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  • 1. Innovative Hospitality TypologiesWALL_S Ana Victoria Faría Delfino Martina Gallia Yanina Guerzovich Vincenzo Mongiello Louena Shtrepi Principal Tutor: Corinna Morandi
  • 2. Ana Victoria Faría DelfinoMartina GalliaYanina GuerzovichVincenzo MongielloLouena Shtrepi
  • 3. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality M U LT I D I S C I P L I NA RY PROJECT FINAL REPORT E X P - H O S T _ Great events and hospitality Milan Expo 2015 and Turin Italia 150: new concepts and formats for new populations WALL_S Innovative Hospitality Typologies Ana Victoria Faria Delfino, Architecture (Construction) , Politecnico di Torino (signature)________________________ Martina Gallia, Architecture, Politecnico di Torino (signature)________________________ Yanina Guerzovich, Product-Service System Design, Politecnico di Milano (signature)________________________ Vincenzo Mongiello, Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano (signature)________________________ Louena Shtrepi, Architecture (Construction), Politecnico di Torino (signature)________________________ Principal Academic Tutor: Corinna Morandi, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano (signature)________________________________________ Other Academic Tutors: Flavio Boscacci, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Alberto De Marco, Dept. of Production System and Business Economy, Politecnico di Milano Fabrizio Leoni, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Francesco Prizzon, Dept. of Building Engineering and Territorial Systems, Politecnico di Torino Paola Pucci, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Andrea Rolando, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Luca Tamini, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Cino Zucchi, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano External Tutor(s): Maria Teresa Broggini Moretto, Comune di Milano – Direzione Attività Produttive Leonardo Cavalli, One-Works Elena Milanesi, Assolombarda – Settore Territorio Giorgio Rabajoli, Ferrino S.p.A. 4
  • 4. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityINDEX1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 82. INTRODUCTION2.1 General description of the problem of hospitality during great events – Milan 2015 EXPO as a case study 92.2 Quotations of interesting examples of hospitality or problems 10 noticed during previous great events2.2.1 Hannover 2000 102.2.2 Zaragoza 2008 112.2.3 Turin events: Torino 2006 and Torino 20112.3 Shanghai 2010, test on the field of failures and good practice examples 132.4 Why is it better to face the hospitality with temporary structures and not with new massive buildings 162.5 What do we intend as “Temporariness” and “Hospitality” 173. USERS’ REQUIREMENTS3.1 Milano Expo 2015 and its receptivity 183.2 Data (visitors, site plan) 193.3 Stakeholders 204. DESIGN PROCESS4.1 First ideas on possible solutions: Annexes, Pay per Sleep, First booking, Temporary Hosting Camps 224.2 Places Where to Locate our Hospitality Offer 244.3 Different Definitions of Temporariness Related to Accommodation Solutions 254.4 Stakeholders present in Disaster Response (a possible scenario where to use the hosting units) 264.5 A reflection on the Creative Dynamics of our Design Process 27 5
  • 5. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality5 . S TAT E O F T H E A R T5.1 State of the Art of Temporary Shelters Comparison Table with Focus Characteristics for Each Examples 296. TOWARDS THE SOLUTION6.1 Key words 316.2 First Explorations and Approaches to the Cell Concept 317. WALL_S7.1 Destination of use 377.2 Dimensions 397.3 Equipment 407.4 Structure 417.5 Transport 427.6 Assembly 437.7 Aggregation 447.8 Plants 467.9 Durability 467.10 PCM7.10.1. Classification of PCM 477.10.2. PCMs’ Properties 487.10.3. Thermal Storage Unit and Air Exchanger Applications 487.11 Comparison between Wall_s and Already Existing Solution in the Temporary Shelters’ Market Share 497.12 Wall_s Experience 518. BUSINESS PLAN8.1 Executive Summary 548.2 Product Description 548.2.1 Destination of use 558.2.2 Dimensions 55 6
  • 6. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality8.2.3 Equipment 558.2.4 Plants 558.2.5 Structure 568.2.6 Transport 568.2.7 Assembly 568.2.8 Durability 568.2.9 Aggregation 578.2.10 Pros and Cons 578.3 Strategic Plan 588.3.1 Mission 588.3.2 Objectives 588.3.3 Business Analysis 588.3.4 Strength & Weaknesses 588.3.5 Opportunities and Threats 588.3.6 Strategy 598.3.7 Positioning (Brand) 608.3.8 Location 608.4 Marketing Plan 608.4.1 Expo Visitors 608.4.2 Travellers (Afetr Expo) 618.4.3 Temporary Exhibitions 618.4.4 Disasters 618.5 Market strategy 618.5.1 Product 618.5.2 Promotion & Places 618.5.3 Price 648.6 Operating and Organization Plan 648.7 Financial Plan 658.7.1 Income Statement 678.7.2 Cash Flow Analysis 678.7.3 Investment Analysis 678.7.4 Sensitivity Analysis 679. CONCLUSIONS 71REFERENCES 73 7
  • 7. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Great events are happenings of high profile and con- tents that even if they only last limited period, they have significant implications on the economic, social, institutional and territorial pattern of the hosting re- gion. Great events vary on scale, content, media cover- age and target but for the interested area, they always present an opportunity to gain visibility, to create new relations and usually, for urban regeneration. However, they do pose important challenges on hospitality mat- ters which involve often a necessary dialogue between public and private institutions. The legacy of a Great Event can be as beneficial as harmful for the region and its citizens. Thus, it should be taken well thought holis- tically. The World Exhibition (EXPO) to be celebrated in 2015 in Milan is an example of this typology and will be considered as a case study for the research and the further concept development. The first part of the work reviews an extensive research carried out by the team in the first phase of the proj- ect. The group examined the implications of hospital- ity solutions and problems in relation to the Milanese macro-region enlightening the state of the art and the perspective towards 2015. In parallel, symbolic mean- ings, impacts and implications of big events have been thoroughly discussed. We present a study on previous cities that carried out great events based on existing bibliography and meet- ing with academic and professionals on the topics. Spe- cial attention is paid to the Shanghai Expo 2010, where on-site research was carried on, which included a visit to the hosting city and surroundings, a visit to the Expo and meetings with local experts. Locally, we met with the actors involved in the Expo 2015. Resulting from those debates and analysis about the issue of accommodation for the hosting of the tem- porary visitors of Expo Milan 2015, has emerged as an unsolved problem. The hospitality market sector in Mi- lan has been studied. The temporariness of the event asked for innovative solutions that have this term as one of the main goals of the project. The next chapters and annex report a benchmark comparison of tempo- rary structures. Finally, a concept to attend Milano 2015 Expo’s hos- pitality demand and its post event use is presented, along with a business plan that demonstrate its feasi- bility and strategy of management. 8
  • 8. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality2. INTRODUCTION2.1 General description of the problem of cs and management of the increasing demand of hospitality during great events – Milan goods and, receptivity in terms of accommodation 2015 EXPO as a case study and other serv ices like restaurants and informa- tion. Preparing the city for a Great Event meansIn 2015 Milan will be part of a long history of World to find solutions to reduce the gap between theExhibitions as the hosting city of the EXPO. Since the existing and forecasted offer and demand. This is a1851 Great Exhibition at London’s Crystal Palace, very complex matter.World Expositions have been a platform to displayhistorical experience and the best global practices.“A world Fair or Expo is a infrequently occurring Looking at the strategies taken in Hanover 2000,celebration that typically showcases the latest or Zaragoza 2008 and Shanghai 2010 allowed us tofuture advances in arts, culture and technology”* . understand how these cities approached theseThey foster the exchange of innovative ideas that themes, and in particular hospitality offer and de-seek to tackle the problems facing mankind in the mand. However, to propose solutions to reach thefuture. Expo-sites have left incredible infrastruc- needs of the coming visitors and to avoid the over-tures in the city such as the Tour Eiffel as well as load, a clear idea about the demand is necessary. **redeveloped areas such as the La Cartuja Leisure Even if the focus of this research is not that onePark created after Seville, 1992. Another recent , it is important to remark that the forecasted vi-example is multifunctional urbanized area of the sitors for the Milanese Expo have decreased byPuxi Section of the 2010 Shanghai Expo, which is 10 million during the development of the project.a promising heritage for the city. Most Expos have Another important element is that the origin ofshown positive effects. For instance, they create the expected visitors and their interests. Thus, wenew investments and temporary employment to should underline the current offer of the hostingbuild infrastructure as was seen in the past (Anda- region as well as its opportunities for the future.lusia, 1992) and nowadays with the enlargement of Nowadays, Milan lacks a clear strategy in termsthe transportation system and belted parks in the of hospitality and self-promotion as a tourist de-Milanese macro-region. Another important impact stination compared for instance with other majoris the creation of networks based on new cultural, node cities such as Berlin in Germany or Rome inscientific and technological exchanges and confe- Italy. The EXPO brings a great opportunity to buildrences which bring new commercial opportunities a renovated image of the city and its macro-regionfor both hosts and visitors. Furthermore, an Expo in the international context. Valuable legacy of theregion, usually situated on 1.5 million m2, provides event could promote the territory in several areasan excellent opportunity to expand its possibilities as sustainable pole for tourism, business and re-for tourism and self-promotion during the opera- search.tional period (6 months) and after. The EXPO*** preparation and event is controlledA hosting city must deal with several critical issues by the BIE. However, the main issues about the re-liked to the overload of the existing hospitality gional development are decided by the local pu-infrastructure. This means potential problems in ** The team A had approach this topic, feeding our pathterms of accessibility and transportation, logisti- with useful and updated information on the visitors profile. *** Regulations and further information on Expos can be* Goldblatt, J. Nelson, K.S. (2001), The International Dictio- found on the Bureau Interanal des Expositions BIE website as wellnary of Event Management, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 279. as in the 2015 Milano Expo website. 9
  • 9. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityblic administrators. Thus they must be considered for the future event of Turin a key stakeholder in any project which involvesthe coming World Exhibition. As highlighted by theMunicipality of Milan in the meetings, Expo shouldbe an opportunity for further development for thecity. It should be a vehicle to accelerate the crea-tion of new relations with the visitors and territo-rial transformations, increasing the region’s value.In this context, some first general questions wereraised in the group: Which are the possible pro-blems to solve in general? Who owns the pro-blem? To whom is the problem-solution relevant?In which stakeholder/s are we going to focus on?What can technology do for the problem in a cre-ative and innovative way? From a multidisciplina-ry view, how can we approach the problem? And,some possible problems to solve in general cameout: explore innovative typologies of hospitalityof new populations; develop a sustainable solu- Picture 1: Prevvous EXPO and Turin Events’ Logostion; develop a solution thinking of the impact andopportunities: Before - During - After the Expo; A special chapter will be dedicated to Shanghaidevelop a solution that will be beneficial for the 2010 Expo, which we visited, getting a real idea ofcommunity afterwards; find a fast and feasible so- the life in a hosting city and the exhibition.lution of business model that will be ready for theevent. 2.2.1 Hannover 2000 In order to remain true to its own urban develop-2.2 Quotations of interesting examples of ment, a completely new-generation district called hospitality or problems noticed during Kronsberg was build. It aimed to serve the Expo previous great events needs for hospitality as well as the existing se- rious housing shortage in Hannover at the time.Past EXPOs provide a good resource of both good The Kronsberg district is an example of forwardpractices and failures during the great event. Mo- planning and building which represents the 2000reover they allow us to see their post-effect over Expo theme “Humankind – Nature – Technology”.time. This chapter gives an overview of interesting It was strategically located along the new tramli-examples, strengths and weaknesses of hospita- ne which links the city centre with the Expo-site.lity, successful and unsuccessful solutions of past The development followed the regional planningWorld Exhibitions. Over the traditional hosting principle, expanding along the local public railwaystructures like hotels, “Bed and Breakfast”, tou- concentrating at the stations. Thus, it has a com-ristic residences, hostels etc., we went through pact structure and high building density organizedexamples of great sustainable constructions of in a grid layout. In terms of sustainability, it hasentire residential districts like those in Hannover exceptionally high ecological standards, offering2000 and Zaragoza 2008, innovative service sy- semi-natural open spaces and above-average qua-stems like those promoted in Zaragoza 2008,and lity accommodation. Due to the forecasted over- 10
  • 10. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityload of visitors which will create a discomfort in and standardized system where citizens made theirthe population, the building of new apartments homes available to accommodate visitors. It provi-was appropriate. The projects were funded by a ded an additional and alternative offer. To manage,wide range of public and private institutions, in- control and market the service, selecting suitablecluding the government and a great participation housings, building relationships and training ow-of the State of Lower Saxony. The Expo staff and ners and managing the booking service, EXPOA-exhibitors were hosted in about 2.500 apartments. GUA picked a responsible company. 3100 unitesBeing one of the largest and most advanced pro- with the minimum number of room and locationgrams in Europe by the end of 2000 these tempo- followed the program’s requirements. Two servi-rary housing facilities were available for rent again. ces were offered. One, named “shared hosting”,Nowadays, Kronsberg is home of 6600 people with where the owner shares his house with the visi-3000 residences and near-by work placements. tors and a second one, called “lodging attended”The architectural style was designed by over forty where the owner offers the use of the house andarchitectural and planning studios. Today, it is not facilities. In both cases, the owner was responsibleonly linked to the city by public transportation but of providing assistance, cleaning and maintenan-it stimulates other services like car-sharing, pede- ce. Plus, after the event the houses had to be re-strian and bike riding. Furthermore, to reduce the turned to the owners.CO2 emissions it encourages sustainable buildingmeasures for heating, water and electricity use aswell as the design of more open public spaces. Picture 3: Zaragoza Expo Site Picture 2: Kronsberg District Villa Expo, the second project developed by Expo- agua society, aimed to manage 3 new sets of re-2.2.2 Zaragoza 2008 sidences near the Expo-site: the “House of WaterZaragoza’s international exhibition EXPOAGUA Tower”: an over 100 single/double/triple room’sanswered to the hospitality demand with two in- accommodation, the “House Bridge Pavillion”:novative solutions. Besides from new hotels built 194 beds including studios and one-bedroomnear the Expo-site, the managing organization pro- apartments, and the “River House Aquarius”: 102moted on one hand the setting up of a Bed and rooms, mostly singles. A public call was developedBreakfast system and on the other hand, the buil- to select the managing and marketing compa-ding of dorms next to the Exposition area. nies which would present a quality proposal that would meet the minimum quality and fixed price.The first program, called “Programa Alojamiento y The winning organizations had to provide furni-Desayuno”, focused on developing a well-thought ture, manage the service billing, host the visitors 11
