul><ul><li>   得知像是機場、工地等,皆可代表兩者文化的。但像是小城、農場...
受試者會看到的圖像 <ul><li>日式的 </li></ul><ul><li>美式的 </li></ul><ul><li>同時包含日式風格和美式的 </li></ul>
代表日式風格的圖像
代表美式風格的圖像
結果一
<ul><li>A 2 (culture) × 2 (object vs. context) ANOVA for the average reports for the five scenes showed that there was a s...
結果二 <ul><li>The patterns for  culturally neutral scenes  and  culturally specific scenes  were  similar,  with the excepti...
<ul><li>We also found a significant interaction between allocation of attention and type of cultural  scene,  F(1, 58) = 1...
結果三 :  偵測到改變的數量
結論 <ul><li>Experiment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese participants detected changes in  context  information  more rapidly  t...
<ul><li>Experiments 2 and 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Americans  detected more object changes  than Japanese but that Japanese det...
其他相關研究 (eye-tracking studies) <ul><li>Masuda et al. (2005)  : </li></ul><ul><li>They presented participants with a series ...
<ul><li>East Asians were more likely  than their North American  counterparts to allocate their attention to the periphera...
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0929 周二報告Culture And Change Blindness

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0929 周二報告Culture And Change Blindness

  1. 1. Culture and change blindness Masuda, T. and R. Nisbett (2006). Cognitive Science 30(2 ): 381-399.
  2. 2. Change Blindness <ul><li>看不到改變,在沒有給提示的情況下,很多細節的改變是看不到的。 </li></ul><ul><li>在受試者被要求在一視覺區搜索時,改變的盲視也常常發生的。 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Rensink et al., 1997; Scholl, 2000 : </li></ul><ul><li>一般 Change Blindness 的實驗常用的 Flicker paradigm ,並得到的結果是人傾向於注視明顯的 (salient) ,視中央 (focal) 的物件。 </li></ul>
  4. 4. 文化的觀點 <ul><li>Nisbett and his colleagues (Ji, Peng, & Nisbett, 2000; Nisbett, 2003; Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & </li></ul><ul><li>Norenzayan, 2001): </li></ul><ul><li>東方人和西方人在知覺和認知差異起因於注意力在注意物件和背景的差異。 </li></ul>
  5. 5. 文化的觀點 <ul><li> 東方人看外界事物是整體性 (holistical) ,看整個區塊 (field) 還有與物件之間的關係 </li></ul><ul><li> 西方人看外界事物是分析性 (analytical) ,主要是看較明顯 (salient) 的物件。 </li></ul>
  6. 6. 解釋東西方人在注意力上差異的原因 <ul><li>First, East Asians are socialized to attend to contexts , including both physical and socioemotional contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, as we will show later, there is evidence that Asian-built environments are more complex than Western environments. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 前人做過的實驗 <ul><li>Masuda and Nisbett (2001): </li></ul><ul><li>讓美國和日本大學生看一段小動畫關於水底下的世界,然後問他們看到什麼。 </li></ul><ul><li>結果: </li></ul><ul><li> 美國大學生傾向於描述一些明顯 (salient) 的物件。“ I saw what looked like a trout swimming off to the left.” </li></ul><ul><li> 日本大學生的描述有 60% 關於是背景的訊息。 “ I saw what looked like a stream; the water was green; there were rocks on the bottom.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. 本篇文章要問的問題 <ul><li>東方人和西方人在注意力上是否有差異。 </li></ul>
  9. 9. 假設 <ul><li>與美國人相較,日本人較傾向注視 背景 資訊。 </li></ul>
  10. 10. 實驗一 <ul><li>刺激: the original flicker paradigm (Rensink et al., 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>一對前後的影像,只會有一個改變。改變能是在是在 focal objects ,不然就是在 contexual infomration 。 </li></ul>
  11. 11. 例子
  12. 15. 例子
  13. 19. 分析 <ul><li>A 2 (culture: Americans vs. East Asians) × 2 (type of change: object vs. context) analysis of </li></ul><ul><li>variance(ANOVA)of reaction time for the identification of changes. </li></ul>
  14. 20. 看 (1) type of change 時: FO’s RT : USA<EA, CI’s RT : USA>EA (2) EA 在 Focal info. 和 Contextual info. ,兩者速度一樣快。 推論:與美國人相比,東方人較傾向把注意力放在背景資訊上。
  15. 21. 外界世界是連續和動態的 <ul><li>Levin & Simons, 1997; Simons & Chabris, 1999; Simons & Levin, 1998 : </li></ul><ul><li>Several researchers have investigated change blindness for continuous movement or dynamic stimuli in the real world. </li></ul><ul><li> 所以實驗二要讓受試者看一小段連續動畫 (animated vignettes) 。 </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Research in that paradigm finds American participants to be more sensitive to changes in focal objects than to changes in the periphery or context. We anticipated that this would be less true for East Asians and that they would be more sensitive to context changes than would Americans. </li></ul>
  17. 23. 實驗二 <ul><li>動畫裡有 focal objects 的改變,同時也有 contextual information 的改變。 </li></ul><ul><li>播放兩段影片 (clip 1 和 clip 2) ,然後要受試者看完後是描述 clip 1 和 clip 2 有哪些地方不同。有雙語 ( 日語和英語 ) 者協助登錄資料。 </li></ul>
  18. 24. Clip 1
  19. 25. 連續動畫中的最先前影像
  20. 26. 播放 20 秒後,連續動畫中的最後影像
  21. 27. Clip 2
  22. 28. 連續動畫中的最先前影像
  23. 29. 播放 20 秒後,連續動畫中的最後影像
  24. 30. Example of changes in Focal and contextual information The airline logo and the landing gear depicted in the left picture have been removed in the right picture.
