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  • 1. TRABAJO REALIZADO POR: POR: YESSENIA DUQUE POSADA ISABEL CRISTINA MEJIA PROFESOR: GERMAN LEAL SENA -MEDELLIN 2010 OBJECTIVES  IDENTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEDIA IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE SET OF A PRINCIPLE OF ESPLICITO PATIENDO GET PEOPLE ALAS THIS WORK TO BE ADDRESSED. TO UNDERSTAND AND SUCCESSFUL ONE FORMJA ON IMPORTANCE OF EACH OF THE ISSUES IN RELATION TO THIS ACLRANDO GENERATED QUESTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN TRYING TO GIVE TO KNOW THE ISSUES WITH DIFFERENT APPROACH TO NEW TECHNOLOGIES CALCULATE LINKAGE ANALYSIS IN BASIC SATELLITE SYSTEMS. SELECT NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES THAT ARE IN BUSINESS TO NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL APPLICATIONS EXPLAIN THE OPERATION OF THE MEDIA IN CONJUNCTION WITH SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS INTRODUCTION WANTED IN THIS WORK AS SET MAINLY IDEA IN WIRELESS MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE SET OF EXPLAINING OTHER ARGUMENTS THAT IS A GOOD SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TAKING AS THESE ALINEAR THE ORIGIN OF SATELLITES IS INTIMATELY LINKED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROCKETS THAT WERE CREATED, FIRST, AS LONG-DISTANCE WEAPONS, THEN USED TO EXPLORE SPACE AND THEN, WITH ITS EVOLUTION, AS INSTRUMENTS TO PLACE SATELLITES IN SPACE. THE ACTIVITIES IN SPACE, INCLUDING SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY, DATING BACK TO ANCIENT TIMES, WHEN MAN BEGAN TO MEASURE MOVEMENTS OF THE STARS, GIVING RISE TO ONE OF THE OLDEST BRANCHES OF SCIENCE, CELESTIAL MECHANICS. MUCH LATER, HE BEGAN TO MAKE THE FIRST SCIENTIFIC ESTIMATES OF THE RATE OF SPEED NECESSARY TO OVERCOME THE GRAVITATIONAL PULL OF THE EARTH CONCLUSION ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES CHARACTERIZED THE ERA IN WHICH WE LIVE. THANKS TO THEM WE WENT THROUGH AN ERA OF INFORMATION EXPLOSION UNTHINKABLE A FEW YEARS AGO. SINCE THE MID-SIXTIES WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES, WE SEE ON TELEVISION EVENTS THAT OCCUR ACROSS THE WORLD ALMOST SIMULTANEOUSLY. IN ABOUT TWO OR THREE YEARS FOCUSED MOBILE PHONE NETWORK SATELLITE WILL ALLOW ANY USER TO MAKE CALLS TO AND FROM ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD AT LOW RATES AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE. ALSO, THE GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES ALLOW THE RAPID TRANSMISSION OF DATA, INCLUDING THE INTERNET WHICH ALLOWS, FOR WHO IS CONNECTED, ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD, HAVE ACCESS TO AN ASTRONOMICAL AMOUNT OF INFORMATION ON ANY TOPIC IMAGINABLE, SEND MESSAGES OR COMMUNICATIONS SUPPORT ALMOST SIMULTANEOUS WITH PEOPLE STILL LOCATED IN OTHER CONTINENTS. SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES MADE BY SATELLITES HAS MADE THEM A POWERFUL TOOL TO FURTHER PENETRATE AND UNEARTH THE SECRETS OF THE UNIVERSE AND OUR PLANET. IT IS EXPECTED THAT THE XXI CENTURY TELESCOPES ARE LARGE SATELLITES CAPTURING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS. UNFORTUNATELY