The question was though upon, based on hearing different sides for the legalization of prostitution, primarily in the United States. Some who are for legalizing prostitution, claim that sexually committed crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, etc. will actually be lower for the following reasons: 1) prositutes can work legally therefore they are protected by an agency such as a brothel, club, etc. 2) Men will have the ability to buy sex rather instead than go and get an innocent women for sex.
In the aftermath of rape it is common to find prostitution (Ahrens et al., 2003). This can sometimes make it difficult to understand if a prostitute is really trying to sell herself for sex or is it just the act because of the sexually committed crime that has occurred? Limitations include a small sample size and failure to identify whether the subjects had a history of childhood sexual abuse.
Men who frequently purchased sex were more likely to acknowledge having committed sexually aggressive acts, display increased aggressive acts and more chance of raping women (Anderson et al., 2011). Those who bought It was also found that men who bought prostitutes either first time or repeatedly displayed an increased of aggressive acts and more chance of raping a woman (Anderson et al., 2011). A limitation was that there is a need for further research in other countries on men who buy sex and those who don’t to compare samples.
Even though the victim agrees to prostitution it is still viewed as a trafficked victim, therefore it is a sexually committed crime. This leads to the idea that how many of prostitutes are actually victims of sex trafficking but use a label to cover up the sexually committed crime by their pimps.
Most of the participants had suffered severe abuse (rape, beaten, threaten, and abandoned) from their boyfriends, clients, and/or pimps (Dalla, 2000). A woman shared her experience of having bruises on her breasts from her client pinching and grabbing them tightly, black eyes, cuts, and being ganged rape by more than 8 men. The research limitation was a nonrandom sample of participants, through involvement in an intervention program or incarceration (Dalla, 2000). Another drawback was that since the women were only interviewed once, their changes in attitudes and beliefs were not captured (Dalla, 2000).
Farley (2004) mentions that prostitution is “paid-rape”. The women were interviewed in a wide context from supportive local and sex market agencies in other countries that specifically sold sex (Colombia, Thailand, Zambia), STD clinics (Germany, Turkey), in the streets (Canada, United States), or brothels, strip clubs, and massage parlors (Mexico, South Africa) (Farley, 2004). In prostitution the amount of violence that occurs is distinguished by the amount of money that is being paid for the abuse (Farley, 2004). Though there was no limitations, the strength of the research conducted has allowed for clinicians to realize the trauma and violence that occurs in prostitution.
A study done on 33 street women prostitutes in Vancouver, Canada found that 97% of women experienced a lifetime of sexual abuse during prostitution (Farley et al., 2004). Majority of prostitutes went through an event of disassociation due to violence that occurred but also due to the psychological problems stemming from childhood trauma (Farley et al., 2004). A limitation was the account of percentage of prostitutes that experienced childhood sexual abuse was low in some countries due to the hostility of environment (Farley et al., 2004). Further research should interview prostitutes in different ranges such as: street, escort prostitution agencies, strip clubs, pornography studios, and telephone and internet prostitution (Farley et al., 2004).
The authors looked at opposing side of those who argue that indoor prostitution is safer than outdoor. During prostitution they learned to disassociate as a consequence of both childhood sexual abuse and the violence of adult prostitution (Farley et al., 2005). There was no mention of any errors or need of improvement other than the quality of care treated towards prostitution.
Society views prostitution as a consent for sex in exchange for money in some cases it is not necessarily what has occurred in the exchange (Farley, 2008). Prostitution is viewed as a form of sex, but the harshest sexual exploitation in strip club prostitution has been reframed as a reference for sexual expression (Farley, 2008). Farley (2008) describes that a sexually committed crime could occur with such performances. There has been a dramatic increase in the last 20 years of harassment and physical assault of women in strip club prostitution (Farley, 2008). ). In the Netherlands, prostitution is legal, but there is a finding there is still an amount of sexually committed crimes that occurs as 40% of prostituted women experienced sexual violence and 40% had been forced into prostitution and/or sexual abuse by acquaintances (Farley, 2008). The author did not find any error in research or improvement.
The correlation of rape and myth mostly related to prostitution was what the woman wore (braless, short skirts, and tight tops are asking for trouble); rape and violence towards prostitutes deserve the abuse due to the clothing (Gorzalka et al., 2009). A weakness was the lack of a sample group of men who were not sex trade consumers. The strength through this research was that the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale was performed on men who bought sex. It was mentioned that there was not a high rate of rape myth acceptance in client of prostitutes, this is important because the violent acts against prostitute may be the result of a general set of societal attitudes (Gorzalka et al., 2009).
It has become an issue in Denmark how to identify the trafficked victim from one who is just selling sex based on the types of abuse (Spanger, 2011). Some feminists have viewed that prostitution in Denmark is violence against women and a sign of gender inequality; therefore there is an increase in human trafficking (Spanger, 2011).
There were countries such as Switzerland, Denmark, etc. that found rates of sex trafficking and sexually committed crimes occurring higher among prostitutes. Women interviewed found some form of being abuse through a sexually committed crime, the most common was gang rape. Majority of men feel that since they are paying for the sex and are the customer they should have any service as wished. Some services include, sticking objects up the vagina, gang rape, bondage, etc. Studies also showed that because the woman dressed or is a prostitute she deserves the abuse.