  25. 32. 結果 computed the mean number of detections of focal object changes and the mean number of detections of context changes across all five scenes .  2X2 ANOVA 分析,得知文化和注意力的配置 (allocation) 有交互作用。
  26. 33. <ul><li> Japanese participants were more likely than American participants to detect changes in contextual information, F(1, 35) = 5.68, p < .03. </li></ul><ul><li> American participants were marginally more likely than Japanese participants to detect changes in focal object information, F(1, 35) = 2.92, .05 < p < .10 </li></ul>
  27. 34. 實驗三 <ul><li>對實驗二做修改: </li></ul><ul><li>因為實驗二的場景都是美國的場景,在這個實驗三加入一些日本的場景。 </li></ul><ul><li>實驗目標: </li></ul><ul><li>要區分出來是不是因為美國的場景圖像是物件導向的,明顯的;而日本的場景圖像是複雜的,很難把物件從背景抽離出來。 </li></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>讓受試者以 1~7 先評哪些動畫是日本式的,哪些動畫是美國式的。 (1: 很日式風格的, 7: 代表很美國是風格的。 ) </li></ul><ul><li> 得知像是機場、工地等,皆可代表兩者文化的。但像是小城、農場、港口等,被視為是美式風格的。日本小城、日式農場的確是被認為是日式風格的代表。 </li></ul>
  29. 36. 受試者會看到的圖像 <ul><li>日式的 </li></ul><ul><li>美式的 </li></ul><ul><li>同時包含日式風格和美式的 </li></ul>
  30. 37. 代表日式風格的圖像
  31. 38. 代表美式風格的圖像
  32. 39. 結果一
  33. 40. <ul><li>A 2 (culture) × 2 (object vs. context) ANOVA for the average reports for the five scenes showed that there was a significant interaction between culture and allocation of attention, F(1, 58) = 22.72, p < .001. </li></ul><ul><li>從此結果得知: </li></ul><ul><li> Japanese participants were more likely to detect changes in contextual information than were Americans F(1, 58) = 16.17 , p < .001. </li></ul><ul><li> Americans were more likely to detect changes in focal object information than the Japanese, F(1, 58) = 5.63 , p < .02. </li></ul>
  34. 41. 結果二 <ul><li>The patterns for culturally neutral scenes and culturally specific scenes were similar, with the exception that the difference in change detection for focal objects for culturally neutral scenes was slight and insignificant. </li></ul>
  35. 42. <ul><li>We also found a significant interaction between allocation of attention and type of cultural scene, F(1, 58) = 128.62, p < .001 . </li></ul><ul><li>(A three-way interaction was not statistically significant, F(3, 58) = 2.25, p > .10. ) </li></ul>
  36. 43. 結果三 : 偵測到改變的數量
  37. 44. 結論 <ul><li>Experiment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese participants detected changes in context information more rapidly than did American participants, whereas there was no difference in how rapidly the two groups detected changes in object information. </li></ul>
  38. 45. <ul><li>Experiments 2 and 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Americans detected more object changes than Japanese but that Japanese detected far more context changes than object changes. </li></ul>
  39. 46. 其他相關研究 (eye-tracking studies) <ul><li>Masuda et al. (2005) : </li></ul><ul><li>They presented participants with a series of cartoon images, consisting of a target figure in the center and four background figures in the peripheral area, and asked participants to judge the central figure’s emotion based on his facial expression. </li></ul>
  40. 47. <ul><li>East Asians were more likely than their North American counterparts to allocate their attention to the peripheral figures’ facial expressions and that their judgment were strongly influenced by the changes in the background figures’ facial expression. </li></ul>
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