THE PROBLEM OF ACCUMULATION OF SPACE DEBRIS WILL CONTINUE TO GROW BECAUSE TODAY THERE IS NO PRACTICAL WAY TO COLLECT OR DESTROY IT AND EVERYTHING SUGGESTS THAT THE SATELLITE LAUNCH RATE INCREASE. FOR NOW THERE ARE PARTIAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE CASE OF GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES WHERE THE END OF THEIR OPERATIONAL LIFE ARE TAKEN TO A HIGHER OR LOWER ORBIT WHERE IT RUNS THE RISK THAT THEY MIGHT CLASH WITH OTHER OPERATIONAL SATELLITES. THE ADVANCED COUNTRIES SHOULD BE AWARE THAT IT IS TIME TO MOVE ECOLOGY OF TERRESTRIAL LANDSCAPES TO OUTER SPACE. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ARE THOSE WAVES THAT DO NOT NEED A MEDIUM TO PROPAGATE. THEY INCLUDE, AMONG OTHERS, VISIBLE LIGHT AND RADIO WAVES, TELEVISION AND TELEPHONE. . ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ARE TRANSVERSE, THE DIRECTIONS OF THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ARE PERPENDICULAR TO THE PROPAGATION ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM IS A SET OF WAVES RANGING FROM THE WAVES WITH LONGER WAVES SUCH AS RADIO, EVEN THOSE WITH SHORTER AND GAMMA RAYS, VIA RADIO WAVES, MICROWAVES, INFRARED, VISIBLE LIGHT, ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND X-RAYS
  • 2. DIAGRAM OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM, SHOWING THE TYPE, WITH EXAMPLES WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY AND TEMPERATURE OF BLACK BODY EMISSION. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM IS CALLED THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. REFERRED TO AN OBJECT IS CALLED THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM, OR SIMPLY SPECTRUM OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EMITTED (EMISSION SPECTRUM) OR ABSORBED (ABSORPTION SPECTRUM) A SUBSTANCE. SUCH RADIATION IS USED TO IDENTIFY THE SUBSTANCE IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO A FINGERPRINT. THE SPECTRA CAN BE OBSERVED BY SPECTROSCOPY, AND ALLOWS TO OBSERVE THE SPECTRUM, ALLOWING MEASUREMENTS ON IT, SUCH AS WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY OF RADIATION. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM EXTENDS FROM THE RADIATION OF SHORTER WAVELENGTH, SUCH AS GAMMA RAYS AND X-RAYS, THROUGH ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, VISIBLE LIGHT AND INFRARED RAYS TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF LONGER WAVELENGTH, SUCH AS RADIO WAVES. IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE LIMIT FOR THE SMALLEST WAVELENGTH POSSIBLE IS THE PLANCK LENGTH WHILE THE MAXIMUM WOULD BE THE SIZE OF THE UNIVERSE (SEE PHYSICAL COSMOLOGY), ALTHOUGH FORMALLY THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM IS INFINITE AND CONTINUOUS. ENERGY RANGE OF THE SPECTRUM THEREFORE, THE HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES HAVE A SHORT WAVELENGTH AND HIGH ENERGY WHILE LOW FREQUENCY WAVES WITH LARGE WAVELENGTHS AND LOW ENERGY GENERALLY, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IS CLASSIFIED BASED ON THEIR WAVELENGTH RADIO WAVES, MICROWAVES, INFRARED, VISIBLE-WE PERCEIVE AS VISIBLE LIGHT, ULTRAVIOLET, X