  • 11. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityand train the staff. This program as well as the first shbasins, toilets, laundry rooms, etc, one contai-one followed a Quality Plan which included mini- ning fourteen double rooms, and the last for en-mum requirements, rules and fixed prices (e.g. 60 trance, reception, supermarket, Internet access,euro per day for a double room in the B&B and 75 sick bay, etc, together with other minor uses. Ar-euro in Expo Villa). This temporary management chitecturally, the renovated buildings maintainedwas agreed taking into account that they will have their appearance as faithfully as possible, so as notto return the running facilities after the Expo was to alter the style of the property drastically. Inte-over. Following the Expo, the buildings were used riors were kept the same criterion and philosophy,as student dormitories or were sold to special ca- but with adaptations for the proposed use.tegories of citizens. Two general criteria were fundamental for theTo complement the Expo Accommodation Net- new buildings: creating a space between the exi-work, Zaragoza City Council offers alternatives sting buildings and the new ones while achieving asuch as El Canal Campsite, located in the Ecocity, harmonious blend between the architecture of theValdespartera, 4 km from the Expo site. The con- two areas. Brise-soleil, use of light and shade, usedition for building was that the ground could be of compatible materials, blurring of the boundaryused for various alternatives. The camping spaces between interior and exterior, compatibility withhave a flexible layout so that they can be used in other uses, versatility, cleaning and maintenancean ordered or dispersed way. The green and spor- provisions, etc. amongst other things, are aspectsting areas together with the camping facilities can that have been taken into account for its con-be used in different ways, adapting to diverse si- struction. Besides the accommodation, it workstuations. as a campsite with a large surface area and servi- ce infrastructure that includes roadways and car parking. Environmentally, the accommodation was equipped with a solar energy system, a high-per- formance solar water heater located on the roof and a hydraulic unit. Additionally, new buildings also featured louvred facades to control light and heat, and to provide good ventilation in the sum- mer. These simple but carefully thought environ- mental solutions included also recycling and reu- sing materials, integrating them with nature. Picture 4: El Canal Campsite, ZaragozaFinally, main residential building refurbished for 2.2.3 Turin events: Torino 2006 and Torino 2011use as a hostel and restaurant and the Warden’s In the Italian panorama, 2006 Torino Winterresidence renovated to house the campsite ma- Olympic Games give us an overview of the appro-nager and storage facility. Stables were reused for ach on the issue of hospitality taken by the region.service installations and storage. Services block This is the only event held in Italy that was compa-turned into sports equipment storage and green rable in terms of complexity and international visi-areas were consolidated and restored as a recre- bility to the Expo. Even if it presents many differen-ational area, children’s playground and camping ces in relation to an Expo in terms of content andspaces. Indoor football courts were restored as a extension, it is interesting to see some of the solu-multi-purpose sports facility and other courts up- tions provided by public and private stakeholdersgraded. Moreover, new buildings were designed: at the time. Some of the alternatives developed,three service blocks, one housing showers, wa- 12
  • 12. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityprovide quality accommodation and preserve the agree that the 2011 occasion, as the other inter-environment. A great number of structures were national events like Expo 2015 can be a successfulbuilt such as “Yes!” hostels and “Doc” Bed & Brea- tool to develop and promote the Italian tourist sy-kfast showing the enthusiasm, even if the policies stem. For the past 20 years, the city of Turin anddid not always promote the image of the Olympic the surrounding region of Piedmont have beenreceptivity. Anyways, some innovative typologies doing an impressive job of bringing about an ar-explored were linked to the territory and the loca- chitectural, cultural and social transformation,lity, such as Agroturism and Second-home market. concentrating all their efforts on reaching their fullThis last one was a sadly successful since it held potential in 2011. The aim is not to offer the clas-back the growth of private companies. But it inspi- sic cultural tourism, characterized by passive andred innovative diffuse receptivity linked with athle- standardized enjoyment, but about real “experien-tes, guaranteeing subletting contracts. Unluckily, ces” as much active and customized as possible.the projects came to an end after the Olympics. Many restorations and works on infrastructuresThe image of the city was improved, but the lack were completed by 2011 on royal palaces, histori-of a strategic coordination of public and private cal buildings, parks and green areas. Those placesactors didn’t encourage the diversification of de- were the venues of the event and will host expos,mand and offer. The lesson was learnt and some shows, conferences and performances.efforts remained like the training on receptivityand volunteering which was active towards the 2.3 Shanghai 2010, test on the field of fail-2011 Italian Unity celebrations. ures and good practice examples From the 1st to the 16th of May 2010 our project team, together with some tutors of the ASP project, made a study journey to China, during which we participated on a workshop in Shanghai at the Ton- gji University, partner of the Politecnico di Milano, to evaluate the local policies in the field of hospita- lity in preparation of the Shanghai Expo 2010. The visit to the city and Expo allowed us to experience a great event first hand, to live the city and to see its transformation in terms of infrastructure and Picture 5: Olympic Village, Turin 2006 economic growth.To celebrate Italy’s 150th anniversary, Turin andPiedmont are prepared a grand international hap-pening, as there was in 1911 and in 1961: an op-portunity to look back at past glories, but also toconsider the present and take a look at the futureof “the best of Italy”. Three years prior to this ap-pointment, the Comitato Italia 150 (the committeethat will organize the events in Piedmont) partne-red with the Tourist Trade Fair in Rimini - TravelTrade Italia and TTG Incontri to discuss with touroperators about ideas on how to design touristtheme packages and holiday offers in Italy. They all Picture 6: EXPO Site’s Maquette at the Shanghai Urban Center 13
  • 13. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityShanghai Expo 2010 is the largest Expo ever seen. visitors. The only innovative intent is representedIts theme is “Better City, Better Life”. As 55% of the by Chongming Island – not well promoted at all -world population lives in cities, the Expo’s theme which links accommodation with agricultural ac-promoting sustainable urban development re- tivities, entertainment and industry, thanks to anflects a central policy-making concern of the inter- important link made of brand new transport infra-national community. More than 200 countries and structures with the organizations are presenting theircreative experience. Any one of the 70 million vi-sitors expected to attend the Expo is likely to beoverwhelmed by the possibilities. Our visit to theExpo, the hosting city and surroundings such asthe Chong Ming Island Project allowed us to seeits approach to the theme and to live a great eventfirst hand. Picture 8: Project Team during the visit at the ChongMing Island Links between the Expo and the city, in terms of activities related to the theme, were completely absent. Considering that as international visitors, out of 8 days, we spent just one day at the Expo, its experience was very limited and left us few insights related to the theme “Better City, Better Life”. It could have been interesting the creation of strong activities and networks such as “fuori Expo”. Picture 7: Project Team during the visit at the International For example the Urban Center of Shanghai, being Shanghai EXPO so involved in the theme of the Expo, should haveAfter the visit to the Shanghai EXPO site, we had been a stronger promoter of activities.a couple of meetings in the Tongji University, afterwhich some critical remarks were drawn: Solutions like the reuse of buildings at the Expo’sIn terms of Hospitality, one of the problems identi- site are interesting because they integrat existingfied was the lack of info: the Expo info points give structures with new technologies and services.very basic information about the Expo and no in- Some examples of services structures (toilets, wa-formation about how to find accommodation in ter providers, bars, info points, souvenir shops,the city. A good suggestion for future events could etc.) were designed with interesting features, inbe the creation of a system of info points that have those examples the skin has also a big importanceinformation about Expo and tourism, both digi- but a structural function as well.tal and face-to-face. In addition, we haven’t seeninnovative typologies of accommodation. Big ho- The content of the Expo and its potential. We con-tels seem to be the only solution to this problem. sistently found a lack of contents related to theMaybe the extremely rapid growth of the city can theme of the Expo. Inside the pavilions the ex-provide conventional accommodation for all the perience was more related to communicate “the 14
  • 14. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitypower of the country” than the real effort of it in but it is interesting the mechanisms used to finan-developing a better life style. In the North area ce the tool with plenty of commercials. To impro-of the Expo, the theme was expressed better but ve this subject, real time information concerningstill it was not very innovative and only cases were the content of the Expo, pavilions and events onshown. The level of deepening of the examples digital screens, internet, and personal mobile pho-was very basic; it was not expected to be shown nes would have been preferable instead of totemsto a public of experts in that sector but just to eve- and volunteers. Looking at the huge distances inry people. Also, there was a weak application of the site these kinds of services would have helpedthe concept of “Better City, Better Life” in terms of in moving around in an efficient way. It would betransportation and energy use in the Expo. There nice to receive instant information (for example onwere ecological buses, new green areas, recycling Bluetooth devices) about what is going on in thebins but not significant use of others like photovol- pavilions in order to be able to decide either to vi-taic sources or services like bike sharing. We think sit it or not, hence optimizing the experience andit is important to develop meaningful content that the queue time.allows the visitor to interact with the theme, brin-ging home some new learning. Another elementmissing was an active interaction of the visitors.We believe that everyone should have been ableto input his own “better city” experience to lea-ve a footprint (at the event should be a progressand deep learning) and maybe leave to the visitora souvenir of experiences.Information and Communication. We noticed a ge- Picture 9: Digital Screen, Equipment of some Taxis in Shanghaineral lack of information and communication tools In relation of innovative solutions we felt that noboth in the city and in the Expo site; contents, or- unitary action and cohesive use of innovation wi-ganization, events, accommodations, facilities and thin the Expo intervention was present; neitherlogistic info were not clearly and easily conveyed. conceptual nor technological intervention uponTraditional info points have been placed throu- the theme has been realized, for example two “in-ghout the whole site; but the volunteers working novative” experiments have proved to have beenthere were not efficient. Furthermore, paper ba- unsuccessful: 1. Taxi screens giving only touristsed documentation was limited and incomplete oriented information (shopping, leisure, etc.) 2.and it didn’t give any useful information about the The ICT Pavilion proposing a superficial personalcontents of the pavilions, so that the choice of en- device oriented interactive experience. From ourtering in a pavilion was only decided upon the ex- viewpoint, concrete, accurate and user-orientedterior appeal, and in this way useless queue were technological devices, in order to personalize pe-often done. Moreover no interaction between the ople’s experience, activities and mobility patternspavilions and the hosted events, if present, becau- should be incorporated in this type of there was no real time communication aboutwhat was happening in the different pavilions andin general in Expo site. The only working interactive The problem of the scale of the Expo. The Expo sitecommunication tool has been placed in taxis, whe- is in the city centre, so it is easily to reach by visi-re a digital screen gives very few static information tors thanks to a well connected transport networkabout the Expo and the city, it doesn’t give any both into the Expo site and Shanghai city. Further-help with the communication with the taxi driver, more, in this case, the Expo site is closed to a cre- 15
  • 15. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityative area, so that the opportunity of reusing is colossus. Since a new bridge/tunnel connectingimproved. However, although the Expo is near the Chongming to Shanghai has being planned, thecity centre, there is no interface between the city island has been placed directly in the path of theand the site. In fact there are no events in Shanghai seemingly unstoppable Shanghai sprawl. For thisthat involve citizen and visitors together. Even if reason, in 2004 a competition for the urban de-the masterplan is well organized the perception of sign of the island was promoted and the SOMthe visitor is confused. That situation is due to a (Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP) team won itgap between the Expo scale and the human sca- with a “green” proposal based almost completelyle. Regarding Milan Expo 2015, even if the scale is on best-practices principles of sustainability. SOMnot comparable, the masterplan should consider uniquely focused on Chongming’s agrarian orien-the perception of the site from the visitor point of tation as the key to sustainable plans for new envi-view and consider better the post Expo phase. ronmentally-based communities that allowed the preservation of farming as the core function.In relation to the visitors target, the Shanghai Expo Among the objectives planned for this new urbanhas a didactical aim for Chinese people and other expansion there is the creation of a new offer in“common” tourist, in order to make them know the tourism field addressed to a target of peoplemore about the other countries and cultures of who enjoy the outdoors and new contexts. Speci-the world. To improve this aim the exhibition could fic structures like European country’s houses arejoin learning and make experience, while for ex- about to be built. In the original plan a good per-pert visitors the exhibition should give more tech- centage of them should have been ready to hostnical and technological information and innovative the flow of Expo’s visitors but some delays made itprojects. impossible. We managed to visit anyway the only one almost complete. It’s real news for the Chine- se touristic market and it seems to be able to inter- cept a very big portion of it. The tendency already clear in the western countries of the “coming back to nature” spirit is fashionable even in the less en- vironmental eastern country. It has been for us the confirmation that the investments in the sector have well perspectives of success. 2.4 Why is it better to face the hospitality Picture 10: UK Pavillion at the Shanghai International EXPO 2010 with temporary structures and not with new massive buildingsChong Ming Island: During the trip to Shanghai, oneday has been dedicated to the visit of Chongming We analyzed deeply the pros and cons betweenIsland, the seat of a new utopian urban plan, which the two proposals, which are two options thatinvolves also an innovative offer in terms of holi- the actual hosting situation offers to users. Theseday accommodation. Located some 20 miles east analyses aimed to get the best features of both so-of Shanghai’s downtown Financial District and se- lutions by integrating them in the design processven miles across the Yangtze by ferry, Chongming’s and in the creation of the entire service system.extraordinarily rich, flood-replenished soil had fordecades made the island-district the agricultural With the description “massive buildings” we refer“rice bowl” for China’s burgeoning commercial to the common hosting structures like hotels, re- 16
