Grouping hyperlinks for improved voice/mobile accessibility Alex Penev UNSW / NICTA (Australia)
Accessibility <ul><li>Heavily presentation-oriented web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blind users “read” sequentially </li></ul></...
Accessibility <ul><li>Heavily presentation-oriented web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blind users “read” sequentially </li></ul></...
Hyperlinks <ul><li>Often visit a site with intention of following a link </li></ul>
Hyperlinks <ul><li>Often visit a site with intention of following a link </li></ul><ul><li>Idea: cluster links </li></ul><...
Example:  Centrelink.gov.au <ul><li>Government agency, human services </li></ul><ul><li>Population obtains info, forms, et...
 
Centrelink <ul><li>111 links on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems for blind users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pop-up men...
Centrelink <ul><li>111 links on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems for blind users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pop-up men...
Link clustering <ul><li>Group related links together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hopefully in topical groups </li></ul></ul>
Link clustering <ul><li>Group related links together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hopefully in topical groups </li></ul></ul><ul>...
 
Link clustering <ul><li>Navigation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invoke clustering step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presen...
Link clustering <ul><li>Navigation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invoke clustering step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presen...
Forming descriptions <ul><li>A set of keywords for each link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anchor text, nested tags, URL, content ...
Forming descriptions <ul><li>A set of keywords for each link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anchor text, nested tags, URL, content ...
Forming descriptions <ul><li>Descriptions can be short and have little overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul>
Forming descriptions <ul><li>Descriptions can be short and have little overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul><ul><...
Clustering step <ul><li>Propagation enriches descriptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relates neighboring links </li></ul></ul><...
Possible uses <ul><li>Blind users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>navigate to link via clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ski...
Possible uses <ul><li>Blind users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>navigate to link via clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ski...
Sample results - Centrelink <ul><li>12 clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agency, site, main sections, welfare allowances, stu...
 
 
 
Conclusion <ul><li>Simple, well-known ideas applied to a different problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VSM (tf.idf), clustering ...
 
 
 
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Grouping hyperlinks for improved voice/mobile accessibility

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Grouping hyperlinks for improved voice/mobile accessibility

  1. 1. Grouping hyperlinks for improved voice/mobile accessibility Alex Penev UNSW / NICTA (Australia)
  2. 2. Accessibility <ul><li>Heavily presentation-oriented web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blind users “read” sequentially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>layout gets in the way </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Accessibility <ul><li>Heavily presentation-oriented web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blind users “read” sequentially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>layout gets in the way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile users have small-screen devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For some users, “less is more” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hyperlinks <ul><li>Often visit a site with intention of following a link </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hyperlinks <ul><li>Often visit a site with intention of following a link </li></ul><ul><li>Idea: cluster links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>partition a page’s links into topical groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps find a link (cf. IVR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>way to organize a set of links </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Example: Centrelink.gov.au <ul><li>Government agency, human services </li></ul><ul><li>Population obtains info, forms, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>…but do not visit regularly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information need </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Centrelink <ul><li>111 links on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems for blind users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pop-up menus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flatten it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Centrelink <ul><li>111 links on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems for blind users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pop-up menus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flatten it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Some problems for mobiles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hard to fit/navigate a 3-tier pop-up menu </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Link clustering <ul><li>Group related links together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hopefully in topical groups </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Link clustering <ul><li>Group related links together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hopefully in topical groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>label links with descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partition descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assign summary label to each cluster </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Link clustering <ul><li>Navigation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invoke clustering step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presented with clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>advertise a label </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Link clustering <ul><li>Navigation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invoke clustering step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presented with clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>advertise a label </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>select best-sounding cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>layout is lost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faster than serial reading </li></ul>
  13. 15. Forming descriptions <ul><li>A set of keywords for each link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anchor text, nested tags, URL, content </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Forming descriptions <ul><li>A set of keywords for each link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anchor text, nested tags, URL, content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>further possibilities: anchor text window, folksonomy tags, <meta>, ontology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>australia.gov.au </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>australia, gov, government, website, travel, taxes, business, people, immigration, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Forming descriptions <ul><li>Descriptions can be short and have little overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul>
  16. 18. Forming descriptions <ul><li>Descriptions can be short and have little overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take into account layout by spreading a link’s influence across DOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>borrow descriptions from neighbor links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decay weight with distance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Clustering step <ul><li>Propagation enriches descriptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relates neighboring links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less sparse feature vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>good for clustering! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a partitioning algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. k-means </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Possible uses <ul><li>Blind users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>navigate to link via clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skip layout, skip uninteresting topics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>general surfing? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Possible uses <ul><li>Blind users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>navigate to link via clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skip layout, skip uninteresting topics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>general surfing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portal pages </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Sample results - Centrelink <ul><li>12 clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agency, site, main sections, welfare allowances, study & training, health, carers, family, children, maternity & job search/retirement, farming, online security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full table in paper </li></ul>
  21. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>Simple, well-known ideas applied to a different problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VSM (tf.idf), clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May help voice/mobile browsing </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what is a good description? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what is a good label? </li></ul></ul>
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