RAYS AND GAMMA RAYS. THE BEHAVIOR OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION DEPENDS ON ITS WAVELENGTH. WHEN ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION INTERACTS WITH ATOMS AND MOLECULES OFF, ITS BEHAVIOR ALSO DEPENDS ON THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY PER QUANTUM IT CARRIES. LIKE SOUND WAVES, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION CAN BE DIVIDED INTO OCTAVES. SPECTROSCOPY CAN DETECT A MUCH WIDER REGION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM TO THE VISIBLE RANGE 400 NM TO 700 NM. A SPECTROMETER ORDINARY LABORATORY DETECTS WAVELENGTHS OF 2-2500 NM RADIO FREQUENCY: IN RADIO, THE RANKS ARE ABBREVIATED WITH THEIR INITIALS IN ENGLISH. ARE:
  • 3. Nombre ABREVIATURA INGLESA BANDA ITU FRECUENCIAS LONGITUD DE ONDA INFERIOR A 3 Hz > 100.000 km Extra baja frecuencia EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELF 1 3-30 HZ 100.000 KM – 10.000 KM Super baja frecuencia SUPER LOW FREQUENCY SLF 2 30-300 HZ 10.000 KM – 1000 KM Ultra baja frecuencia ULTRA LOW FREQUENCY ULF 3 300–3000 HZ 1000 KM – 100 KM Muy baja frecuencia V ERY LOW FREQUENCY VLF 4 3–30 kHz 100 KM – 10 KM Baja frecuencia LOW FREQUENCY LF 5 30–300 KHZ 10 KM – 1 KM Media frecuencia MEDIUM FREQUENCY MF 6 300–3000 KHZ 1 KM – 100 m Alta frecuencia HIGH FREQUENCY HF 7 3–30 MHz 100 M – 10 M Muy alta frecuencia V ERY HIGH FREQUENCY VHF 8 30–300 MHZ 10 M – 1 M Ultra alta frecuencia ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY UHF 9 300–3000 MHZ 1 M – 100 mm Super alta frecuencia SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY SHF 10 3-30 GHz 100 MM – 10 MM Extra alta frecuencia EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCY EHF 11 30-300 GHZ 10 MM – 1 MM POR ENCIMA DE LOS 300 < 1 MM GHZ
  • 4. ELF:  CALLING ELF (EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCIES) ARE THOSE THAT ARE IN THE RANGE OF 3-30 HZ THIS RANGE IS EQUIVALENT TO THOSE FREQUENCIES OF SOUND IN THE LOWER PART (SEVERE) THE RANGE OF HUMAN HEARING PERCEPTION. IT SHOULD BE NOTED HERE THAT THE HUMAN EAR PERCEIVES SOUND WAVES, NOT ELECTROMAGNETIC, BUT THE ANALOGY IS SET TO MAKE A BETTER COMPARISON. SUPER LOW FREQUENCIES: SLF (SUPER LOW FREQUENCIES) ARE THOSE THAT ARE IN THE RANGE OF 30 TO 300 HZ IN THIS RANGE INCLUDE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF FREQUENCY EQUAL TO THE PERCEIVED BASS TYPICAL HUMAN EAR. ULTRA LOW FREQUENCY: ULF (ULTRA LOW FREQUENCIES) ARE THOSE IN THE RANGE OF 300-3000 HZ THIS IS THE INTERVAL EQUIVALENT TO THE NORMAL SOUND FREQUENCY FOR MOST OF THE HUMAN VOICE. VERY LOW FREQUENCIES: VLF, VERY LOW FREQUENCIES. THESE MAY INCLUDE THE FREQUENCIES OF 3-30 KHZ. THE VLF RANGE IS TYPICALLY USED IN GOVERNMENT AND MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS. LOW FREQUENCIES: LF (LOW FREQUENCIES) ARE THOSE IN THE RANGE OF 30-300 KHZ. THE MAIN COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES OPERATING IN THIS RANGE ARE THE AEROSPACE AND MARINE NAVIGATION. MID: MF, MEDIUM FREQUENCIES ARE IN THE RANGE OF 300-3000 KHZ. THE LARGEST WAVES IN THIS RANGE ARE BROADCASTING AM (530-1605 KHZ). HIGH FREQUENCY: HF, HIGH FREQUENCIES, ARE THOSE CONTAINED IN THE RANGE OF 3-30 MHZ THESE ARE ALSO KNOWN AS "SHORT WAVE". IT IS IN THIS RANGE THAT HAS A WIDE RANGE OF TYPES OF RADIO AND BROADCASTING, GOVERNMENT AND