  • 16. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitysidences which are located inside buildings as we invitation and is happy to get in a deep relation-usually are used to think about. The pros of these ship with him/her. The hosting place is a physical,structures are those of durability of construction social and cultural context that is generated by thematerials through time, static and permanent po- host and that may be enriched by the guest. Publicsition on the urban territory which is seen as a kind spaces in this perspective recover the role of phy-of guaranty to people who think about hotels as sical and symbolic meeting place between guestsa temporary home, the costs of construction and and hosts: beautiful places, expression of the lo-material transportation is done once while buil- cal historical and cultural values, but also placesding the project, but there are also some cons like for relaxation, entertainment and for events. Ho-the stability of the offer to the increasing demand sting during great events is a temporary action butof hosting, so presented as a limited capacity of should be thought as an opportunity for furtheraccommodation and on the contrary to a low de- development. Thus, we think temporariness not asmand the offer is high and so these structures be- an isolated provisory moment for the city but as ancome useless and the maintenance costs raise up. explosion that could leave meaningful blueprints.Now days, when green and recreation areas are We approach the design for temporary hospitalityfew and very important and very required places as regenerative solutions that valorizes the hostingthat give value to the territory, it becomes impor- places (i.e. the local existing resources), offers thetant not to occupy them with impacting structures residents new opportunities (i.e. new services forof concrete or other common construction mate- the residents and for the guests), promotes new,rials. In order to go through all these existing ne- deep forms of intercultural relationships like bet-gative aspects we saw in the temporary structures ter understanding of the place and people, on thethe flexibility due to the management and design guests’ side, and more open and cosmopolitanprocess; the synchronized system offer-demand; ideas, on the hosts’ side. Contemporary cities thatthe fair impacting aspects on the urban and ru- want to remain attractive in the global competitionral areas; the low maintenance costs in terms of and play a welcoming role internationally have tostorage, transport and assemblage; and, the most equip themselves in response to the new tourisminteresting aspect that this solution allows was behaviors and demands. The goal of welcomingthe experiencing of new accommodation forms by cities should be: to include the heterogeneous,camping near unusual contexts like city centers, individual demands rather than select and foca-rural houses, parks etc. It also offers a new way of lize just on one specific (high) target; to developoptimizing the relation of the user in approaching new solutions that are economically accessible,the city and its activities. The temporariness of the to find ways of integrating local communities andhosting structures becomes coherent to the tem- foreigners rather than keeping them in two diffe-porariness of the event itself allowing to the ho- rent environments without contact and sharingsting cities to enlarge their accommodation capa- of experiences; to spread the tourist flows overcity without risking to build great structures which the territory rather than limiting them to the citywould be empty and useless structures once the centers. Accommodation strategies in welcomingevent finishes. cities have to offer a system of solutions that is: highly differentiating and able to answer to the in- creasingly heterogeneous demand; “flexible”, able2.5 What do we intend as “Temporariness” to adapt with the changing flows of arrivals during and “Hospitality” the whole year; “inclusive” and “disseminated”, able to connect visitors of different ages and fromFor us ideally, a host is an actor living in a place in different backgrounds and link them to the localwhich he/she is happy (and proud) to invite some- community and to different local realities.body else. A guest is an actor that accepts the host’s 17
  • 17. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality3. USERS’ REQUIREMENTSIn order to elaborate an adequate problem setting landscape and environmental interest. Moreover,from the general topic proposed “EXP-HOST: Great the region is promoting new environmental andevents and hospitality. Milan Expo 2015 and Tu- landscape paths strictly linked with national andrin Italia 150: new concepts and formats for new international initiatives that will bring new touri-populations”, great events experienced have been stic attractiveness to the area.studied through dedicated bibliography, web in-formation and on-site visits. The previous events The Milan Expo will not occur in an isolated man-information as well as the meetings with academic ner. Its program of events will integrate seamlesslyand external tutors who follow the project allowed into the overall national program of events in to understand their approach to hospitality, the The country is already planning a great number oflegacies and its main impacts on the city and eco- activities of international scope during the Exponomy. After the problem setting phase, the rese- period that will exert a strong draw both for Italiansarch was focused on the selected specific theme: and for visitors from abroad. The Expo will offer ex-the design of innovative hospitality structures for cellent opportunities for partners hips with otherMilan Expo 2015. We decided to narrow the project Italian cities or sister events that will catalyze theto Milan Expo 2015 because we think it presents interest of millions of potential visitors. Exampleslarger unsolved issues to absorb the demand on range from food events in Rome to Music and Li-hospitality. Thus we aim to propose a system that terature events in Umbria, in the period from Maycould be adapted to smaller events such as Turin to October.Italia 150 but we find that Milan Expo 2015 wouldbe a better context, due to the resources and time-frame, to explore new concepts. Other important projects are being developed for the great event, which include the revalorization of existing areas and the building of new infrastruc-3.1 Milano Expo 2015 and its receptivity ture. An interesting example is this project, loca- ted away from the main Expo site, is based on theThe Expo provides important opportunities for idea of creating a post-Expo learning park, wherethe city and region. Its urban region has 9 millions users will be able to pick up appealing informationof inhabitants and economy devoted to services about water and nutrition. Water as a primary ele-and knowledge with an interconnected net of ex- ment of the life and food cycle is the topic that willcellences. The exceptionality of the functions al- be developed along this route. A vast network ofready active in the area create a great source of green areas (around 800 hectares) will be createdattractiveness in different sectors such as busines- along and around a trail of around 20 km, whichses and fairs, health and research, creativity and can be covered on foot, by bicycle, by low-energyinnovation and, education and culture. Today the vehicle, on horseback (in some stretches in greentouristic system is focused on the business sector, areas) or by boat (along the Naviglio Grande). Aleaving with no answer big segments of demand second project called the “Land Way” consists ofand bringing in action only a minimal part of the a visitor and theme trail which connects a num-potential positive synergies with the territories. ber of locations and buildings of special note, andThus, the Expo with its theme “Feeding the pla- which leads from the Darsena (the docks on the Ponet, energy for life” brings significant opportuni- river) to the future Expo-site, a symbol of tomor-ties to promote the territory attractiveness and a row’s Milan.sustainable form of tourism through the growthof a hospitality offer linked with the places with a 18
  • 18. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityMilan maintains a very widespread and far-rea- we think that a competitive, touristic and syner-ching network of international relations whose gic strategy is necessary and innovative receptivitycomplexity defies exhaustive description. Milan models have to be interconnected with the rest of the world via aquantity of active relations that cannot possibly be 3.2 Data (visitors, site plan)listed in their entirety. However, we shall cite someof the best known. La Scala theatre is a world re- The Exposition, which will cover a total area of ap-ference point and symbol of lyric opera. Milan’s proximately 210 hectares, of which 110 hectarestwo powerhouse football teams, Inter and Milan shall be for Exposition areas and other activities,are always a force to be reckoned with at any in- will be located on a stretch of land adjacent to theternational soccer event. Leonardo da Vinci’s Last new fairground complex in Rho Pero. The eventSupper is a primary destination for myriads of tou- will open on May, 1st 2015 and close definitely onrists from all over the world. Milan is also enga- October, 31st 2015. One or more visiting days willged in flourishing international business relations be organized before the official opening date, forvia its outstanding and universally recognized special categories of guests such as press repre-fashion houses. Its public institutions, such as the sentatives.Milan Trade Fair and the Chamber of Commerce,are very active in developing international trade According to BIE** estimates, the number of exhi-relations. Fiera di Milano has established 43 fo- bitors requesting to participate in Expo 2015 Milanreign offices, which maintain stable relations with will fall into the range of 175 to 190. The above64 different countries around the world. Through total includes at least 120 guest countries, the Ita-its Promos network in 17 different countries, the lian Government, 20 Italian Regions and nationalMilan Chamber of Commerce implemented more organizations, 10 international organizations, andthan 100 internationalisation initiatives. 25 corporate exhibitors, for a total of 175 partici- pants.According to Istat* , in Lombardy, tourist come infirst place for Business travels, second for 1 to 3 As a general quantitative reference, we take intodays trips and just then the region is recognized account the information in the Dossier from BIE ofas an attractive pole for leisure activities with an the expected demand for the Expo 2015 (29 mil-over 4-day stay. Milan offers in terms of hospitality lion visitors), updating it with the last news on thearound 1000 receptivity structures including ho- expected demand. Focusing on our target definedtels, Bed and Breakfast, Renting Housing, Hostels as “new populations” we will use as a referenceand Farm Accommodation, which represent a very the research done by the Team A about the visi-small part of the total. In Lombardy, 4 to 5 stars ho- tors’ profile and forecast. From our focused rese-tels represent 54 per cent of the offer (Rome 48%), arch, we have found that these “new populations”while 1 to 2 stars hotels represent just 8% of the are interested in non-traditional accommodationtotal accommodation (Rome 15%). such as camping or couch surfing in cities like Milan mainly because they seek a different experience.Summing up, there is a significant gap between Other reasons expressed are related to the lowerdemand and supply. In the urban regions most cost, to way to socialize and meet new people andof the touristic structures are not adequate both an enjoyment of the outdoors and new contexts.from a qualitative and quantitative point of viewfor all targets. Moreover, there is a lack of abili- Observationsty in answering to new populations’ needs. Thus, This chapter has pointed out the existence of an* ** Bureau International des Expositions 19
  • 19. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityunsolved demand of a new kind of accommoda- • Chamber of Commerce of Milan and Turintion to host the emergency situation of Expo 2015 Private Companies:visitors in the macro-region Milan-Turin that till • Oneworks (private construction company) has been seen as a potential developer of the solutiontoday isn’t answered. The request is bounded to proposed and is therefore interested in its feasibil-“new populations” who are looking for an alterna- ity in technical and economical terms.tive solution to their needs: experience, engage-ment and networking. Expo 2015 is an opportunity Public/Private Partnerships:for the city to promote its image of host-city in a • Assolombarda (institution gathering industry andmeaningful way that will leave a trace for future entrepreneurship organizations in the territory)development. Thus it must build up an accommo- has the aim of increasing the economical, social and cultural value of the macro-region to attractdation system to satisfy the demand of its tempo- new investments.rary citizens but giving an answer to the after-Expo • Investorsscenario. In the present work, an innovative an-swer to such question is proposed; sketching out Developers and Consultants:the main characteristics of an innovative typology • Boston Consulting Group, Accenture, Mc Kinsey.that could be added to existing resources of the They would confirm the effectiveness of the busi-macro-region to expand their hospitality offer but ness plan proposed and therefore the return on the investment.also that could be a flexible asset for the region forfuture needs. Users • Macro-region citizens, who have been considered the true owners of the output, especially in its3.3 Stakeholders post-event phase. For them it is necessary to cal- culate the after event legacy so to maximize its op-Since the first meetings we were asked to identi- portunities and reduce the costsfy the stakeholders of our project, some of them • Visitors, who are the temporary owners of the out-were already involved in our meetings as external put of the project; they have expectations regard-tutors and started contributing on the definition ing their Expo experience that need to be fulfilledof the project since the beginning, it was therefo- through a particular (customized/ personalized)re just during the 2010 ASP Winter School, leaded product-service Professor Bruno Dente, that we made a more Together with that it was listed also a series ofrefined analysis about that. The actors that at that practices, useful to improve the Expo positive ef-stage we had identified as involved in our project fects also in long term perspective:are the followings:Government: Public Policies to encourage Territorial Develop-• Ministry of Tourism, which will have to pro- ment:mote the Milan macro-region, spread information Territorial Promotion: Valorization of Milan territo-about the event and the macro-region opportuni- ryties, especially in terms of accommodation. Transportation: Encourage public transport, inte-Local Administration: grate public/private transport, develop ecological• Municipality of Milan (governmental institution in means of transport (bike sharing, car pooling, taxi the region) which will have to deal with the loca- sharing). tion of the solution according with the Urban Plan laws, will have to promote the Milan macro-region Guarantee a Certain Level of Demand: Strong mar- and optimize the already existing resources on the keting commitment with effective advertising. territory. 20
  • 20. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalitySecurity: Provide more forces to face the possible about the definition of new populations to whichrisks incresed by the flow of visitors in the city. address our proposal. The requests of this target had emerged from the questionnaire sent to theEconomical incentives: Encourage in an economi- selected sample of respondents*** .cal point of view the different iniciatives proposedby the private investors.Some of the stakeholders listed have shown duringthe further development of the project an increa-sing active participation and interest.Dr. Maria Teresa Broggini (Municipality of Milan)raised up the possibility of the creation of a societyof services for the management of the hospitalitysolution which, she stressed, couldn’t be done bythe Municipality itself by just financing it; moreo-ver she approved our idea of a link between theexisting Cascine’s network and the new hospitali-ty structures, and encouraging us to deepen thatpath she put us in contact with people working inthe census of all the existing structures.Assolombarda as well has always been very care-ful in noticing the feasibility of our project and haspointed up to us the importance of some steps ofthe business plan.EXPO2015 S.p.A., the institution in charge of thedevelopment of the Expo site, was moreover con-sulted when it was under discussion the potentiallocation of our interventions. The meeting wasuseful to have a better understanding of the Expo-site in its extended urban planning and approach.Together with them, other external tutors were in-terviewed according with the new aspects arisenby the deepening of the project. It is the case ofthe firm Ferrino with which we get in touch du-ring the design phase, when we start facing sometechnical problems. Thanks to the meeting withDr. Rabajoli (Ferrino S.p.A.), who gave us the con-solidated experience of who works in the field, wesolved important doubts. The visit to the 50° Salo-ne Nautico in Genoa helped us as well about parti-cular technical solutions.For what concerns our users we decided to adopt *** A broader explanation of the target was done by Team Athe results of the research conducted by Team A and is further developed under the title “Target” 21
  • 21. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality 4. DESIGN PROCESS 4.1 First ideas on possible solutions: An- nexes, Pay per Sleep, First booking, Temporary Hosting Camps Objectives assigned to the team The project explores a topic which will be in the agenda of public actors and at the same time at the attention of private developers in the next ye- ars. The Milan Expo 2015 event will attract millions of people (20 millions are expected according to the official documents of the Expo board) and the impact on public policies - on one side - and on real estate sector strategies- on the other side - will be very strong. In 2011 Torino (together with Milano, Firenze, Roma) will host the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the Unity of Italy. The- se events will be characterized by important urban transformation and by exceptional incoming of vi- sitors. Our object of study, the theme of Innovative ho- spitality typologies, has been introduced in the Project program raising the following questions: how can we experiment innovative formats of structures for hospitality, which allow to better match the demand of different people attracted by great events, especially non-traditional “popu- lations”? Can we think about new typologies of physical structures, integrating different functions and activities, with characters of flexibility, possibi- lity of re-use according to the changing demand? From the starting point to the different phases of the problem setting of the project we were fasci- nated by key words like flexibility, innovation, ho- spitality, sustainability in relation to the architec- tural and business aspects of the project. In the contemporary city community dynamics are very strong, with difficult effects to forecast on traffic and mobility services and on tourism services. We were as well intrigued to understand which new, non traditional actors could be included in an in- 22