Research needs to be done in order to find the difference of men who do and don’t buy sex in various countries on different aspects such as: services done with a prostitute, experience, rape myth acceptance scale, aggressiveness factors, etc. It is difficult to find exact amount or percentage of woman who have been raped, sexually assaulted, etc. due to the fact that they are hardly ever reported. This is because first of all in some areas prostitution is illegal, so the prostitute feels the blame of the action. Second, in areas where prositution is legal it would be viewed as services performed and therefore the prostitute would still feel victimized. Further research can be performed through the limitations that were mentioned. A common limitation was the failure to ask whether there was a history of childhood abuse, primarily in focus of sexual abuse. Another drawback is the sample sizes due to location and the need to compare results in other countries that are legalized and illegal. The last limitation found was the setting of the service such as strip club, street, brothels, etc.
“Every year a prostituted woman is raped 19 times, kidnapped 10 times and beaten repeatedly” (Veronica’s Voice, n.d., p. 11). It has been a concern in society about the legality of prostitution. Current research estimates that there are approximately 1 million women who are prostitutes (Quan, 1997). Fifty countries have legalized prostitution; another eleven have legalized some aspect of prostitution (i.e. brothels are not legal or pimping, etc.) (ProCon.org, 2011).
Do countries with legalized prostitution have an increase of sexually committed crimes or is there a decrease?
Ahrens, Campbell, Clark, and Sefl (2003) examined prostitution and post-rape. Nearly 24% of women had stated that they engaged in prostitution post-rape (Ahrens et al., 2003). Majority of the women (75%) who had exchange the sex for money felt that it was related to rape (Ahrens et al., 2003). Limitation: history of childhood sexual abuse wasn’t asked.
Anderson, Farely, Golding, and Macleod (2011) found the attitudes of Scottish men who bought sex legally and aggression towards prostituting and nonprostituting. The author found that buyers of sex displayed more of an aggressive act towards women in general. Limitation: Further research on men do and don’t buy sex in different countries.
ResearchersBosworth, Dempsey, and Hoyle (2011) examined labeling sex trafficked victims. They reviewed this through the Palmero Protocol. Article 3(b) when a victim of trafficking consents to prostitution, is still viewed as a victim of trafficking and therefore the consent given is not valid (Bosworth et al., 2011)
Research concluded by Dalla (2000) interviewed 43 women of age 19 to 56 of their prostitution experience. Majority of the prostitutes shared their experience of being abused by their clients. Majority of the woman also agreed that they did not view prostitution as being a life-long career Limitation: nonrandom samples and women were interviewed only once
Melissa Farley is a well known researcher to work extensively with prostitution and sexual violence, several of her studies were included into the literature review. In a previous study, found that 95% of women had experienced sexual harassment in prostitution, which would be legally actionable in a different job setting (Farley, 2004). Amount of abuse can be determined by amount of money. Limitations: none
Research done by Farley, Ross, and Schwartz (2004) interviewed various women in different countries on violence. Vancouver, Canada:97% of women experienced a lifetime of sexual abuse during prostitution (Farley et al., 2004). Much violence occurred during prostitution 97% had been physically assaulted 92% had been raped 73% contributed to pornography made while in prostitution Cycle of disassociation was found among prostitutes Limitation: hostility of environment might have lowered childhood sexual abuse rates
Farley and Seo (2005) looked into that sexual and physical violence is a norm for women in prostitution whether inside or outside. A nine-country study on five continents 62% of 854 people experienced rape in prostitution (Farley et al., 2005). in nine countries, 89% of 854 people wanted to escape from prostitution but could not due to economical and financial survival (Farley & Seo, 2005). Limitations: none
Farley (2008) examines the abuse done in strip clubs which is a form of prostitution. “The more private the sexual performance, the more it costs, and the more likely that violent sexual harassment or rape will occur” (Farley, 2008, p. 251). Increase of harassment and physical assault of women in strip club prostitution in the last 20 years. Netherlands: 40% of prostituted women experienced sexual violence 40% had been forced into prostitution and/or sexual abuse by acquaintances Limitations: none
Gorzalka, Kennedy, and Klein (2009) conducted a survey on men who were sex trade consumer in British Columbia on rape myths. Correlation of rape and myth mostly related to prostitution was what the woman wore (braless, short skirts, and tight tops are asking for trouble); therefore prostitutes and their clothing, they deserve the abuse(Gorzalka et al., 2009). Limitation:comparing sample to men who do not buy from the sex trade market.
Spanger (2011) studied human trafficking and prostitution in Denmark. Since the late 1990’s there has been an increase in both female prostitution and human trafficking (Spanger, 2011). An issue in Denmark on how to distinguish who is a victim and who is consenting to sex.
Countries that had legalized prostitution, there was also indication of sexually committed crimes occurring Women in prostitution had experienced a form of abuse done to them, generally a sexually committed crime Men view that paying for sex should mean any service they want
More research needs to be done in order to view the different aspects of prostitution and abuse in various countries. It is difficult to find the exact amount of sexually committed crimes towards prostitutes because they are rarely ever reported. Research through authors limitations: History of childhood sexual abuse Sample sizes Location of service
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