  • 5. MILITARY. THE AMATEUR RADIO BAND COMMUNICATIONS AND CB ALSO OCCUR IN THIS PART OF THE SPECTRUM. VERY HIGH FREQUENCIES: VHF, VERY HIGH FREQUENCIES, RANGING FROM 30 TO 300 MHZ RANGE IS USED FOR MANY POPULAR SERVICES SUCH AS MOBILE RADIO, MARINE AND AERONAUTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, TRANSMISSION OF FM RADIO (88-108 MHZ) AND TV CHANNELS FROM 2 TO 12 [ACCORDING TO CCIR STANDARD (B + G STANDARD EUROPE)]. THERE ARE ALSO SEVERAL AMATEUR BANDS IN THIS RANGE. ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY: UHF, ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCIES, RANGING FROM 300 TO 3000 MHZ, INCLUDING THE UHF TELEVISION CHANNELS, IE 21 TO 69 [AS CCIR STANDARD (B + G STANDARD EUROPE)] AND ARE ALSO USED IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION SERVICES IN LAND, MOBILE SERVICES AND MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS. ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY: SHF, SUPER HIGH FREQUENCIES, ARE THOSE BETWEEN 3 AND 30 GHZ AND ARE WIDELY USED FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS AND TERRESTRIAL RADIO LINKS. IN ADDITION, COMMUNICATIONS ARE INTENDED FOR USE IN HIGH RATE OF TRANSMISSION OF DATA AT VERY SHORT RANGE USING UWB. THEY ARE ALSO USED FOR MILITARY PURPOSES, SUCH AS UWB-BASED RADAR. EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCIES: EHF, EXTREMATEDLY HIGH FREQUENCIES, RANGING FROM 30-300 GHZ THE EQUIPMENT USED TO TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE THESE SIGNALS ARE MORE COMPLEX AND EXPENSIVE AND THEREFORE NOT WIDELY AVAILABLE YET. THERE ARE OTHER WAYS OF CLASSIFYING RADIO FREQUENCY WAVES. MICROWAVE OVEN NOTE THAT THE FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 1 GHZ AND 300 GHZ, ARE CALLED MICROWAVES. THESE FREQUENCIES COVER PART OF THE UHF RANGE AND THE FULL RANGE OF SHF AND EHF. THESE WAVES ARE USED IN MANY SYSTEMS, SUCH AS MULTIPLE DATA COMMUNICATION DEVICES, RADAR AND MICROWAVE OVENS. BANDA P L S C X Ku K Ka Q U V E W F D INICIO (GHZ) 0,2 1 2 4 8 12 18 26,5 30 40 50 60 75 90 110 F INAL (GHZ) 1 2 4 8 12 18 26,5 40 50 60 75 90 110 140 170 INFRARED THE INFRARED WAVELENGTHS ARE IN THE RANGE OF 0.7 TO 100 MICROMETERS. INFRARED RADIATION IS GENERALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE HEAT. THEY ARE PRODUCED BY BODIES THAT GENERATE HEAT, BUT SOMETIMES CAN BE GENERATED BY SOME LIGHT EMITTING DIODES AND SOME LASERS. THE SIGNALS ARE USED FOR SOME SPECIAL SYSTEMS OF COMMUNICATION, SUCH AS IN ASTRONOMY TO DETECT STARS AND OTHER WEAPONS AND GUIDES, WHERE HEAT DETECTORS ARE USED TO FIND MOVING BODIES IN THE DARK. THEY ARE ALSO USED IN REMOTE CONTROLS FOR TELEVISIONS AND OTHER APPLIANCES, IN WHICH A TRANSMITTER SENDS THOSE WAVES A CODED SIGNAL TO THE RECEIVER OF THE TV. THESE DAYS IT HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTING LOCAL AREA CONNECTIONS VIA LAN DEVICES THAT WORK WITH INFRARED, BUT DUE TO NEW COMMUNICATION STANDARDS SUCH CONNECTIONS HAVE LOST THEIR VERSATILITY.