  • 22. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitynovative pattern of profit and non-profit entrepre-neurship to realize innovative typologies. This kindof project may be faced as a typical innovationprocess: the focus is on the actors that may helpus to design something new and not only on thefinal users.The present Milanese region does not provide ahospitality option to “new populations” in order tohost the visitors during Expo Milan 2015. Moreo-ver we understood that there is a need for true su-stainable solutions in terms of absorbing the peak Picture 11: System Map_Cell Managementdemand in great events thinking in the future ofthe investments done. We see that, it is an oppor-tunity for the city to improve its offer. We aim todevelop a long-term strategy for re-using the ho-sting structures built up for the event, promotinga sustainable paradigm of receptivity based on exi-sting resources, building a legacy in terms of cul-tural exchange among young people, citizens andforeigners, connecting new stakeholders.First possible outputs related to the specific themeof our ASP project Picture 12: System Map_Cell Re-use• Meta-projects of innovative hospitality structures• Repertoires of innovative formats• Site specific projects in Milan and Turin and in their metropolitan areas• Low budget innovative and non-traditional hospi- tality proposals for specific targets of users• Innovative models of hospitality structures man- agementStarting from this first attempt of explaining thetheme of hospitality and temporariness, we cameup with different scenarios as possible approachesto the issue of hosting the temporary Milan Expo Picture 13: Overelevation - Annexes Conceptvisitors but also thinking on the future implicationsfor the city. Chain ReservationWe brainstorm about innovative hospitality solu-tions thinking about the impact and opportunities:Before-During-After Expo scenarios. We came outwith different proposals of architectural configura-tions and services : Picture 14: Chain Reservation Concept• Annexes, Over-Elevations, Attached Spaces. Use the 23
  • 23. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality top of the buildings to set either fixed of temporary ry Hosting Camps. hospitality structures, according with the “Piano Casa” new prescriptions, which attract particular 4.2 Places Where to Locate our Hospitality targets of visitors and make the locations part of a Offer circuit of interest for the callers. Some areas have been found that could be promi-• Pay per Sleep Service. Basic accommodation to give sing for the location of the proposed accommoda- accommodation on the move paying just for the usage time for short time visitors. tion solutions during the Expo. The chosen areas are interesting due to the relation with the theme,• Full Booking. Develop a way to manage booking us- the possibilities to create new relations and renew ing strategies like last minute - low rates in order to the image of the region looking towards new pos- be able to absolve the demand changes. sibilities in the future. Moreover, these areas are currently developing projects on hospitality for the• Macro-region Chain Reservation. Development of 2015 Expo Milano and are backed by our reflection a chain of hotels located in the macro-region that gives the opportunity to have access to the differ- on the research done together by the Team A who ent branches while discovering the macro-region focus on the target and the localization. After the circuit-tour. meeting with Dr. Maria Teresa Broggini (Munici- pality of Milan), potential localization place were• Temporary Hosting Camping. Basic structures easy suggested could be some selected farmhouses to assemble, for the accommodation of groups. An out of the 58 cases* as well as the park areas as accommodation in between the already existing the Green Way Lombardia or Parco della Via d’Ac- basic tents or the more fixed containers, both from the structural point of view and in terms of costs. qua, which are part of the valorization research A new concept of unit that will go to compose the projects of the Municipality of Milan. Our propo- emergency camps, reusable for great events or as sed solution will act as a support to existing activi- first shelter for immigrants / refugees / militaries. ties to extend the offer and give a better response to the peak demand. The locations where to set-Our first idea was to create a business model which tle it could be promising points to set temporaryallows us to develop all of the five concepts in pa- hospitality offers, expanding the knowledge of therallel fulfilling the total amount of hosting demand visitors about the region and creating new localthrough different percentages of each proposed opportunities for future development.solution. However, after deepening the approa-ches, we have realized that each proposal was toodifferent from the others and needed a separatestudy. We found conflicting elements and very di-verse objectives. For instance, the solution whichinvolves the Piano Casa would need a legal consul-tancy to understand how we could take advantageof it in our idea of annexes and over-elevations inthe Piemonte-Lombardia macro-region. We soonrealized that its feasibility would be compromisedby the difficulty of the management of a multipli-city of private micro-intervention all different onefrom the others. Picture 15: Settlements’ TyphologiesThe proposal that, together with the tutors we de- * Stefano Boeri (Multiplicity.lab), Le Cascine di Milano Ver-cided to follow was finally the one of the Tempora- so e Oltre Expo 2015, AGF, Milan 2009 24
  • 24. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityThe Expo will be a great opportunity to exploit the Transitional shelter: shelter which provides a ha-experiential marketing, that means to leverage on bitable covered living space and a secure, healthythe Expo as a window to guarantee visibility to the living environment, with privacy and dignity, tosolution proposed and the places where it will be those within it, during the period between a con-located. The customers hosted in those places may flict or natural disaster and the achievement of awant, after their stay, to come back in the future or durable shelter least share their experience to a bigger networkof people. Settlement: a community of covered living spa- ces providing a healthy, secure living environment with privacy and dignity to those groups, families, and individuals residing within them.4.3 Different Definitions of Temporariness Related to Accommodation Solutions Shelter sector: abbreviation of the term ‘site selec- tion, planning and shelter sector’, describing thatThe term ‘transitional settlement’ (TS) has been part of the ‘transitional settlement sector’ whichdefined by a peer review process initiated by Shel- responds to the transitional settlement and shelterter Project and continued by Shelter Centre. It me- needs of refugees, within the mandate of UNHCR.ans: Shelter: a habitable covered living space, providing“settlement and shelter resulting from conflict and a secure, healthy living environment with privacynatural disasters, ranging from emergency respon- and dignity to those within it.Shelter system: these to durable solutions.”** combination of structural shelter items and ‘shel-The word originates from an approach which ex- ter NFIs’ (non-food items) which create shelter,tends beyond the traditional response, with its such as tents with locally procured blankets andlimited focus on the provision of planned camps. mattresses, and possibly stoves, appropriate to aThe new approach considers the wider impacts cold climate.of settlement and the options for settlement, em- Provisional: that is not definitive, long-lasting, sta-phasizing the need for a transition to durable set- ble, to be replaced or modified.tlement solutions and local development. Temporary: that has limited duration, which is notTransitional settlement: settlement and shelter final.resulting from conflict and natural disasters, fromemergency response to durable solutions. Temporary home: can be regarded as such a home lived in temporarily for a specified period, you canTransitional settlement sector: the field of pro- identify it with the holiday home or the rentedviding settlement and shelter in the context of houseconflict and natural disasters, from emergencyresponse to durable solutions. Aim: communi- Provisional home: is an answer to an emergencyties, families, and individuals affected by conflict (floods, earthquakes), to an exceptional event. It’sand natural disasters should be afforded, together an emergency home, prefabricated, built quicklywith any hosting populations, TS support to ensu- and destined to their security, good health, privacy, and dignity,appropriate to their needs. Ephemeral home: is a prototype, a model that can be real or virtual, and retaining an image always new. It uses perishable materials because it has to** Sphere Project, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum last a short time, such as prefabricated houses andStandards in Disaster Response, Genève 2004 demountable exhibition pavilions. 25
  • 25. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityTransitional Home: is a dynamic evolving system, al, and international relations;the transition from a conventional to a new way • Specialists sector effectiveness; strategic, govern-of living.*** ment, and donor relations • Other sectors of response sector effectiveness, de- pendent on settlement options4.4 Stakeholders present in Disaster Re- • Development workers operational continuity and sponse (a possible scenario where to use the assessment, monitoring, and evaluations hosting units ) • Suppliers / contractors economic stability; capac- ity; government and international relations • Media economic stability; local, national and inter-It is useful to consider the similarities and differen- national relationsces in the interests of stakeholder groups affectedby transitional settlement. This might help to de- International:velop common operational guidelines which could • Donors, which control strategic effectiveness, local,improve co-ordination and co-operation between national, and international relationsdifferent organizations in the field. • United Nations bodies, that lead strategic effective- ness; local, national, and international relationsStakeholder groups which stake in transitional set- • International non-government organizations (IN-tlement includes: GOs), which focus on local, national and strategic effectiveness; impact through sector range; local,Local: national, and international relations with popula-• Displaced and local populations, whose stake in tions, governments, donors, and the media transitional settlements includes: security; surviv- • Peace-keeping forces, which guarantee internal al and health; social needs, including privacy and and external security and stability; population mo- dignity; livelihoods, including economic stability; bility. natural-resource management; communal service infrastructure, including transport. In the year 2004, the United Nations High Commis-• Community-based organizations (CBOs), which sioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that there have: capacity and skills; relations with local popu- were 20 million refugees living worldwide . In ad- lation, local and national government, national and international aid community, and donors. dition, 25 million people were displaced within the borders of their own countries and were thus clas-National: sified as Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The• Host governments, which stakes internal and ex- provision of well-planned settlement solutions for ternal security and stability; political and economic people who have been displaced by conflict or na- stability; national service infrastructure; national tural disasters is crucially important. construction industry• Police and military, which provides internal and ex- ternal security and stability; population mobility• Local non-government organizations (LNGOs), which have capacity and skills; relations with popu- lations, CBOs, local and national government, in- ternational aid community, and donorsNational and international:• Coordinators strategic effectiveness; local, nation-*** Daniela Cardace, Elisabetta Quaglino, Dall’esperienza diautocostruzione ad Arcosanti alla progettazione di un modulo abi-tativo, Master Thesis, Politecnico di Torino, Relator: Comoglio Mari-tano N., Correlatore Aghemo C., Turin, July 2008 26
  • 26. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality4.5 A reflection on the Creative Dynamics We did find that, from the consulted bibliography of our Design Process* as well as from the meetings with involved actors like Municipality of Milan, Milan has important un-ASP projects have the characteristics of joining solved issues to absorb the demand on hospitalitydifferent disciplines in a group to push innovative during the coming EXPO. However to set the pro-solutions. In our case, our subgroup was formed blem more questions have to be made since weby a manager, economics and industrial engineer, had to define the uncertain environment; e.g. the3 architects who were drowned to, what seemed number of expected visitors went down by 10 mil-an architectural based project: EXP-HOST, Great lion during the project development; the forecastevents and hospitality - Milan Expo 2015 and Turin of the real effect on the city of the event can onlyItalia 150, and a product-service system designer. be measured by the experience itself.Behaviorists link creativity with ability to genera- After a general research on past Expos and theirte new associations with different semantic areas solutions we brainstormed possible outcomes ofthat are distant from the problem to solve. Thus, the project. This creative session brought manyjoining different disciplines and countries as in the interesting elements, even if not all the mem-ASP group provides a flourishing environment for bers were used to use this “not judgment” tool.divergent thinking. However, it also poses a bigger We were able to freely put out ideas that did notchallenge for cooperation. Choosing from propo- come out from pure analytical deduction. First, thesed tracks was one of the first social conversations distinct discipline’s approaches brought differenton the multidisciplinary group. It was clear that, ideas which allowed us to see many possibilitiesin a group formed mainly by architects, there was for innovation. Second the interdisciplinary aspecta preference on the track: Innovative Hospitality played an important role to build on each others’Typologies. Other proposed tracks such as the Ap- ideas, creating innovative concepts to explore.plying tracking technologies in urban design andplanning were less popular. After putting out our In this “social conversation” we probe several wayspreferences our group agreed to focus on innova- of defining and dealing with the problem. We usedtive hospitality structures. analogies and built “possible worlds” which helped us to diverge and find new associations to appro-Even if the project was outlined by the tutors, a ach the problem and to reduce the ambiguity ofbig part of the design process was the problem the topic. Starting from this first attempt of explai-setting. With mainly an architecture and design ning the theme, we came up with different scena-background we were aware that the process of rios to approach the issue of hosting the tempora-design, as Lanzara** explains, has characteristics ry Milan Expo visitors and its future implications.that cannot be easily deducted functional analy- For instance, we proposed a scenario where thesis of a complex problem. So, in the first stages Milanese urban context would grow with attachedof this compound process, at the core of the di- spaces, over-elevations of existing buildings. Ho-scussion were the relevant problems themselves, wever, we decided to focus on another scenariomore than how the problems were to be solved. that we saw had a greater potential for the city. We adopted the strategy of the “as if”, focusing* Extract from the Paper “Creating a social Conversation” on the metaphor of “great events as an emergen-by Yanina Guerzovich, presented for the 2010 Summer ASP School cy for the city”, since the Expo has an incredibleon The Dynamics of Creativity. social, economic and institutional implications for** Giovan Francesco Lanzara, La progettazione come indagi- the hosting city. So, in an iterative way, we triedne: modelli cognitivi e strategie d’ azione, s.l. 3:335-367: Rassegna to know the Expo through an emergency situationItaliana di Sociologia, 1985, Vol. 26. and solution and vice versa, using our pre-analyti- 27
