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I am working at KWS (Kenya Wildlife Service) in Malindi, as a volunteer of JICA. My job is teacher of environment. This presentation is about cause of desertification. I will provide cause and failed solution of desertification. Also it contained to introduce species, survive in desert.

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  1. 1. Desertification Takatoshi AKAI JOCV 231KWS Malindi Marine Park
  2. 2. Outline• Forest desertification• Cause of desertification• Failed solution• Mechanism of damage from salt• Is it possible to recover the land?• Cause of erosion• Creatures in desert
  3. 3. How much hector faced to deforestation each year ? A . 5,000 Hectare B . 6,000,000 Hectare C . 16,000,000 Hectare※Especially, in Africa, Brazil, and Indonesia.
  4. 4. Philippine ni wapi?
  5. 5. Forest desertificationIn Philippine,They used to a country of 2nd biggest amount of timber exporter.They cut down 90% of natural forest.
  6. 6. Now, they import timber 100% fromother countries.Also, some NGO help to reforestationby panting trees.
  7. 7. Cause of desertification 1Since 1950,World requirement of timber expand,Consumption of paper expand,
  8. 8. Who use timbers?• More than half of those timbers, consume in developed countries, such as Europe, USA, and Japan.• Also more than 70% of paper consume in developed countries.
  9. 9. Timbers for what? Unnecessary Direct Mail News paperMagazine Piles of failed copy
  10. 10. Cause of desertification 2• Maltreat of land lead to expand desert Exceed grazing Cut down tree for firewood Exceed farming lead to loss of nutrient
  11. 11. India & Pakistan ni wapi?
  12. 12. Failed solution• People cut down trees and became desert.• So, use irrigation to recover green land beside the Aral Sea.• But, irrigation lead to loss of water.• It also lead to damage from salt.
  13. 13. Mechanism of damage from salt①Pomp up underground water by irrigation②Water gather salt in the ground and came up to the surface③After water evaporate, salt remain on the ground④Plants cannot grow with salt
  14. 14. Is it possible to recover land?• According to FAO (Food and Agriculture Org of UN), if topsoil reduce 1mm, it will lead to reduce 2~5% productivity of agriculture.• If there is no erosion in Africa, their productivity increase 8%.• But problem is government in Africa does not work on this. 1mm 8%
  15. 15. How to occur erosion①In forest, ②If cut tree, land cannot hold watertrees absorb rain anymore.and land hold water. Also, exceed farming use nutrient in the land, then it become stiff and dry. soil③Once heavy rain fall, ⑤If we don’t do anything, water wash away soil. ④Erosion occur desertification occur
  16. 16. Environment of desert50℃ during day time Fall below -5℃ frostUp to 90℃ during night timeon the surface of sand on the surface of sand
  17. 17. Are there any creature in desert?
  18. 18. Miracle behavior of creature in desert Sea-buckthornCactusIn the case of plants, they have spine (thorn/needle/prickle).They arm themselves by spine against other creatures.
  19. 19. Water collector in the desertNamib Desert beetle This insect stand still on the middle of desert. In the foggy day, they raise up their hip, and receive moist wind in the early morning.
  20. 20. Stoic mouse: Giant Kangaroo Rat They live in desert of Western USA. Canyon of San Joaquin Valley. They never drink water directly. They get water from seed of plants. So, they shield their homeength : 31.1~34.7cm at daytime to avoid evaporation.ail : 15.7~19.8cm stock seed in the moisture They eight : 131~180g storage in the tunnel.
  21. 21. Conclusion• We should stop desertification, otherwise people find difficulty to access food.• Especially, people in Africa will difficult to improve their living standard.• It is difficult to recover land from erosion, so avoid erosion is important.• There are also many species live in desert.