Pros and cons of shifting cultivation


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I am working at KWS (Kenya Wildlife Service) in Malindi, as a volunteer of JICA. My job is teacher of environment. This presentation is about pros and cons of shifting cultivation.
There are many opinion about burn out forest and grow crops. So in this presentation I will present about the reasons why people burn forest and grow crops.

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Pros and cons of shifting cultivation

  1. 1. Pros and Cons of Shifting Cultivation~Why people practice shifting cultivation~ Takatoshi AKAI 231 JOCV/JICA KWS Malindi Marine Park
  2. 2. Outline• The present condition in the world• Pros of Shifting Cultivation• Shifting Cultivation in the world• Failed NGO activity• Cons of Shifting Cultivation• Real problem• Solution
  3. 3. Question• Do you think shifting cultivation lead deforestation, so we should stop it?
  4. 4. The present condition in the world• There are 250 million (250,000,000) people practicing shifting cultivation.• But, there are pros and cons to practice shifting cultivation towards sustainable development
  5. 5. Pros of Shifting Cultivation1. Soil in tropical zone, contained acid, which is not suit for agriculture. Mr. Acid Mr. Acid2. When we set off fire in forest, ash neutralize acid and it will also become fertilizer.
  6. 6. 3. Heat of fire wake up seed to sprout Wake Up!4. Fire will eliminate weed, insect pest, and germ
  7. 7. Shifting Cultivation in the world ←   Papua New Guinea Banana, taro, corn, sweet potato, beanBelize →Bean, cornEvery 5 years practiceshifting cultivation.Maya civilization also dependedon this shifting cultivation.
  8. 8. In 1983 Finland ( turnip )Malaysia (ginger)
  9. 9. Indonesia in 1990s Panama in 2000India in 2006 New Caredonia in 2007
  10. 10. Case Study: Hanunoo peopleHanunoo people in Mindaro Island, in Philippine, cultivate rice, corn in 1st year.Sweet potato, yam, cassava in 2nd year.Banana, abaca, bamboo, and fruit in 3rd year, by shifting cultivation.
  11. 11. Case Study: Hanunoo people• They will wait 8~10 years after shifting cultivation.• So there is no erosion.• After burn forest, soil absorb water more, so reduce water flow.• Also, after few weeks, timber and ash protect soil from erosion.
  12. 12. Misunderstand by NGO• NGO help people to stop shifting cultivation, and change into whole year field to increase productivity.• But, after few year, productivity reduced.• So, people use nitrogenous fertilizer, which cost a lot.• But, it will kill the land in few year.
  13. 13. Misunderstand by Company• Since 2002, Cosmo Oil Co. let people to stop shifting cultivation of rice in Philippine.• Then introduced cassava to grow.• This company create CM, which looks like shifting cultivation is bad habit.
  14. 14. Difference betweenShifting cultivation and Rice field 3 years 5 years 10 years 30 years Farming Gave up Secondary Thick bush grow forest forest Farming Farming Start to using Loss of fertilizer nutrient and rejected
  15. 15. Cons of Shifting CultivationShifting cultivation is productivity in 1st year,but from 2nd year, it reduce productivity every year.
  16. 16. Why productivity reduced?①Lack of phosphorus Shifting cultivation reduce phosphorus in soil. Phosphorus is one of the three important chemical to grow plants. nitrogen potassium phosphorus②Outflow of soil Forest act like “sun shade” for soil. Once forest dismissed, soil get easy to dryness. Then soil flow by wind and rain.
  17. 17. Real problem①3~5 years to grow 10~20 years to rest Every year to grow
  18. 18. Result ①Forest burn out before it recover ②Soil flow into river by rain③300,000,000people cannot stopwork for soil ④Draught
  19. 19. Real problem② Knowledge Since long time follow family family followed Less damageLack of knowledge Need to find out Much damageFarming for survive land to farming
  20. 20. Solution: Practice in Honduras• They are practicing “Allay Cropping”.• Plant tree in line, and between those trees, cultivate crops.• This tree named “Inga”, kind of bean tree.• It grow fast and provide much nitrogen in soil.• This tree make arbor, so weed faced difficult to grow.
  21. 21. • When it grow too much, people chop down and use it for fire wood.• People used to practice shifting cultivation and move around.• However, after this practice, they settled down in their place.
  22. 22. Conclusion• Shifting cultivation is one of the most eco friendly technique for farming.• Some people and NGO misunderstand about shifting cultivation, so education is required.• There are many farmers practice shifting cultivation in all over the world today.