  • 27. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitycal ability of thinking metaphorically in terms of si- relation. Going to the Shanghai Expo allowed tognificant imagines of scenarios that even if simple, link ideas and data to sketch a solution that couldillustrated the complex relations of the city, the vi- expand the hospitality offer and be a flexible futu-sitors and the event. re asset for the region. Especially in this phase, as Lindblom would say, we made use of scientific andAs Balducci explained, even “the given problem ordinary knowledge to question our project. Thedefinition is challenged”***. The different meetings academic and data input given by the professorsmade us question if it was coherent to develop a at the Tongji University were as useful as experien-solution for the Turin Event or to focus on the EXPO cing first-hand the city with its language barrier, itsand even to just use the EXPO as the opportunity infrastructure transformation and economic livingto launch the proposal but to think in innovative for emergency situations in general. Theinitial “metaphors and frames [were] mobilized”. In the process of “sense-making”, the meetingDesigning meant to make the right links between with the stakeholders was the added element thatcognitive resources, our acquired and background made us go back to the process of inquiry to fra-knowledge, and our ability to act and take deci- me our decisions as they were discussed amongsions based on the interest and directions given by the different actors. It was a process of collectivethe different actors. inquiry. As Lanzara explains, the problem of design consists in coordinating the decisions and actionsThe proposals lead us to a new research on inno- of the many actors that move based on mixed in-vative typologies. We needed to reconstruct the terests. We had to cope with our own mixed inte-problems and build new combinations, going from rests as well as the diverse stakeholders that thedivergent moments to convergent ones to genera- EXP-HOST project involves. We had to be ready tote new solutions. Making an extensive research of quickly change the path and reformulate the con-the state of the art, as suggested by the tutors and cept and decide what we thought was the bestgroup members, was useful to understand what direction. We cooperated trying to transform thewas done to the date, clustering the existing cases problematic situation in a problem to which weto see advantages and disadvantages. We could could propose a solution, taking the collected in-say that “we use a method to save effort in the puts collected and re-thinking the outcome. It wasincoming work. With it we choose something, we only possible through a not linear design process.reject something, as furiously does a pig’s face, asit separates potential food in real food and waste” Furthermore, as Tagliagambe explains, an impor-Carlo Emilio Gadda, Meditazione milaneseii. Ho- tant part of the design process was mastering thewever it hindered our process of creation. Thus, as ability to “make the right questions” to the actorsC. Zucchi stated in his lecture, methods have to be involved and to ourselves (part of the auto-refle-taken thoughtfully, using them critically knowing xive activity). This was key to “draw the right con-what we need from them. clusions” in order to “see” the real object of study and to understand the particularities of the case. As Tagliagambe explains****, experience and Seeing gave us a scheme of action to create moretheory are two aspects of a single and indivisible controllable hypothesis, Wall_s, as an approach to the solution, that attack a clearer network of ac-*** Reflecting on practice or reflecting with practice? Inter- tors, the Expo as an opportunity and a new asso-face, in Planning Theory & Practice. Balducci, A. and Bertolini, L. 4, ciation as a manager of the solution.2007, Vol. 8.**** S., Tagliagambe. L’albero Flessibile, la cultura della pro-gettualità. Milano : Dunod, Masson, 1998. 28
  • 28. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality 5 . S TAT E O F T H E A R T 5.1 State of the Art of Temporary Shelters. Comparison Table with Focus Charac- teristics for Each Examples When the Temporary Hosting Camp option has been finally chosen as the one that needed to be developed, the design process started from an ac- curate analysis of the existing examples already designed. It was decided to adopt some general criteria to select just few of the many projects found so to Picture 16: Swisstube by Wanger AG start a comparison from which to collect impor- tant suggestions and good practice examples. Those criteria are: • Contain some innovation, in terms of use, func- tional or technical characteristics • Being successful examples • Being note, having acquired some fame • After the selection each example has been evalu- Picture 17: Markies by Edward Bohtlingk ated on the basis of a Comparison Table, enlight- ening the aspects we wanted to focus on. We analyzed some interesting cases, which gave us some input for further development. However, the presented cases cannot be simply moved to the particular situation of the EXPO 2015. The Mi- lanese macro-region enables new opportunities for innovative development taking into account the theme of the EXPO, the new populations’ ne- eds and the region characteristics. Moreover it is a must to create a flexible solution that can be adap- Picture 18: Refuge Wear by Lucy Orta ted to the region and to the post-Expo moment as an asset for the city. Picture 19: Desert Seal Tent by A.Vittori A.Vogler 29
  • 29. 1964 1972 1973 1977 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1998 2001 2004 2005 2008 Ariech S., Eldar Daniel Ferrara, Mia Sir Norman Foster_Creek Marco Zanuso_Unità Shigeru Ban_Tende per il Shigeru Ban_Paper Log Edward Sean Godsell Dre Wapenaar_Tree Stutchbury & A. Vittori, A. S._Fiberglass Bini D._Binishelter Wenger AG_Swisstube Lucy Orta_Refuge Wear Ferrara Pelosi_Global Kadar Balint_Memo N55_Micro Dwelling L. Astorri_Casa Alveare Vean House and Retreat d’emergenza Rwanda House Bohtlingk_Markies Architects_Future Shack Tents Pape_Cardboard House Vogler_Desert Seal Tent Octaherdral Bungalow Village ShelterCOMPARISON TABLE OF SHELTER EXAMPLES NATURAL • • • • • • • • • • • • EMERGENCY ARTIFICIAL • • • • • • SEASONAL • TOURISM MOBILE • • • • • FINAL USE PRIMARY • • HOUSING SECONDARY • • • DEPENDANCE • • • EXHIBIT DESIGN USE OTHER • • • • • • TEMPORARY • • • • • • • • • • • • • TIME OF USE PROVISORY • • • • • • • • • • EPHEMERAL • • • • • • • REAL • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • NEED EPHEMERAL • FLEXIBILITY: ONE • • • • • • • • • • FUNCTION MULTIPLE • • • • • • • ABLE TO GROW • • • • • • • • • • DIMENSIONS NOT ABLE TO GROW • • • • • • • • • • • • • STABLE • • • • MOBILITY TRANSPORTABLE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SELF MOBILE • FLEXIBILITY: SINGLE • • • • • • • • • • • MODULARITY ADD UP • • • • • • • COMPLETELY ORGANIZED NETWORK • • • • • • BIG GROUPS RADIAL CENTERED • FUNCTIONALCHARACTERISTICS RADIAL NOT CENTERED MUTUAL RELATIONS TETRIS EFFECT SEMI ORGANIZED NETWORK • • • • • SMALL GROUPS WIDESPREAD AND DISPERSED • • • • • • • • RANDOM • • • • • • • • RECYCLABLE • • • • • • • FLEXIBILITY:USE SUSTAINABLE REUSED • • • • • • EVOLUTION REDUCE • • • • • • • • • • • NOT SUSTAINABLE • • • FLEXIBLE • • • • • PANTOGRAPH COMPACTING • • • • • • • • COLLAPSIBLE CONTAINER • CAPSULE • • EXTREME SOLUTION • CONSTRUCTION • • FIELD TENT TYPE TENT SAILING TENT • CIRCUS TENT REPEATING UNITS • • SET UP KIT ACCORDING TO THE CONTEXT INDIVIDUAL • • SOAP BUBBLE COLLECTIVE TRADITIONAL • • BUILDING PREFABRICATED • • • • • • • • • • • METHODS OTHERS • • • SPECIALIZED • • • • • • • • • ON SITE LABOR NOT SPECIALIZED • • • • • • • PILE STRUCTURE • • • • • HANGING • TECHNICAL WHEELSCHARACTERISTICS PICKETS • • • HORIZONTAL • • • • • • • • PLATFORM VERTICAL VACANT FLEXIBILITY: INDIPENDENT • • • • • • • • • • • • • RELATIONSHIP WITH • • • • THE WEATHER DEPENDENT RELATIONSHIP • • • • • FLEXIBILITY: F XI I ITY: AESTHETICALLY INTEGRATED WITH THE SOIL REALTIONSHIP WITH NOT INTEGRATED • • • • • • • • • • • • THE CONTEXT INDEPENDENT • • • • • • • • • • • TECHNICALLY DEPENDENT • • • • • • Light foldable structure, Structure in cardboard Pneumatic structure, Prefabricated hall in collapsable like a tubes, covered with Central self supporting exploits local available Container with doors Self supporting structure 92 cardboard tubes with Tensile structure to hang fiberglass made of package, custom frame Tent and thermal jacket canvas recyclable, similar Skeleton of steel Container with metal Self supporting folding Self supporting structure cylinder containing Truncated octahedron One piece prefabricated resources cre Concrete base, capsule horizontally sliding, 2 made of cylindrical rings polyurethane liquid, to trees fully openable STRUCTURE AND TIME OF ASSEMBLY/ DISASSEMBLY sandwich panels, d h l made of b b / l and d f bambu/clay d made of polyester and to the traditional tent, d f l d h d l sections, extensible parts bl frames to support the f h structure made of sheets in elements of recycled services and d l bl d f h l f l d d deployable with triangular f h l free made of sandwich d f d h ating an agreeable bl glass frame shell structures are in laminated wood and plinths made of beer with internal wood tetrahedron shaped natural polyamide easily mountable, made in fabric bellows roof of polypropylene 13mm cardboard elastic walls for extra standing panels panels, custom coatings internal climate in extracted telescopically longitudinal axes cases + sand, pvc roof elements trunk fibers/wood/durok or of poor and recyclable spaces hostile steel. materials surroundings.
  • 30. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality6. TOWARDS THE SOLUTION6.1 Key words 6.2 First Explorations and Approaches to the Cell ConceptThe design process started from a brainstorm ofkeywords we wanted to follow during the shape All the ideas emerged at this phase of the designdefinition phase of our concept. process were bounded together by the same cha- racteristics we decided to apply and which are the ones synthetically illustrated in the picture below. The examples that follow are the ones through which our final concept has passed through, each one has been analyzed in its pros and cons ele- ments so that in the following design phase some elements could be maintained and others overco- me. It will follow a short description and comment to the ideas we produced in order to define the definitive solution: Wall_s. Picture 20: Cell’s Characteristics Scheme XSCellul For this very first concept we focused on the chan- ce to aggregate more light and flexible modules into a fixer structure containing all the plants ne- cessary during the guest’s stay. The weaknesses of this idea were dimensions and weight of the fixed structure which would have lead to serious transport problems. The strength of the concept was instead the high-tech core of the cell, seen as separate entity at the service of a lighter structure. Picture 21: XSCellul Concept of High-Tech Core 31
  • 31. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality Picture 22: XSCellul Concept 32
  • 32. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityTubes & Fabric ConceptThe second strong concept emerged from our The initial spatial configuration of this concept wasbrainstorms was the one related to the use of very simple because of our goal to design an ex-simple, modularly joinable elements to constitu- tremely basic structure which would have neededte the structure of the cell. The tube shape was the less maintenance as possible (See Picture 26 nextour choice also for the opportunity it gave to host, page).rolled inside, pieces of fabric. The textile elementwould have slid into special guides in the floor After this phase it came the one in which we tri-and the ceiling of our shelter, forming its vertical ed to apply to the basic structure all the featurespartition. The base and the top elements would and devices that our target guest would require.have been the strong parts of the cell, giving to it Moreover a reflection on the experience that oura more stable aspect and also the general image guest would have lived inside our hosting moduleof something more resembling a little cabin than was taken into account. We decided that the rela-a common tent. tionship with the surroundings would have been the first thing to work on. The general shave pas- sed through different radical changes so to give a more appealing external aspect to the cabin. We re-thought about our concept as a visual buffer, a telescope toward the sky, which was the only un- contaminated view that could be seen from the inside, assuming that our object could have been Picture 23: Basic Elements constituting Wall_s First Concept placed virtually anywhere.The origin of this concept came from the view of abarrier pole and its reworking into an upper scale Simultaneously a deep research on the materialsstructure. in terms of performances, costs and technical cha- racteristics was conducted. In particular the tex- tile element was the more delicate one because of the thermal performance that it would have to guarantee combined together with some particu- lar dimensional and physical characteristics (little thickness so to be rolled inside the tubes, possibi- Picture 24 : Concept Element_Barrier Pole lity to be cut in different shapes, fireproof, possibi-The tube elements were moreover thought as lity to be colored or printed in order to guaranteepossible medium where to locate the necessary more chances of customization). Some innovativeplants. synthetic pneumatic materials have been valua- ted, like the ETFE, already use for the covering of the Beijing Water Cube, but discarded after a cost analysis which revealed its economical unsustaina- bility. Then it was evaluated the possibility to create a double skin made of an inner layer of fabric and an external additional covering made of polycarbona- Picture 25: Tubes Which Hosts Rolled Fiber and Plants te panels. The solution disregarded though our in- 33
  • 33. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitytent of compactness and didn’t guarantee enoughthermal performances so it was abandoned.The final solution is very similar to this last one,but contains some substantial differences repre-sented by the addiction of a more stable elementin the back of the structure which has the doublefunction of box for all the pieces of which Wall_sis formed and of an equipped wall inside the cellitself. The textile element will be constituted by anadvanced fabric made of inorganic Phase ChangeMaterial added to fireproof textile fibers. The lastconcept foresees moreover a ventilation unit, pro-grammable by each guest, working with innovati-ve use of PCM’s plates. (Picture 27 next second page)Amorphous Photovoltaic panels are moreover ad-ded to the ceiling of the structure to enhance itsenergy self sufficiency and its high tech aspect. 34
  • 34. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality Picture 26: Basic Cell Concept 35
  • 35. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality Picture 27: Wall_s’ First Shape 36
  • 36. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality7. WALL_SWall_s is an accommodation unit designed to host 2015 Milan Expo. The Expo event will be just theone person for limited periods. The flexibility of the testing field for Wall_s, whose features have beenmodule allows however its aggregation in multiple design to allow its reuse also in different contexts.units so to compose a virtually infinite number ofcombinations, according to the customers’ needs. The reuse scenarios that we selected as more fea-The target-user to which Wall_s is addressed is a sible and with more interesting economic returnslow budget customer, particularly sensitive to the are the followings:environmental issue and used to interface with • The employment of Wall_s as emergency shelterhigh-tech devices. after natural catastrophes. Thanks to its compact- ness, lightness and easiness of montage it can beWall_s conjugate high-tech devices, innovative sy- seen as interesting alternative to promiscuousstems of energy production and advanced mate- camp tents or expensive containers.rials with the aim of improving its energy efficiencyand guarantee to its guest the maximum thermal • Another important sector of possible reuse hascomfort in every season. According to the target been suggested by Ferrino S.p.A. itself which hasuser expectations, Wall_s has been designed so seen in the last years an always growing request from Camping sites to provide more stable accom-to make immediately clear its technical compo- modations, like cabins, to their clients (occasionalnent but also making use of natural materials, like travellers interested in the environment and eco-wood, that show its intent to be easily located also sustainability).in natural environments. The customization of The reasons are an objective raise of request ofWall_s has been moreover made possible by the such kind of lodging but also a will to increase theirtextile component, which can be provided in diffe- incomes through more a costly offer. The requestrent colors and designs. of the camping owners is however of a more flex- ible solution that the container or the bungalow unit, because their renting season is limited and7.1 Destination of use they don’t want to face maintenance costs. A dis- mountable and storable solution like Wall_s wouldWall_s is born to supply the need of already per- fulfill their requirements.manent receptive structures, to enlarge their ho- • Wall_s minimal dimensions and its flexibility of ag-sting offer during the peak demand period of the gregation make it reusable also as exhibition stand 37
  • 37. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality in occasion of trade fairs.• Finally, maintaining its original purpose Wall_s can anytime become addiction to already existing sta- ble hosting structures.Any use that will guarantee the location of Wall_snearby a structure able to provide services like toi-lets and food will be feasible. 38
