Environmental archeology


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I am working at KWS (Kenya Wildlife Service) in Malindi, as a volunteer of JICA. My job is teacher of environment. This presentation is about environmental archaeology. I will introduce how archaeologists investigate era of relics, by radiocarbon dating method. Then I will look at the fall of the civilization in ancient China, Pompeii, and Maya as case study.

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  • 文明滅亡の理由 どうしてポンペイ文明が滅亡したのか? どうしてマヤ文明が滅亡したのか? どうして中国の王朝が何度も滅亡したのか?
  • 古代文明がどの様な環境で発祥、発展、滅亡したのかを研究する学問 遺物に残る炭素を利用して年代を特定する炭素14年代測定法
  • ①戦争 ②自然災害(火山噴火、気候変動、食料難) ③文化・信仰(マヤ暦:最近の世界の終わりは2012年12月23日)
  • クイズ:中国の王朝は何個あったでしょうか?
  • 三国志の様に覇権戦争により時代が移り変わっていったと認識されていたが、 気候変動による影響で食料を確保する為の戦争であった可能性の方が大きくなった? 今までの認識(封建主義や階級闘争や劣悪な施政 ) 中国の王朝の変遷、気候の寒冷化が影響(気候の寒冷化とそれに伴う食糧難 )
  • 文化・信仰(マヤ暦:最近の世界の終わりは 2012 年 12 月 23 日)によって定期的に文明を放棄していたという説がある 漆喰で雨を集める 軽度の干ばつで水が枯渇した
  • 漆喰で雨を集める 軽度の干ばつで水が枯渇した
  • 「歴史学者たちは通常、王朝が変遷した理由を政権の能力や階級闘争に求めるが、文化や王朝の盛衰に影響を与える点で、気候変動は社会構造に作用する重要な要因となっている」 現在も水の利権をめぐる戦争が中東で起こっている
  • Well civilized cultures extinct due to Environmental change. Environmental change such as natural disaster, draught, climate change scarce our food. Environmental change influence our civilization directly and even it extinct.
  • Environmental archeology

    1. 1. Environmental Archeology 23-1 JICA/JOCVK.W.S. Malindi Marine Park Takatoshi AKAI
    2. 2. Outline• What is Environmental Archeology?• Reasons : The fall of the civilization• Why Chinese Empire fallen many times?• The fall of the Pompeii civilization• The fall of the Maya Empire• What about our world now?• Conclusion
    3. 3. What is Environmental Archeology?• To study how “the dawn, the progress and the fall, of the civilization” occurred under the certain environment.• Archeologists use “Radiocarbon Dating Method” to find out when the found relic created.
    4. 4. “Radiocarbon Dating Method” C14 in Amount atmosphere of C14 C14 in atmosphere is stable. Once organism stop metabolism C14 C14 reduce with time passed. in relic Half term-5730 year Time Passed 5730 year 11460 year Created passed passedCalculate amount of carbon(C14) in relic, then find out the era it created.
    5. 5. ① The War② Natural Disaster ③ Culture / Religion
    6. 6. Case Study: Ancient ChinaQuiz : How many Chinese Dynasty exist? 長江文明 BC14000 唐朝 AD618 黄河文明 BC7000 五代十国 AD907 夏朝 BC2070 遼朝 AD947 殷・商朝 BC1600 宋 AD960 周朝 BC1200 金朝(女真) AD1115 春秋戦国 BC770 元朝 AD1271 秦朝 BC221 明朝 AD1368 漢朝 BC206 清朝 AD1616 三国 AD220 中華民国 AD1949 晋 AD265 隋朝 AD581
    7. 7. Case Study: Ancient China• Until recent, China changed era by war due to feudalism, or bad administration.• Recent research found, era in China changed due to climate change.• And it lead to “want of food”
    8. 8. Case Study: Pompeii / Italy• 24 August in BC79• Eruption of Mt. Vesuvio• Pyroclastic flow hit town• 600℃ volcanic ashes called nueeardente swallowed town People in Pompeii died due to environmental hazard!!
    9. 9. Case Study: Maya / C. S. America• Theory 1: People in Maya abandoned their culture and removed somewhere due to their cultural belief.• According to Maya calendar, next judgment day is 23 Dec 2012.
    10. 10. • Structures were covered by plaster.• All structures build on the slope.• Therefore, once rain fall, water flow on plaster and gathered in one place.
    11. 11. What about Our World Now?• Archeologists usually consider the end of civilization due to terrible governance or civil war.• But, in terms of “the fall of the civilization”, climate change has important roll.• Even today, the war occurs in the Middle East, to have an interest in a water business. = Sh Gasoline 150/L in Japan Water 150/L in Japan
    12. 12. Conclusion• Environmental change such as natural disaster, draught, climate change scarce our food and influence our civilization.• Even today, the war occurs in the Middle East, to have an interest in a water business.