Kyoto protocol & cop
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Kyoto protocol & cop

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I am working at KWS (Kenya Wildlife Service) in Malindi, as a volunteer of JICA. My job is teacher of environment. This presentation is about Kyoto Protocol and COP (Conference of Parties). Kyoto......

I am working at KWS (Kenya Wildlife Service) in Malindi, as a volunteer of JICA. My job is teacher of environment. This presentation is about Kyoto Protocol and COP (Conference of Parties). Kyoto Mechanism and COP17 in 2011, also post Kyoto is discussed.

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  • 目標達成への課題 194 カ国が条約に参加しているが、法的拘束力のある国は先進国 40 カ国のみ。 米国は先進国内で唯一批准 途上国 150 カ国は数値目標を設定するように要求されているのみ アフガニスタン、サンマリノ、ソマリアに関しては国としての機能が保てない
  • 2007 年現在中国が全体排出量の21% しかし、未だ途上国との位置づけの為、削減目標に法的拘束力は無い 中国の対応が今後の地球温暖化防止に大きな影響を与える
  • 世界第2位の排出国 (19.9%) アル・ゴア副大統領(当時)が京都議定書を取りまとめた中心人物だった しかし、米国議会で反発され未批准となる 理由は大統領の(当時)ビル・クリントンの政治支援者の殆どが石油関係者だったため排出規制をすると支援者を敵に回すことになり批准しない方針をとった
  • 植林活動や、国外での活動、削減量の国家間取引など、 GHG 削減をより容易にするための規定 CDM 、 ET 、 JI の3つがある
  • 先進国と途上国との共同プロジェクトで承認された排出量を途上国との間で取引する制度 先「開発手伝ってやるから開発によって削減されるであろう CO2 排出分をよこせ」 問題‥今後途上国が十分発展し排出量の規制がかかった時、削減分を先進国にとられた状態が続き、先進国から排出量分を買い取らなければならない可能性もある。
  • 問題‥今後途上国が十分発展し排出量の規制がかかった時、削減分を先進国にとられた状態が続き、先進国から排出量分を買い取らなければならない可能性もある。
  • 先進国間での GHG 排出枠の売買 各国への割当量に対して、枠の余剰分や超過分を市場で取引する制度 キャップアンドトレード
  • 出資先進国が事業実施先進国で GHGs を削減し、そこで得られた削減量を取引する制度 先進国全体の総排出量は変動しない
  • JI in Russia 発電所の石炭焚きのボイラーを、燃焼しても SO x(硫黄酸化物)を発生させず、 NO x(窒素酸化物)、 CO2 の排出も少ない天然ガス焚きのボイラーに転換することで、年間 1,000 千トン以上の CO2 削減が可能 1,000,000
  • EU   2020 年までに GHGs を 90 年比 20% 削減目標設定 US  オバマ大統領就任後 2020 年までに 05 年比14%削減目標設定 日本 鳩ぽっぽが 2009 年 9 月に UN 総会で 2020 年までに 90 年比25%削減を表明してその後辞任(まる投げ)⇒チャレンジ25 しかし。。。
  • 温暖化防止会議( COP17) と「京都」を捨てた日本 2011 年 11 月 28 日~ 12 月 10 日、「気候変動枠組条約締約国会議( COP17 )」が南アフリカのダーバンで開催 結果は、 ・京都議定書の延長(5~8年)を、 2012 年の COP18 で決定する ・ 2015 年までにアメリカや中国などすべての国が参加する新たな枠組みを作成 ・新たな枠組みは 2020 年以降の発効を目指す ・京都議定書の延長に賛同する国は、 COP18 で削減目標を提示 ・日本は、京都議定書の延長を拒否し、不参加を表明 今回の日本政府の姿勢 日本政府は、会議の冒頭から「アメリカ、中国が参加しない京都議定書の延長は拒否」を繰り返し、会議を妨害した国に与えられる「化石賞」を今年も受賞。 「日本は京都議定書を捨て、今後、温暖化防止にどう取り組むつもりなのか」と海外からも非難の声が上がっている
  • ケニアは途上国なので削減義務は無い ケニアは発展する権利があり、過度な削減目標は発展を妨げる可能性もある しかし、国民が世界情勢に興味を持ち危機意識を持つことによって発展に伴って少しづつでも負担すべきである