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  • 45. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality7.8 Plants since the production of microcapsules (more pre- cisely micro-encapsulated phase change materialsWall_s will be provided with amorphous PV panels MPCM), which represented a milestone in the de-located on the sloping roof which will collect enou- velopment of PCMs. In the 1980s the NASA under-gh solar energy to be sold to the public net and took basic research and development into PCMs,guarantee a free use of electricity for the guests’ entering into partnership with industry from 1988needs. The devices inside Wall_s which will need onwards.electric energy are:• A PCM ventilation unit providing fresh air, heating Thermally adaptable spacesuits and gloves for and cooling, individually controllable astronauts were developed that enabled the wea-• Two plug-ins for charging personal devices rer to withstand the extreme temperatures of ou-• A Wi-Fi router• Two lights ter space. Important patents followed in the early 1990s. In the context of building and construction,7.9 Durability the main application area is for conserving ener- gy.Plastic and polycarbonate panels together withaluminum tubes are long lasting materials, with PCMs are invariably made of paraffin and saltlow maintenance requirements. The textile com- hydrates. Minute paraffin globules with a diameterponent which forms the external enclosure is as of between 2 and 0 nm are enclosed in a sealed pla-well made of a durable fiber but it can be more stic sheathing. These can be integrated into typicaleasily damaged. Anyway its volubility can be taken building materials, whereby around 3 million suchas advantage using it as customizable elements of capsules it in a single square centimeter. As PCM isWall_s, planning a periodical change of it accor- able to take up energy (heat) without the mediumding to the client and the occasions. itself getting warm, it can absorb extremes in tem- perature, allowing indoor areas to remain cooler7.10 Phase Change Materials for longer, with the heat being retained in the PCM and used to liquefy the paraffin. As the tempera-Latent heat storage, also known as Phase Change ture rises, melting the waxy contents of the micro-Material (PCM), can be used as an effective means capsule, the paraffin changes from solid to liquid.of regulating indoor room temperatures. The good The same principles also functions in the other di-thermal retention of PCM can be used as a passi- rection: rooms that are cooling down stay warmve means of evening out temperature fluctuations for longer, while the molten paraffin gradually har-and reducing peak temperatures. It can be used dens, before losing warmth. The temperature levelboth for heating as well as cooling (e.g. to protect of the materials remains constant. The amount ofagainst overheating). energy that is taken up or released is considerable so that even a comparatively small mass has a lar- ge thermal retention capacity, with which tempe-The use of phase change materials is not new. In ratures inside buildings can be regulated. During aancient Baghdad, rooms were kept cool with the phase change, the warmth is retained latently forhelp of a natural PCM: ice. Research into PCMs as long as is required to change from one physicalhas been undertaken for many years. In the 1940s, state to another.first attempts were made to use PCM in buildingsin the USA, and in 1953 the first microcapsule waspatented, also in the USA. The widespread appli- During this process, the PCM absorbs a particularcation of the material has only become feasible amount of heat, the specific latent heat, equiva- 46
  • 46. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitylent to the amount of energy required to melt theparaffin. Instead of rising, the temperature of PCMremains constant. The process functions accordingto the same principle in the opposite direction –during a phase change PCMs are able to store war-mth as well as cold (known also as “free-coolingprinciple”).Energy is therefore stored while the material chan-ges from one state to another, whether from solid Picture 28 : Families of phase change heat storage materialsto liquid of from liquid to gaseous. The latent war-mth or cold, which effectively fulfils a buffer fun-ction, can be used for temperature regulation.Depending upon the PCM used, to regulate a 5°Cincrease in temperature, only 1 mm of phase chan-ge material is required in comparison to 10-40mmof concrete. The PCM has a far greater thermalcapacity: a concrete wall warms up much morequickly whilst the temperature of a PCM remainsunchanged. PCMs are available with differentswitching temperatures for different applicationareas. An added advantage, particularly on-site, isdue to their small size, the globular PCM containedin materials are practically resistant to damage. Picture 29 :PCM textileIn addition to conserving energy by reducing theenergy demand for heating and cooling, PCMs arealso recyclable and biologically degradable. Withregarding to the need to reduce CO2 emissions,PCMs offer a further nanotechnology-based op-portunity to achieve this aim. Latent heat storagesystems are already successfully used in transportcontainers for sensitive materials, in outdoor clo-thing, as a base component for creams as well asfor food wrappers*.7.10.1. Classification of PCMPCMs are categorized as Organic, Inorganic andEutectic materials. Organic materials are further* Sylvia Leydecker, Nano Materials in Architectu-re, Interior Architecture and Design, Birkhauser, Berlin Picture 30 : Heat storage system (ZAE-Bayern)2008. 47
  • 47. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitydescribed as paraffin and non-paraffin. Inorganic meet demand of heat recovery from the storagecompounds have a high latent heat per unit mass system.and volumes are low in cost in comparison to orga- Chemical propertiesnic compounds and are non-flammable. • Complete reversible freeze/melt cycle. • No degradation after a large number of freeze/An eutectic is a minimum-melting composition of melt cycle. • No corrosiveness to the construction materials.two or more components, each of which melts • Non-toxic, non-flammable and non-explosive ma-and freeze congruently forming a mixture of the terial for safety.component crystals during crystallization.Among the commonly used inorganic PCMs in the 7.10.3. Thermal Storage Unit and Air Exchanger Appli-range of 20–32°C we decided to use in Wall_s’ fa- cationsbric vertical partition the salt hydrate named Clim- Air heating systems are frequently used in indu-sel C23, which has a melting point temperature at strial buildings, offices, hotels etc., and are also23°C. Being an inorganic PCM, it is fireproof so that, becoming increasingly popular for private homes.added to fire resistant textile fibers, it will guaran-tee this important requirement for structures thatwill be necessarily placed in public places. The form of the latent heat storage material, for example granulate or plates, allows the material to be placed in any conceivable container and en-7.10.2. PCMs’ Properties sures a large heat transfer surface area, but lowThe PCM to be used in the design of thermal sto- pressure losses. The heat storage capacity is 3 to 5rage system should own desirable thermophysical, times higher than that of alternative thermal sto-kinetic and chemical properties, which are recom- rage materials such as stone, gravel or sand. Con-mended as follows sequently, the latent heat storage unit is relatively lightweight and requires limited space.Thermophysical properties• Melting temperature in the desired operating tem- The PCM ventilation unit in particular is a very perature range. innovative element that we decided to apply to• High latent heat of fusion per unit volume so that Wall_s. the required volume of the container to store a given amount of energy is less. The unit is composed by:• High specific heat to provide additional significant 1. PCM Plates sensible heat storage. 2. Heat Exchangers• High thermal conductivity of both solid and liquid 3. Fans phases to assist the charging and discharging en- 4. Space for Electronics ergy of the storage system.• Small volume change on phase transformation and small vapour pressure at operating temperature to reduce the containment problem.• Congruent melting of the phase change material for a constant storage capacity of the material with each freezing/melting cycle.Kinetic properties• High nucleation rate to avoid super cooling of the liquid phase.• High rate of crystal growth, so that the system can Picture 31 : PCM Ventilation Unit 48
  • 48. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityOperation: Dott. Rabajoli (Ferrino S.p.A.), during the meeting• Fresh and stale air enter in the unit at the company, listed us which were the most• Airflows exchange heat in the Heat Exchanger common requests that people hosted in tents do• PCM polishes the air temperature to comfortable after few days spent in there: levels, stale air is removed. • More privacy (people are usually hosted in promis-Working principle of the PCM (Phase Change Material) cuous spaces for 7/8 people which means at least• It has high thermal mass at 20-23°C 2 households).• It can store energy during its phase change (e.g. • Lockers where to store personal belongings. water and ice)** • More control on the inner thermal comfort.7.11 Comparison between Wall_s and Al- Usually to obtain such improvement of life-condi- ready Existing Solution in the Tempo- tions the solution proposed is the minimum habitat rary Shelters’ Market Share container. The table though underlines that those elements are much more expensive and have theFor a rough market analysis we compare Wall_s to important drawback that need to be transportedtwo categories of products, very distant from each and moved by massive or very expensive vehiclesother, but that are the most common solutions (cranes or helicopters),and in places where anused in case of emergency. emergency just occurred, it is not always possible to use such means.The examples selected are both produced by Ita-lian firms, located in the Piedmont area: Ferrino All the requirements of above are instead perfect-S.p.A. and SICOM. We choose particularly those ly fulfilled by Wall_s, which is moreover transpor-two products because of the contact we had with table by simple trucks and assumes much morethe producing firms themselves and because we affordable costs***.thought that an analysis focused on local existingoffers would have presented more realistic andcomparable data, also in the perspective of simu-lating the creation of a concurrent product, at firstlaunched in the market of this specific geographi-cal area.Trough the comparison emerge pros and cons ofeach of the three products and it is easy to seehow Wall_s responds to a market share in betwe-en the two examples thanks to its higher privacyand comfort standards (if compared to the tent so-lution) and its lower cost and easier storability (ifcompared with the container solution).** Marco Perino, Annex 44_Integrating Environmental-ly Responsive Elements in Buildings, State of the Art Re- *** Wall_s’ cost above has been deducted by a compari-view, Vol. 2A Responsive Building Elements, IEA-ECBCS, son analysis with already existing structures suggested by Ferrino2005. S.p.A. 49
  • 49. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality Picture 32 : Comparison Table Camp Tent/Wall_s/Container 50
  • 50. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality7.12 Wall_s’ Experience around.Wall_s ‘ description, beside the explanation of its Beyond the settlements a big flexibility is contai-structural and technical characteristics, pass throu- ned in Wall_s itself: just collapsing the textile ver-gh the experience that the customer will live, once tical partition multiple units can be arranged so todecided to be hosted in it. host different kinds of households or groups of friends.What Wall_s guarantees to its guests are a basic(and consequentially cheap) kind of accommoda- The equipment provided to each customers inclu-tion, improved in comparison with similar typo- de another object that will allow a further persona-logies (campings, youth hostels,...) thanks to the lization in Wall_s use by its guests: the hammock.technological equipment of which it is provided It has been analyzed the use that Latin Americanand the link to the naturalistic environment where people do of this object, for whom it is daily em-it will be located. ployed not just for short naps but also as addingThose two aspects together will represent an in- bed in case of need. Wall_s guest will therefore betresting hosting solution for all those people invol- able to take advantage of a double mode of restved in environmental issue but that can’t renounce and to host an extra person.being always connected with their contacts’ net-work and that expect to live an EXPO experiencereally in line with its theme.Assuming that many Wall_s will be rented by tho-se hosting structures that want to improve theiraccommodation offer, articulated settlements willbe realized. The multiple possibilities of aggrega-tion that Wall_s offers will make possible the rea-lization of different shapes of camping, accordingto the customers’ requests. Circular aggregationswill be realized for those who prefer a shared ex-perience: the circles will be both private for groupsor families or heterogeneously composed by manyWall_s rented by singles or couples.More private options are composable by sprawlingWall_s on the area that the structure choose to oc-cupy.Once inside Wall_s, doesn’t matter which spatialconfiguration assume the settlements, privacy isguaranteed. Introspection is in fact been avoidedby placing the window on the sloping roof and thetextile partition will guarantee the necessary vi-sual protection. From the inside, the guest is notisolated from the surroundings: the visual connec-tion is always proyected towards the outside inview from the bottom up of the sky and the nature 51
  • 51. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality Picture 33 : Storyboard: Wall_s Customer Journey 52
  • 52. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality BUSINESS PLAN
  • 53. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality8. BUSINESS PLAN8.1 Executive Summary after the Expo). Hypothesising to get the units of product with the leasing formula and estimated allWall_s is an innovative way to provide hospitali- the main costs, the following results have been ob-ty in different cases, thanks to its easy assembly tained in the expected scenario:and disassembly. It is addressed to a low budgetcustomer, particularly sensitive to the environ-mental issue and used to interface with technolo-gy. The product units is able to provide hospitalityespecially enlarging the offering of already existingstructures such as Cascine, Hotels and any otherkind of structure that is able to provide services Picture 34 : Estimated Costs Tablesuch as toilets (Parks, Stadiums etc..).Wall_s conjugates high-tech devices, innovative Anyway, after the Expo and beside the Milan area,systems of energy production and advanced mate- it will be possible to extend the usage of Wall_s torials with the aim of improving its energy efficiency different countries and for different usages.and guarantee to its guest the maximum thermalcomfort in every season. 8.2 Product DescriptionThe design and the management of the “hospi- Wall_s is an accommodation unit designed to hosttality cells” is a way to cope with the demand of one person for limited periods. The flexibility of thehospitality, hard to estimate, that is typical of the module allows however its aggregation in multiplegreat proportion and sudden events. units so to compose a virtually infinite number ofThe Expo event is a great opportunity to lunch combinations, according to the customers’ needs.the product on the market and to increase the re-venues, leveraging on the impressive quantity oftourists that will be attracted by the event. Besi-des, many of them will be interested in the Expotheme, so they will be more sensible to the natureand will be more likely to test a different type ofhospitality such as the one provided by Wall_s. Picture 35 : Wall_sThe business is carried out by a firm that will be re-sponsible for the management and promotion ofthis new kind of hospitality supply. In practice, thebooking means and the interface with the possiblecustomers is provided by a website, through whichit will be possible to verify the availability and thepossible locations of Wall_s.Among the different types of revenues that canbe made thanks to the great flexibility of usage Picture 36 : Double Wall_sof Wall_s, three of them have been pointed out:travellers, exhibitions and emergency (during and The target-user to which Wall_s is addressed is a 54
  • 54. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitylow budget customer, particularly sensitive to the frames a view of the environment, focused on theenvironmental issue and used to interface with sky and other high elements like trees or buildings.high-tech devices. In this way the visual experience from the inside of Wall_s is the most natural as possible, preservedWall_s conjugates high-tech devices, innovative from artificial contaminations of the of energy production and advanced mate- The roof itself provides moreover a protection atrials with the aim of improving its energy efficiency the entrance thanks to its prolongation over theand guarantee to its guest the maximum thermal floor panels.comfort in every season. According to the targetuser expectations, Wall_s has been designed so 8.2.3 Equipmentto make immediately clear its technical compo- Wall_s’ refurbishment includes a single bed (2 x 0,8nent but also making use of natural materials, like m), a folding table and a lockable cabinet (1 x 1,5wood, that show its intent to be easily located also x 0,57 m) where to store personal belongings. Toin natural environments. The customization of each guest it will be provided a cylindrical contai-Wall_s has been moreover made possible by the ner inside which they will find a mattress, a pillow,textile component, which can be provided in diffe- personal linen and a hammock. In this way high hy-rent colours and designs. gienic standards will be guaranteed. Moreover the container itself it has been designed to be turned8.2.1 Destination of use into a seat.Wall_s is born to supply the need of already per-manent receptive structures, to enlarge their ho- The hammock in particular is an extra feature pro-sting offer during the peak demand period of the vided to allow a more dynamic, personalized and2015 Milan Expo. The Expo event will be just the informal use of Wall_s, according to the experien-testing field for Wall_s, whose features have been ces of use of hammocks traditionally made by La-design to allow its reuse also in different contexts. tin American people.It will be possible to employ Wall_s as emergency 8.2.4 Plantsshelter after natural catastrophes, as cabinet for Wall_s will be provided with amorphous PV panelsdependants and guests of camping sites intentio- located on the sloping roof which will collect enou-ned to improve their offer, as exhibition stand in gh solar energy to be sold to the public net andoccasion of trade fairs and, maintaining its original guarantee a free use of electricity for the guests’purpose, as addiction to already existing stable ho- needs. The devices inside Wall_s which will needsting structures. electric energy are:Any use that will guarantee the location of Wall_s • A PCM ventilation unit providing fresh air, heat-nearby a structure able to provide services like toi- ing and cooling, individually controllablelets and food will be feasible. • Two plug-ins for charging personal devices • A Wi-Fi router8.2.2 Dimensions • Two lightsThe dimensions of the floor platform is 2 x 2,5 mand the average internal height is of 2,35 cm. The The PCM ventilation unit in particular is a veryinclination of the frontal wall, where the access is innovative element that we decided to apply tolocated, makes the inner perception dilated, espe- Wall_s despite it is still a prototype developed bycially when the person is lying. The sloping roof Delft University of Technologies.(front height 2,9 m, back height 1,8 m) hosts theonly open towards the exterior (apart from the The unit is compose by:access); the choice to put the window in this po- 1. PCM Platessition guarantees more privacy for the guests and 55