  • 6. BANDS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM FOR THEIR STUDY, THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM IS DIVIDED INTO SEGMENTS OR STRIPS, ALTHOUGH THIS DIVISION IS INCORRECT. THERE ARE WAVES HAVING A FREQUENCY, BUT SEVERAL APPLICATIONS, SO THAT SOME FREQUENCIES CAN SOMETIMES BE INCLUDED IN TWO RANGES. BANDA LONGITUD DE ONDA ( m) FRECUENCIA ( Hz) J ENERGÍA ( ) < 10 PM > 30,0 EHZ > 20·10−15 J Rayos gamma < 10 NM > 30,0 PHZ > 20·10−18 J Rayos X < 200 NM > 1,5 PHZ > 993·10−21 J Ultravioleta EXTREMO < 380 NM > 789 THZ > 523·10−21 J Ultravioleta CERCANO < 780 NM > 384 THZ > 255·10−21 J Luz Visible < 2,5 ΜM > 120 THZ > 79·10−21 J Infrarrojo CERCANO < 50 ΜM > 6,00 THZ > 4·10−21 J Infrarrojo MEDIO < 1 MM > 300 GHZ > 200·10−24 J Infrarrojo LEJANO/SUBMILIMÉTRICO < 30 CM > 1 GHZ > 2·10−24 J Microondas <1M > 300 MHZ > 19.8·10−26 J Ultra Alta Frecuencia - Radio < 10 M > 30 MHZ > 19.8·10−28 J Muy Alta Frecuencia - Radio < 180 M > 1,7 MHZ > 11.22·10−28 J Onda Corta - Radio < 650 M > 650 KHZ > 42.9·10−29 J Onda Media - Radio < 10 KM > 30 KHZ > 19.8·10−30 J Onda Larga - Radio > 10 KM < 30 KHZ < 19.8·10−30 J Muy Baja Frecuencia - Radio VISIBLE SPECTRUM
  • 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM.  ABOVE THE FREQUENCY OF INFRARED RADIATION IS WHAT IS COMMONLY KNOWN AS LIGHT, A SPECIAL TYPE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION HAS A WAVELENGTH IN THE RANGE 0.4 TO 0.8 MICROMETERS. THE USUAL UNIT FOR EXPRESSING WAVELENGTHS IS THE ANGSTROM. INTERVALS RANGING FROM 8000 Å (RED) TO 4,000 Å (VIOLET), WHERE THE SHORTER THE WAVELENGTH OF VIOLET. LIGHT CAN BE USED FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS. LIGHT WAVES CAN BE MODULATED AND TRANSMITTED THROUGH OPTICAL FIBERS, WHICH IS AN ADVANTAGE BECAUSE ITS HIGH FREQUENCY IS CAPABLE OF CARRYING MORE INFORMATION. ON THE OTHER HAND, LIGHT WAVES CAN BE TRANSMITTED IN FREE SPACE, USING A VISIBLE LASER BEAM. ULTRAVIOLET ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT COVERS THE RANGE OF 4-400 NM. THE SUN IS A MAJOR SOURCE UNDER THIS FREQUENCY RAYS, WHICH CAUSE SKIN CANCER EXPOSURES. THIS TYPE OF WAVE IS NOT USED IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS, THEIR APPLICATIONS ARE MAINLY IN THE FIELD OF MEDICINE. X-RAY THE NAME REFERS TO X-RAY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, INVISIBLE, ABLE TO PASS THROUGH OPAQUE BODIES AND IMPRESS PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM. THE WAVELENGTH IS BETWEEN 10 TO 0.1 NANOMETERS, CORRESPONDING TO FREQUENCIES IN THE RANGE OF 30-3000 PHZ (50 TO 5,000 TIMES THE FREQUENCY OF VISIBLE LIGHT). GAMMA RAYS GAMMA RADIATION IS A TYPE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION PRODUCED BY RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS GENERALLY OR SUBATOMIC PROCESSES SUCH AS THE ANNIHILATION