ETHNIC MOBILITIES IN UKRAINE: CHALLENGES FOR                      INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION      Ethnic mobilities (in a...
in interethnic and intercultural communications. The situation is the next one:Ukrainians, Russians and Byelorussians are ...
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Ethnic mobilities in ukraine

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Ethnic mobilities in ukraine

  1. 1. ETHNIC MOBILITIES IN UKRAINE: CHALLENGES FOR INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Ethnic mobilities (in a broader sense – ethnic revival) are one of the mostremarkable traits of the post-Soviet developments in Independent Ukraine (from1991). The two main markers of these mobilities are to be mentioned : 1) intensiveawakening of ethnic self-consciousness among national minorities and coming backto their ethnicities, trying to maintain their ethno-cultural originalities and to activateespecially their cultural activities which are the core of their ethnicities; 2) search forpossibilities to participate more visible in social processes, to become energeticactors in building nation-state in Ukraine and to occupy adequate niches ineconomic, political and cultural life of a new state. Conformation for that we can find in the following facts: a) increasing ofrepresentatives of ethnic minorities in the composition of Ukraine’s population[(period between two censuses 1989 (preIndependence) and 2001(afterIndependence)]: Crimean Tatars: 47 000 - 248 000 ( in 2008 - above 260 000);Romanians: 135 000 - 151 000; Armenians: 54 000 - 100 000; Azerbaijani: 37 000 -45 000; perceptible increasing was registered by other minorities too; b) coming intobeing civic organizations of ethnic minorities (nowadays there are above 1 300 ofthem on national, regional and local levels all around the country); c) revival ofinterest for schooling in ethnic languages ( Romanians - 92 schools, Hungarians - 70,Crimean Tatarians - 15, Moldovians - 7, Polish - 5; d) their ethnocultural activitiesare realized in more than 2000 art collectives and folk-groups. All the factors mentioned above stimulate, on the one hand, intraethnicsolidarity of minorities and make stronger their positions in Ukrainian society and,on the other hand, lead to some type of autonomy and strengthen tendencies ofseparatism what can cause ethno-cultural fragmentation of Ukrainian society. It isone of the challenges of ethnic revival. The second one is the tendency to competemore hard with each other for better positions in social and political activities of thesociety. It causes tensions in interethnic relations: for example, Crimean Tatars andRussians in Crimea; prejudical attitudes to Jews, visible minorities, Roma etc.Sociological surveys state this tendency measuring the level of tolerance-intolerance
  2. 2. in interethnic and intercultural communications. The situation is the next one:Ukrainians, Russians and Byelorussians are on the top positions in the tolerancescale; Roma, immigrants from Africa and Asia are on the bottom; Jews, Poles,Slovaks, Germans, Hungarians are on the middle positions. Under the conditions ofinstability the intolerance in Ukrainian society is slightly but increasing concerning,for example, Crimean Tatars, Roma, immigrants. Such developments make more complete the formation of an adequate ethno-cultural space of Ukraine where cultural institutions of different ethnic communitiescan function on the equal basis and where their cultures could be presented evidentenough to speak about multiplicity of Ukrainian cultural scene. Today we fix twodominant components represented on all the territory of Ukraine – Ukrainian andRussian; cultural activities of other ethnicities are to be seen as a rule in the places oftheir compact settlements: Crimean Tatars in Crimea, Hungarians in Transcarpathia,Romanians in Bukovyna, Bulgarians in Odessa region etc. To overcome negative consequences of the objective process of ethnicmobilization and to stimulate intercultural communications and interculturaldialogues between the ethnicities which are in the process of changing their statusroles special measures must be undertaken, in my understanding the system ofeffective ethno-cultural management (first of all, ethno-cultural competence + ethno-cultural education) is to be developed. It will be one of the topics to be discussedduring my presentation at the session.http://www.zjazd14.socjologia.uj.edu.pl/index.php?navi=grupy_tematyczne.php&entry_id=993

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