  • 55. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality2. Heat Exchangers walls.3. Fans • Two pieces of PCM fabric (Climsel C23 salt hy-4. Space for Electronics drate added to fireproof textile fibers), rolled inside each tube, which, sliding into special tracks on the floor and in the stiffening elements, shapes Wall_s’ vertical partitions. Those elements can be collapsed so that a bigger Wall_s can be composed by the juxtaposition of two or more modules. • The fabric chosen combines the inorganic PCM (Phase Change Material) named Climsel C23 (salt hy- drate) with fireproof textile fibers. In this way it is guar- anteed its fire resistance and a melting point tempera- ture at 23°C. • A wooden box constituting the back element of Picture 37: PCM Ventilation Unit Wall_s, which from the inside appears as an equipped wall containing the ventilation unit, the folding tableOperation: and the lockable cabinet together with the plug-ins and the lights. This element is moreover an important- Fresh and stale air enter unit structural element.- Airflows exchange heat in HE- PCM polishes the air temperature to comfortable lev- 8.2.6 Transportels, stale air is removed When disassembled Wall_s is contained into a sin- gle parcel measuring 2 x 1,8 x 0.57 m, and weigh-Working principle PCM (Phase Change Material) ting 150 Kg. This means that it can be easily tran-- High thermal mass at 20-23°C sported by truck or container. Into a container 20’- Stores energy in phase change (e.g. water and ice) box can be stored up to 14 Wall_s, while into a con-The thermal storage capacity of PCM between 18 tainer 40’ box can be loaded the double amountand 23˚C is about 40x larger than concrete. (28 parcels).8.2.5 Structure The weight of the box allows its handling by justWall_s is made of several elements all storable two people.into the 2 x 1,8 x 0,57 m box which once emptied 8.2.7 Assemblyconstitutes itself part of Wall_s’ structure. All the elements that form the structure of Wall_sThe components of Wall_s are: can be mounted by just two non specialized on- site labor through simple grooves. The only tools• 15 adjustable metal supports which distribute required to do this operation are simple wrenches,the weight of the cell and are adaptable to different screwdrivers and hammer.ground conditions• A raised floor made of four snap-together plas- 8.2.8 Durabilitytic panels (1,25 x 1 x 0,15 m each), which can be filled Plastic and polycarbonate panels together withwith water to increase the stability of the structure.• A sloping roof in polycarbonate panels (2 x 0,4 aluminum tubes are long lasting materials, withx 0,1 m each), two of them are transparent and can slid low maintenance requirements. The textile com-into guides and be opened from the inside becoming a ponent which forms the external enclosure is aswindow, the other five are instead covered with amor- well made of a durable fiber but it can be morephous PV panels which collect the energy needed by easily damaged. Anyway its volubility can be takenWall_s’ guests during their stay. as advantage using it as customizable elements of• Two aluminum tubes fixed in apposite holes Wall_s, planning a periodical change of it accor-in the floor and joined to special metal stiffening ele-ments, which give the inclination at the perimeter ding to the client and the occasions. 56
  • 56. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality8.2.9 AggregationWall_s module is a single unit apt to host just oneperson. Juxtaposing the longer side of two Wall_sand removing the textile elements can be createda double unite and so on for a triple, quadruple,etc without requiring the addition of any otherelement.Wall_s module is designed in order to be aggrega-ted into multiple conformations. The simplest oneis the juxtaposition of more units forming a row.Then there is the aggregation in more private cir-cles thanks to the adding of a textile element thatcreates an external angular. The minimum numberof Wall_s required to form a circle is 12 but big-ger ones can be adapted. In the circle aggregationit is guaranteed more privacy in the internal spa-ce while the view from the inside of each Wall_sis projected towards the outdoor. Finally organicaggregations are possible which form “S” shapedrows and multiple kind of courts open on one sideto the surroundings.According to what stated until now, the followingtable summarizes the main pros and cons relatedto the usage of Wall_s.8.2.10 Pros and Cons Picture 38: Pros and Cons Table 57
  • 57. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality8.3 Strategic Plan te on a segment that is slightly different from the previous ones, for the needs it satisfies and for the8.3.1 Mission way it does it. For this reason, there is no one di-The design and the management of the “hospi- rect competitor, but there are some substitutivetality cells” is a way to cope with the demand of products that may jeopardize its business. The cri-hospitality, hard to estimate, that is typical of the tical issue to understand is that wall_s is not simplygreat proportion and sudden events. It is neces- a place where to spend some time, but it is a placesary to provide a low cost alternative to host peo- where the customers live a completely differentple that can’t afford or even don’t want to stay at experience of hospitality, in direct contact with na-hotels. Besides the attention for the single custo- ture but without renouncing to technology.mer, it is important to provide a structure that canbe easily reused for other intents after the end of Said that, it is not difficult to find suppliers for thissuch great events. Therefore, it becomes very im- business, because the cell is made of simply to as-portant assure other characteristics such as being semble parts that are easy to produce. Besides,easy to assemble and disassemble, transportable, the material used to compose the furnishings andall of these mixed with an attractive and functional the sideways shelter is easy to find and even if it isdesign. expensive for its high tech fabric, it can be reused after dismissing the product, with a high terminal value. It means that it is quite easy to find a sup-8.3.2 Objectives plier that will want to manufacture wall_s.The mission of this vision can be divided into thefollowing objectives: 8.3.4 Strengths&Weaknesses• Enter the market with an innovative product, Wall_s, for its nature, is easy to assemble and di-for usages and structure smount, so easy to move and stock. At the same• Provide a hospitality cell to cope with the de- time it is a high tech product since thanks to itsmand for accommodation of a specific target (low cost) components is able to guarantee an adequate at-and related to great events (such as Expo or Olympics) mosphere and temperature to live a great hospi- tality experience. It is possible even to leverage• Provide a cell that can assure possible future on the feature to auto produce electricity for theusages: place for temporary exhibitions, enlargement most common needs (cell phone charge, Internet,of already existing places and shelter during disasters etc…).• Take advantage of the Expo as a great “win- On the bad side, it is not right a hotel, so it willdow” for the product, in a such way the future demandcan be stimulated, in order to make this project more suffer for comfort, safety respect to fix structures.profitable Besides, it is possible to locate wall_s nearby other structures that provide utilities and hygienic servi-8.3.3 Business analysis ces. Anyway, the fabrics and the materials of which Wall_s aims to be the first mover of its new mar- wall_s is made up are excellent to satisfy all theket. Its target is to satisfy the needs of precise kin- needs and expectations of the customers hosted,ds of customers: low cost and low budget travel- as stated before.lers, green related experience interested people,integrated in the city and flexible customers. 8.3.5 Opportunities&ThreatsThe similar markets are the ones referring to the Moreover, the business seems to be very intere-low cost hotels such as hostels, and the one refer- sting because there are a lot of opportunities thatring to the camping. But, wall_s wants to compe- can be exploited. Here a list of the most relevant 58
  • 58. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityones: 8.3.6 Strategy The firm that promotes wall_s is in charge of theCascine: a great possibility to explore is the possi- purchase and of the management of the cells, bothble market presented by the “Cascine”. The owners during the Expo period and after it. The idea is toare experiencing a planning period of great expan- generate a sort of distributed centre of hospitalitysion in order to make profit by the Expo events and throughout the territory, according to the custo-all its consequences. Wall_S is a great way to ex- mers needs and expectations, in terms of location,pand the demand for hospitality in these cascine, cell shape and possible services.without jeopardizing their structure: in this way,the owners can host more people in the periods Therefore, the following phases are defined:of peak of demand and not invest into permanentstructures that may result not economically sustai- Expo Phase:nable after the peaks. Similarly, this concept maybe applied to different situations such as stadiums, In this phase, the principal target is represented byuniversities and parks, private or public ones (all the travellers, arrived in Milan for the Expo. A keythese possible businesses – to install the cells - aspect is the proper location of wall_s in order toneed agreements between the parties, that have integrate them with the surrounding urban textu-been considered in the financial plan). re, leveraging on the idea of eco-sustainability that is the main theme of the Expo.Neo-nomadism: it is a new opportunity that canbe exploited, in fact there is a remarkable tenden- Therefore the principal objective is to attract thosecy of people to meet a new life style that is not visitors, hopefully international in order to contri-made up of permanent assets but it aims to collect bute to the re-evaluation of Milan as a green city,experiences, findings, emotions, like those ones and not just connected to the industry, finance orprovided by a hosting experience as in Wall_s. fashion, visitors that are interested in the environ- ment and want to live an experience in direct con-The greatest threat for this kind of business is the tact with related one: after the Expo, and any kind ofsimilar great events, the overall demand can decli- In this phase, a great opportunity to exploit is thene. The usage of Wall_s is mostly related to great experiential marketing, that means to leverage onevents. Anyway, the usage of subassemblies and the Expo as a window to guarantee visibility to thethe simplicity to disassemble and reuse for a wide cells for potential customers, that may want to tryrange of purposes, make this threat lighter and ea- the cells in the future.sily controllable.To summarize: Besides Expo: This second phase is focused on attracting other targets such as temporary exhibitors, occasional travellers interested in the environment and eco- sustainability, and finally the possible customers coming from the usage of the cell like an emergen- cy house. In this phase, it will be possible to esta- blish some agreement with universities, stadiums and other institutions that want to expand their offering of hospitality or want to hold exhibitions Picture 39: Strength/Weakness/Opportunity/Threats Table in new spaces such as the ones that are possible to 59
  • 59. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitycreate thanks the union of more cells of wall_s. gardens and refreshment or dining spaces. Besi- des, this green path puts in connection differentThe two phases are not necessary following: they parts of Milan, from the centre to the suburbs,may partially overlap, but a different allocation of then flows up to regional areas, crossing the Exporesources seems proper because the first phase settlement.would last just 6 months, in accordance with theExpo period, during which a lot of marketing ex- Therefore, it would be very favourable to locatependitures will be done, while the second one may some cells throughout some parks in the north oflast many years, until when the business plan re- Milan (Parco Nord, Bosco in città etc…) taking ad-sults economically convenient: it is clear that the vantage of the “green way”, transports and greenmain revenues are collected during the period in environment, all aspects that contribute to live awhich the greatest flow of visitors is hosted. completely “green” experience.8.3.7 Positioning (Brand) 8.4 Marketing PlanThe materials that have been used, the possibilityto easily move and re-use the cells without crea- Wall_s can be used as a temporary structure toting eco-monsters, the opportunity to take advan- host people (such as mostly during the Expo pe-tage of cycling roots and transports have to be the riod) and then it can be used for a great range ofkey points of a marketing campaign with the aim targets (“green trips”, exhibitions, disasters). In thisto generate a positioning in the customers’ mind, section, the analysis focuses on the principal re-aligned with the eco-sustainable idea, interest in venue streams, in terms of quantities per month,the environment and at the same time practicality that is possible to estimate for the next future, du-and design. The comfort and experiential side of ring and after the Expo.the cell is not neglected thanks to the high techmaterials and functions, provided by the compo- 8.4.1 Expo Visitorsnents used to develop a unit of Wall_S. According to data collected, 29 millions of visitorsSo the image that the potential customers should are expected to go to visit the Expo. From the ove-build in their mind is related to a cell that is able rall visitors, 14 millions (48,3%) are from the northto host people to live a great experience in direct Italy, and it can be deducted that they are difficultcontact with nature without renouncing to the to attract for being hosted in our cells. Just a littlecomfort provided by the high tech embedded in percentage of this segment can be considered.the cell. Beside, from the overall visitors, the 30% is expec- ted to be foreign. This is an important target to8.3.8 Location improve the image of Milan as a green city. AndThe location of wall_s is an important strategic fac- finally, another profile that seems to match thetor to consider. During the Expo phase and for all ideal customer is the “green researcher”. Accor-those travellers interested in the green aspect, the ding to the data collected, in the following table,proximity to the cycling roots and low impact me- the results of the different visitors quantities willans of transportation is crucial. It seems suitable be presented:to find synergies in terms of location (and maybemarketing) with projects like “Green Way Lombar-dia” that tracks a path internally to the urban areaof Milan that is going to be settled to be complete- Picture 40: Green Target Visitors Tablely cycling, very safe and fully equipped with wide 60
  • 60. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityAccording to this flow of visitors, if they will stay it can be inferred that about 1600 cells are neces-for an average period of 4 nights in the Milan area, sary to satisfy the estimated demand, since 1 cellthey will be 418 different people for each group of covers about 5 square meters. The results of thefour nights, that means on average 418 cells permonth needed to host this type of visitors, duringthe six months of the Expo. Picture 42: Visitors-Wall_s’ Number Analysis Table8.4.2 Travellers (After Expo) analysis are illustrated in the following table:To estimate this number, it has been consideredthe average number of visitors that arrive in Milan, Considering that the average duration of an exhibi-during the “normal” periods (without great Events tion is 10 days, it can be inferred that the averagesuch as the EXPO). On average the visitors are 1 need of cell per month is 200 units.million per month, instead during the Expo theyshould be almost 5 millions per month: it means After the Expo, it can be expected an average de-that the Expo caused and increase of 400%. Star- mand of about 100 cells for this purpose.ting from this data, we’ve reduced proportionallythe flows of green visitors, to estimate the number 8.4.4 Disastersof the green travellers that may arrive in Milan all The last quantity to analyze is the one referring tothe year along. The results of this analysis indica- the disaster. Normally this kind of emergency aretes that an average number of “green” visitors may managed by the Government and the Institutionsbe as following: like Protezione Civile. Because of the clear difficul- ty in the estimation of an approximate number of this flow, it has been considered that just the 5% of the overall annual revenue is due to this target: Picture 41: Green Visitors Table emergency. 8.5 Market strategyThe numbers refer to six months.Starting by this analysis, it can be inferred that 8.5.1 Productabout 83 cells per month may be requested, consi- Wall_s conjugates high-tech devices, innovativedering that each cell is suitable to host one person systems of energy production and advanced mate-and the average number of nights spent in Milan rials with the aim of improving its energy efficiencyis four. and guarantee to its guest the maximum thermal comfort in every season.8.4.3 Temporary Exhibitions For further information about the product, pleaseIn order to calculate the number of the possible read the description at the beginning of this busi-temporary shows that may be held thanks to the ness plan: product description.employment of wall_s, it has been conducted ananalysis to verify how many exhibitors attend the 8.5.2 Promotion & Placemain events on per year basis, and how many of Wall_s is an attractive product that may be usedthem are oriented towards issues such as Environ- in different ways, with the main objective to hostment and Green themes. Among the “green rela- people. As a consequence, the most appropriateted” exhibitions (refer to the table), we target at way to promote this product is to start a marketingabout 15% of them. Calculating an average surface campaign through the classic channels such as theof 80 square meters needed for a single exhibition, 61