OF A POSITRON-ELECTRON PAIR. THIS TYPE OF RADIATION OF THIS MAGNITUDE IS ALSO PRODUCED IN EXTREMELY VIOLENT ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA. BECAUSE THEY POSSESS HIGH ENERGY, GAMMA RAYS ARE A FORM OF IONIZING RADIATION CAN PENETRATE MATTER MORE DEEPLY THAN ALPHA OR BETA RADIATION. GIVEN THEIR HIGH ENERGY CAN CAUSE SERIOUS DAMAGE TO THE CELL NUCLEUS, SO THEY ARE USED TO STERILIZE MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND FOODSTUFFS. TYPES OF SATELLITE SATELLITE: BASICALLY A SATELLITE IS A REPEATER STATION WITH TWO ANTENNAS, A RECEPTION AND A TRANSMISSION. THE FREQUENCY AT WHICH YOU RECEIVE MAY BE THE SAME OR DIFFERENT FROM THAT EMITTED. SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SERVE AS LIAISON FOR TELEPHONE COMMUNICATIONS, TELEVISION BROADCASTS, INTERNET RADIO OR PERMANENT CONTACTS WITH VESSELS, AIRCRAFT, TRAINS. SATELLITE NAVIGATION ALLOW THE PRECISE LOCATION OF ANY POINT ON EARTH. THEY ARE BASED ON TRIANGULATION METHODS, THIS CALLS FOR RECEIVING DATA FROM AT LEAST THREE SATELLITES. POSITIONING SYSTEMS GPS AND GALILEO ARE BASED ON THIS TYPE OF SATELLITE.
  • 8. ORBITAL STATIONS LABORATORIES IN ORBIT TO FACILITATE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EXTENSIVE RESEARCH IN MICROGRAVITY CONDITIONS. THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION IS CURRENTLY THE ONLY SPACE STATION. ITS PREDECESSORS, THE SPACELAB, SALYUT AND MIR ARE NO LONGER OPERATIONAL. SATELLITE EARTH OBSERVATION ALSO CALLED REMOTE SENSING. THEY CARRY SPECIALIZED SENSORS THAT COLLECT ATMOSPHERIC DATA AND LAND SURFACE. ARE USEFUL IN VARIOUS FIELDS SUCH AS METEOROLOGY, OCEANOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, OR MAPPING. ORBIT IS THE PATH AN OBJECT MAKES AROUND ANOTHER WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF A CENTRIPETAL FORCE AS THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE IS ANY OBJECT THAT ORBITS AROUND ANOTHER, CALLED THE PRINCIPAL. THE SATELLITES ARE SPACECRAFT MANUFACTURED ON EARTH AND SENT IN A LAUNCH VEHICLE, A TYPE OF ROCKET THAT SENDS A PAYLOAD INTO SPACE. THE SATELLITES CAN ORBIT AROUND MOONS, COMETS, ASTEROIDS, PLANETS, STARS OR EVEN GALAXIES. AFTER ITS USEFUL LIFE MAY BE ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES AND SPACE JUNK IN ORBIT. PARTS OF AN ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE HOUSE OF ENGINE: ANTENNA: EQUIPMENT DATA STORAGE METER GREENHOUSE GASES: SOLAR PANELS: GAUGE: ALL SATELLITES HAVE SOME COMMON COMPONENTS, AND OTHER SPECIFICS OF HIS MISSION: COMMON SYSTEMS ARE: POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM: ENSURES OPERATION OF THE SYSTEMS. USUALLY CONSISTS OF SOLAR PANELS. CONTROL SYSTEM: IT IS THE COMPUTER FOR THE SATELLITE AND STORED PROCESSES INSTRUCTIONS AND THE INSTRUCTIONS RECEIVED FROM EARTH. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: SET OF ANTENNAS AND TRANSMITTERS TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE MONITORING STATIONS TO RECEIVE INSTRUCTIONS AND SEND THE DATA CAPTURED. POSITIONING SYSTEM: MAINTAIN THE SATELLITE IN THE POSITION SET AND POINT TO THEIR (S) OBJECTIVE (S). HEAT SHIELD: IT IS THE INSULATION THAT PROTECTS THE SATELLITE INSTRUMENTS SUDDEN TEMPERATURE CHANGES ARE SUBJECT TO, DEPENDING ON WHETHER SOLAR RADIATION ARE GIVEN BACK TO THE SUN THIS PROTECTION IS THAT WHICH
  • 9. GIVES THE GOLDEN COLOR TYPICAL OF MANY SATELLITES. PAYLOAD: SET OF INSTRUMENTS TAILORED TO THE TASKS ASSIGNED TO THE SATELLITE. VARY DEPENDING ON THE SATELLITE. OPERATING FREQUENCY UP AND DOWN RISE: THE MAIN COMPONENT IN THE UPSTREAM SECTION SATELLITE IS THE EARTH STATION TRANSMITTER. DOWN: AN EARTH STATION RECEIVER INPUT INCLUDES A BPF, A LNA AND AN RF TO IF CONVERTER. AGAIN, THE BPF LIMITS THE POWER OF THE LNA INPUT NOISE. GPS NAVSTAR-GPS: A GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GNSS) WHICH DETERMINES THE ENTIRE WORLD THE POSITION OF AN OBJECT, A PERSON, VEHICLE OR VESSEL, WITH AN ACCURACY UP TO CENTIMETERS. THE DIFFERENTIAL GPS: IT CONSISTS OF A STATIC GPS RECEIVER PLACED AT A FIXED AND KNOWN, FROM WHICH ALL VISIBLE SATELLITES MONITOR AND MEASURE THE DISTANCES TO EACH OF THEM. RECEIVING ANTENNA AN ANTENNA IS A DEVICE DESIGNED FOR THE PURPOSE OF TRANSMITTING OR RECEIVING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES INTO FREE SPACE. A TRANSMITTING ANTENNA TRANSFORMS ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE VOLTAGES, AND A RECEIVER PERFORMS THE INVERSE FUNCTION RECEIVING AS AN ANTENNA ACROSS SPAIN: ENSURE THAT THE ANTENNA IS ADEQUATE VERIFY IT IS PROPERLY INSTALLED LOOK AT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INPEDANCIA DIRECTIVITY GAIN BANDWIDTH
  • 10. SATELLITE INTERNET  INTERNET VIA SATELLITE OR INTERNET CONNECTION VIA SATELLITE IS A METHOD OF INTERNET ACCESS AS A MEANS OF USING A SATELLITE LINK. CURRENT STATE OF INTERNET SATELLITE IT RECOMMENDED A SYSTEM OF ACCESS IN PLACES WHERE NOT SERVED BY CABLE OR TELEPHONE, AS RURAL OR REMOTE AREAS. HOW MANY SATELLITES ARE IN SPACE? IF ANYONE SAW THE MOVIE WALL • E, REMEMBER THE SCENE IN WHICH A SPACECRAFT LEAVES EARTH CROSSING A BARRIER OF "SPECIAL WASTE." WE KNOW OF COURSE THAT IS NOT GARBAGE BUT ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES. THE IMAGE IS POWERFUL BECAUSE IT SHOWS US SOMETHING THAT WE ARE NOT USED. BUT THE PICTURE IS NOT FICTION. TODAY THOUSANDS OF THESE OBJECTS ORBIT OUR PLANET. SATELLITES A FEW DAYS AGO THE HEADLINES WHEN TWO OF THEM, ONE RUSSIAN, ONE AMERICAN, COLLIDED IN SPACE. A FEW HOURS AGO RETURNED TO OUR MIND WHEN WE LEARNED THAT THE SATELLITE CALLED "ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY" AT NASA DID NOT REACH THE AREA AND FELL OVER ANTARCTICA. .