Transcript

  • 1. Kyoto Protocol & COP Takatoshi AKAIKWS Malindi Marine Park JOCV/JICA
  • 2. Outline• What is COP?• What is Kyoto Protocol?• Achievement• Assignment to achieve target• Kyoto Mechanism• Movement towards post Kyoto
  • 3. What is COP?• COP = “Conference Of Parties”• Conference (meeting) about how to stop global warming by countries• This conference held almost every year, in one of the countries, which participating this COP.
  • 4. What is Kyoto Protocol?• Decided by COP3 held in Kyoto in 1997• To reduce amount of chemical emission, which cause of global warming, compare with in 1990.• In the case of developed countries, they must reduce 5.2% of chemical emission within 2008 ~2012.
  • 5. Achievement①Set up target amount of chemical to reduce②It has “Legal Binding Force”
  • 6. Each countries must reduce emission, by…①Encourage to saving energy in each industries②Absolve CO2 by afforestation/tree planting③Develop Renewable Resource technology④Achieve target by “Kyoto Mechanism”
  • 7. Assignment to achieve target• There are 194 countries participating COP, but only 40 developed countries faced to “Legal Binding Force”.• USA was only 1, which did not follow COP within developed countries in 1997.• 150 developing countries, only required to set up target, but not required to achieve it.
  • 8. Case Study: China• China emitted the biggest amount of emission in 2007 ( 21% of total amount)• But, China still acknowledged as a developing country, so they don’t have to reduce emission.• Global Warming depends on Chinese stance. To t a l a m o u n t o f e m m is io n in 2007 C h in a 21 % Ot h e r C o u n t ri es 79%
  • 9. Case Study: US• USA is 2nd biggest amount of GHG emitting country (19.9%)• Ex-vice president Albert Arnold "Al" Gore, Jr., rolled well to summary Kyoto Protocol.• But, people in US government against Kyoto Protocol and refuse to participate it.• Because of president Bill Clinton, most of his supporters were oil producers.
  • 10. Kyoto Mechanism• It set up aimed to CDM achieve Kyoto Protocol more easily.• Such as CDM, ET, JI. Those are… ET JI
  • 11. CDMDev.ed country will gainreduced amount of emissionby joint investment in dev.ingcountry I will help you about development, So, give me CO2 credit! Hakuna shida. So, help to develop our country
  • 12. Please give me back CO2 credit! Its cost a lot, you know!? Once developing countries become developed countries, they also have toreduce amount of CO2.So, maybe they have to buy CO2 credit from other developed countries.
  • 13. Emission Trading (ET)• Trade amount of emission available between developed countries.• If amount of emission Buy Sell below the maximum, Shortage Surplus the country can sell to Available another country, Available through the market.• It called “Cap Trading”
  • 14. Joint Invention (JI) • Country practice project in another country to reduce emission of GHGs. Then, gain reduced amount of GHGs.Unified Energy Toyota System Co., Tsusho Co., Ltd. Ltd. Russia Japan Venezuela receives $14 billion joint investment from Japan, South Korea
  • 15. Unified Energy Toyota System Co., Tsusho Co., Ltd. Ltd. Russia Japan
  • 16. Post Kyoto: Forward Step Reduce GHGs 20% compare with 1990, before 2020.Reduce GHGs 14% comparewith 2005,before 2020. Reduce GHGs 25% compare with 1990, before 2020.
  • 17. … 2 June 2010, he quit prime ministerJapan has to reduce 25% of GHGs even he quit prime minister, but its difficult to do it.Technology is already high standard in Japan, but required to more spec to reduce GHGs. I don’t know how to reduce GHGs… Maybe someone can do it. I’m not prime minister anymore, anyway…
  • 18. Japan throw away COP17 and KyotoCOP17 held in 28 Novto 10 Dec 2011 in Durban.In results,• To create new protocol, which join all countries such as US and China before 2015.• If a country follow Kyoto Protocol, must indicate certain target amount of reduction.• Japan refused continue of Kyoto Protocol and breakaway from it.
  • 19. Because,• If the most emitted countries, US and China do not participate to Kyoto Protocol, its useless.• However, Japan did not express what should do after escaped from Kyoto Protocol.• So, many countries criticize Japanese government.
  • 20. What about in Kenya?• Kenya is developing country, so you don’t have any “Legal Binding Force”.• Because, Kenya has rights to develop own country, so exceed reduction of chemical amount may stop its development. Oh, yea! Lucky!!
  • 21. But, mkenya should get interested in global movement, and awareness.Then in the future, you should help to reduce amount of chemical to emit.
  • 22. Conclusion• To know about what is happening in the world is important.• COP is conference to discuss about how to reduce amount of chemical to emit.• Developing countries such as Kenya, does not have “Legal Binding Force” to reduce chemical to emit, but in the future you will be.