  • 61. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityinternet and the travel agencies. Besides, anotherway to promote wall_s could be introducing theproduct during the main fairs held in Milan and allover the world, possibly the ones which are rela-ted to the Expo. In this way, the visitors can have alook at how wall_s looks like and how practice andcomfortable it is. Besides, these stands, located inthe fairs, may be used to collect ideas and prefe-rences about the precise locations of the cells, inthe Milan area. In this way, ahead of time, it canbe predicted which are the zones more requestedand, if among them, for example, there are some“Cascine”, it may be presented a request to the Ca-scina manager to place some of wall_s units.Moreover these channels, there should be an on-line platform, belonging to the firm in charge ofpromoting wall_s that illustrates in depth how itlooks like, how it works, the prices, the possiblelocations and the direct booking service. On thewebsite, it will be allowed to select one of the pos-sible location where to locate wall_s, to check theavailability of cells for that precise dates and lookfor alternatives. A possible rendering of the websi-te booking area is the following. 62
  • 62. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality 63
  • 63. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality8.5.3 Price 8.6 Operating and Organization PlanWall_s is a cell that provides hospitality for manypeople a year and has to be moved or enlarged In this section, there will be provided informationaccording to the customers needs. For this reason, about the firm, the location of the offices and wa-it is important to fix a daily price for person, like rehouses, together with the explanation of whatthe hotels business model. For this purpose, it has the society is precisely in charge of carrying outbeen conducted a market investigation to know this business, and what is done much people would be willing to pay to be First of all, the business is carried out by a firm thathosted in a cell like wall_s. The results of the in- will be responsible for the management and pro-vestigation show that the respondents would be motion of this new kind of hospitality supply.willing to pay € 24 to be hosted in wall_s, as thefollowing table illustrates: The nature of the firm may be a “Limited Liability Company” (Società a responsabilità limitata) be- cause of the dimension of the business and becau- se in this way the partners have their assets not affected by the analysed business and it will be possible to retain the profits in order to distribute Picture 43: Prices Analysis Table them during favourable fiscal periods. The firm will be in charge of buying the cells by a supplier andOther indications about the price have been de- managing the business during and after the Expoducted carrying out a benchmark analysis with the period.“substitutive products”, that is the closest availa-ble form of hospitality: hostels and “green” hotels. All the activities of cells manufacturing will be car-The investigation has been carried out through an ried out at the plants of the principal supplier.analysis of the prices for single room of 100 hostelsand hotels from 1 to 3 stars. The average price paid On the other hand, all the activities of manage-for hosting a person in a single room is: €57, as ment and administration will be developed in hou-shown by the following table: se, at the principal office in the suburbs of Milan, where it is possible to locate even the warehouse. In fact, it is sufficient to rent a small office where the marketing, management and administrative personnel can develop their tasks, not needing an office in plain centre of Milan, since most of the activities are to be carried out on the web or on Picture 44: Hotel Prices Analysis Table the phone.The most viable way seems to be first fixing a price The following activities have been identified andper day per person and then to verify in how long developed in house:the business is able to cover the expenditures. • Designing and planning: at least one engineerConsidering the results of the analysis carried out will be responsible for the design in depth of the cell,and the features and the characteristics of wall_s and of its possible manufacturing process.that on one hand are worthy of a premium price, • Logistics: the cells have to be transported frombut on the other hand are somehow lower com- the supplier plants to the stocks.pared with an hotel, it has been fixed the average • Assembly, Disassembly, Maintenance: It is aprice of a per day and per person hosting: €20. task of a specialized team to move the cells, according to the location desired by the clients (to choose on a 64
  • 64. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitypossible location map), to assembly them (at least the sible location of the cells.main component) and disassembly. The same team is • Maintenance Manager: He is the principal re-in charge of the maintenance of the cells. They may be sponsible of the teams that are in charge of moving thetwo or three teams by geographical zones. cells, locating them, and provide maintenance servic-• Booking: Through an online platform, it will be es.possible to book the location and the period desired, to • Maintenance personnel: They are responsiblevisit Milan and the Expo. This task is carried out inter- for the transportation of the cells and for the mainte-nally, thought a website that runs on a server. There are nance services.many firms that offers this kind of service: the manage-ment of the website will be internal, but the server and 8.7 Financial Planthe online space will be bought from a proper firm thatis specialized on these services. Flexibility is one of the key word of the concept on• Marketing and customer service: All the phas- which is based wall_s. This aspect is well reflectedes of booking and providing information will be carriedout by internet and by phone by trained personnel. even at the cost level, in fact it has been decided to keep fix cost somehow low and take advantageFor what concerns the hierarchy of the professio- of techniques such as leasing to make the initiativenal figures involved in this project, here following more is presented an organization chart and after it,each figure will be explained: In this section, there will be an estimation and a breakdown of the main costs related to the deve- lopment of this business idea. The personnel costs that are needed to face in or- der to carry out the business are listed below: Picture 45: Actors Dyagram• Project Manager: He is the principal respon-sible for the planning, developing according to the time Picture 46: Personnel Costs Tableand costs estimated, and he controls the progress ogthe project.• Marketing Manager: He is in charge of the de- The main fix costs are related to the renting of thesign and implementation of the marketing strategy offices and the warehouse. The offices are rentedand of the budget allocation on the different communi- in a special formula that lets to use some sharedcation channels. space with other firms’ offices. Another cost is the• Supplier Manager: He is in charge of maintain- one related to the design of the cells that will being the relationship with the suppliers, expecially with developed by the suppliers, but according to thethe one that provides up with cells.• Engineer: He is in charge of designing the prod- features defined by the hired engineers. The trucksuct and the manufacturing process of the cell. He is di- that are needed for the maintenance team are ren-rectly interfaced with the Supplier Manager and with ted taking advantage of the leasing formula.the supplier firm.• CRM Manager: He is responsible for the com-munication with the possible costumers, that is, the vis-itors and the possible Cascine (or other proper spaces)owners. Thought his team, it will be possible to bookand to require information about availability and pos- 65
  • 65. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityThe following table recaps the main fix costs: the experience to be hosted in a place like wall_s rather than in hotels. Another channel to attack is the internet: the banners, in proper websites, are very important to promote wall_s, and the firm’s website should play a central role in this task. Through the website, it should be possible to pro- Picture 47: Fix Costs Table ceed with the reservation and see all the informa- tion about features and qualities of wall_s. Here the marketing costs are presented:The cost of a single cell is estimated to be between4000 and 5000 euro. Such a great initial investmentmay raise the risk of the project and will need agreater initial financial effort. Since there is a bigterminal value of the products, that is, it is easy toreuse all the materials used to develop a cell, it can Picture 49: Marketing Costs Tablebe inferred that there will not big problems to finda manufacturer willing to provide us with the cellproducts since he will be able to reuse the mate- There are even other costs that are related to thisrials if the business fails. business: the firm should ask the municipality andThanks to these considerations, it has been deci- other institutions for the permissions to settle theded that the most proper form to be supplied of cells in their space: main universities, parks, sta-the cells is the leasing formula. It means that the diums, proper spaces. Finally, even the costs rela-society will pay a fix amount per month for a cer- ted to the usage of hygienic services of externaltain number of cells required. Basing on the data structures have been considered. Here the mainof the quantity estimated about the possible cu- costs related to these issues are summarized:stomers and given a single leasing contract priceper cell per month of 111 € (based on the estima-ted lifecycle of the product), the estimated costsfor the leasing contracts are: Picture 50: Other Costs Table Picture 48: Estimated Wall_s’ Costs Table After synthesizing the main costs, it is possible to estimate the financial need: € 1.245.700. Since the business is new and may look risky forThese costs refer to the average demand estimated the banks, it may be hard to collect money fromper month and consolidated on per year basis. the financial institutions. This is the reason whyAnother important centre of cost is the marketing: this business plan represents an opportunity to in-it is important to promote wall_s through proper form eventual business angels willing to contribu-channels such as show rooms during the most im- te to the development of this idea, together withportant fairs, in fact during these events it is easier the contact those people that are more comfortable In addition, it does not seem proper to illustratewith trips, hotels, exhibitions and may appreciate 66
  • 66. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitythe balance sheet since thanks to the leasing for- cost of capital of 15%. The results are listed in themula, there are not any permanent immobiliza- following table:tions and all the assets are in shape of cash whileall the liabilities are represented by the risk capitalof the partners (founders and business angels).That is the reason why the focus is on the Income Picture 52: Cash Flow Analysis Tablestatement and cash flows. 8.7.3 Investment analysis8.7.1 Income Statement According to the estimated data in the past sec-In this section, there have been estimated the pos- tion, some efficiency indexes have been calcula-sible revenues in the following 3 years after the im- ted, for the following three years. The results areplementation of the business idea. In the first year, summarized in the next table:the revenues are pumped up by the EXPO that forthe first six months of the business assures a greatflow of demand. Picture 53: Investment Analysis TableIn the following table, the revenues, costs and theearnings (before and after taxation) are summari- 8.7.4 Sensitivity analysiszed, as a projection of the following three years: In this section of the Business Plan, the main pa- rameters that influence the business revenues are analyzed and modified to establish a range in which the initiative can be considered as economi- cally sustainable. The following table summarizes the revenues, costs and profits according to the values attributed to the price and quantity (num- ber of cells). First, it has been changed the quantity of the co- Picture 51: Income Statements Table stumers per month. They have been reduced of 50% in the pessimistic scenario and increased of 50% in the optimistic scenario. The following table summarizes the obtained results: Picture 54: Scenario 1 Table Pessimistic scenario:8.7.2 Cash flow analysis Picture 55: Pessimistic Scenario 1 TableIn this part of the Business Plan, the cash flowshave been estimated. These flows are those that In this way, after 3 years from the first positive pro-will repay the capital used to make the business fit, the business becomes to be in loss (perpetuitywork. To discount the flows, it has been used a 67
  • 67. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityloss).Optimistic scenario: Picture 56: Optimistic Scenario 1 TableSecond, the price of the per-night hosting has beenchanged, giving the following results: Picture 57: Scenario 2 TablePessimistic scenario: Picture 58: Pessimistic Scenario 2 TableEven in this case, it is possible to notice the impactof a price reduction up to €15. Even if in the firstyear the profit is pretty positive, starting from thesecond year, when a much smaller flow of costu-mers is forecasted, there is a very light profit thatis flat in the following year, but meaning that after3 years, the profit gained in the year one will beeroded and it will result in a net loss after the year4.Optimistic scenario: Picture 59: Optimistic Scenario 2 TableThis is an optimistic scenario, that is hard to realizebut it lets understand the potential of this businessthat may produce a € 4M profit, if exploited andcarried out in the best way. 68
  • 68. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality Picture 60: Service System Map_Scenarios A-B-C 69
  • 69. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality Picture 61: Service System Map_Scenario A 70
  • 70. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality9. CONCLUSIONS The merit of this project is the one of having shaped a complete picture that goes from the production toThe output of this project has been reached after a the fruition, management and finally the reuse of thequite long period of research which has been neces- product: a good base for the implementation of thesary both to deepen our knowledge about the hospi- concept.tality topic and to learn how to optimize our personalbackground experiences and competences.The result of this process is a product that conjuga-te some important innovations on different points ofview: the more evident improvement in comparison tothe already existing products on this market share hasconcerned the technical equipment and the choice toapply to this product last generation materials; anotheradvancement has been done in terms of service. TheEXPO experience lived through Wall_s implies a way ofapproaching the vacations that responds to the trendof new segments of demand, still now fully satisfied interms of accommodation.Wall_s has moreover been developed from its conceptto its design in detail. Wall_s’ management and the dif-ferent scenarios of its re-use have interested the lastphase of the project that resulted in a detailed businessplan.The Milan Expo 2015 has been used as testing fieldfor Wall_s’ basic use as temporal accommodation, butother hypothesis of re-use has been drawn, which gofrom the emergency shelter to the space for exhibi-tions.All this process has worked in consequential and alwayswell targeted phases thanks to a constant contributionfrom our tutors and useful first hand advices from theexternal tutors, who have actively followed our designprocess. The experience on the field of the Internatio-nal EXPO of Shanghai 2010, and the metings with theTongji professors involved in its preliminary studies hasbeen another fundamental contribution to the outputof the project.The heterogeneous team has revealed its potentialityin terms of richness of cues and effort in the adoptionof not usual means of work. Each one of the partici-pants has had the chance to test the value of his com-petences and the increase of its potentiality in a dyna-mic contest.The result of this research doesn’t have the presum-ption to be considered completely developed: it is afirst proposal that deserves further studies to reinforceeach of the areas in which we entered. 71
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