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A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)
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A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD)

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    • 1. A Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD) By   Rehema Baguma & Jude Lubega (Makerere University, Uganda)
    • 2.   <ul><li>  Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>WWW is progressively becoming indispensable </li></ul><ul><li>PWDs can conveniently undertake tasks that would be difficult or impossible </li></ul><ul><li>But this is only possible on accessible websites </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines that guide on developing accessible websites exist </li></ul><ul><li>But many websites are still not accessible, Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority are difficult to integrate into existing developer workflows and rarely offer specific suggestions that are developer oriented (Bigham &amp; Ladner, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The WDFAD –approach for presenting guidelines into a precise &amp; web developer oriented format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packed according to the three components of WAs; content, navigation and user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents Web access. requirements as primary goals and sub goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows relationship btn primary goals in relation to sub goals, identifies critical sub goals and suggestions on general application of the framework </li></ul></ul>
    • 3. Web Appl. Components &amp; Web Accessibility <ul><li>A WA- an application in which all or some parts are downloaded from the Web each time it runs. </li></ul><ul><li>WA comprises of content, navigation and user interface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation (traveling between/with in a page) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some issues that influence content accessibility also influence navigation &amp; user interface accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Certain Web design considerations can make the Web accessible PWDs like the blind e.g; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>text alternative for every visual element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meaningful content structure in the source code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provision for skip navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive titles for web pages/links and headings in relation to their purpose etc. </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Web Appl. Components &amp; Web Accessibility <ul><li>However it is yet to be known how the given Web accessibility design requirements relate to the different components of Web applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Table 1 shows a classification of the requirements according to the three components of Web applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on the description of what comprises content, navigation and user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to highlight the relationship between Web; content, navigation and the user interface in relation to Web accessibility for PWDs such as the blind </li></ul></ul>
    • 5. Table 1. A Classification of the Web Accessibility Requirements for the Blind according to the three components of Web applications Web Accessibility Requirement Affected Web component if not met during design Content Navigation User Interface Text only version of entire website yes yes yes Text alternative for every visual element yes Yes yes Synchronized text alternatives for video accompanied by interaction no no yes Meaningful content structure in the source code yes yes yes Provision skip navigation no yes no Descriptive titles for web pages, links and headings in relation to their purpose no yes yes Divide long pieces of content into sections with section headings no yes yes Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways no yes yes Help users avoid and correct input mistakes yes no yes Design for device independence yes yes yes Accessible tables yes yes no Accessible frames or no frame content no yes yes Presentation of form based content in a logical sequence no no yes Test the application with keyboard only access no yes yes Use or convert documents into standard formats yes no Yes Expand abbreviations and acronyms the first time they appear on a page yes no no
    • 6. Web Appl. Components &amp; Web Accessibility <ul><li>Are all the requirement really necessary for the accessibility of the related Web component? </li></ul><ul><li>What about assistive technology (AT)? </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive technologies used by the blind </li></ul><ul><li>Software or hardware specifically designed to support PWDs in carrying out daily activities </li></ul><ul><li>ATs for the blind provide sight substitution mechanisms for computer and Web access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The blind require non-visual alternatives for traditionally visual tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.gs of ATs; screen readers , voice browsers, sensory keyboards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In accessible web designs pose challenges to AT users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. with images, video, tables, forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table 2 gives a summary of how each requirement makes a difference </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. Table 1. Summary Justification for the Web Accessibility Requirements Requirement Justification Content Navigation User Interface Text only version of entire website 1 ATs can only read &amp; relay content in text form ATs can only read &amp; relay navigational elements in text form ATs can only perceive and relay intelligibly interface elements in text form Text alternative for every visual element ATs can only read and relay content in text form ATs can only read and relay navigational elements in text form ATs can only relay intelligibly interface elements in text form Synchronized text alternatives for synchronized video Not applicable Not applicable Users can synchronously perform associated interactive tasks Meaningful content structure in the source code Adds a layer of meaning enhancing ATs to read &amp; interpret documents to users Time saving with navigation. ATs read Web pages in serial order Time saving with user interface tasks. ATs ,read’ Web pages in serial order Accessible Tables (data and layout) ATs need to know which cell has header or title info for any given data cell ATs need to relay lay out tables into a usable form for the user Not Applicable Accessible frames or no frame content ( 2 see end of table for definition) Not applicable Facilitates frame identification and navigation with ATs. Facilitates frame identification and access to its elements by ATs. Presentation of form based content in a logical sequence Not applicable Not applicable Helps ATs understand &amp; relay forms &amp; their elements in usable formats Use or convert documents into standard formats Makes documents compatible with ATs Not Applicable Makes documents perceivable with ATs Expand abbreviations and acronyms the first time they appear Enables ATs to provide their full meaning to users Not Applicable Not Applicable Provision for skip navigation Not Applicable Users can skip certain content e.g. adverts to main content Not Applicable Descriptive titles for web pages, links &amp;headings in relation to their purpose Not Applicable For quicker user orientation within the site Users can more quickly identify the parts they need Divide long pieces of content into sections with section headings Not Applicable Users can move from heading to heading, to find quickly content of interest Users will know when they have moved from one section to another &amp; the purpose of each section Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways Not Applicable Users can quickly form a mental image of the site Having mental image of the site makes web pages easy to use Help users avoid and correct input mistakes Users will be able to supply the required information Not Applicable Interactive components will be more user friendly Design for device independence Makes pages compatible with ATs Makes pages compatible with ATs Makes pages compatible with ATs Test application with keyboard only access Not Applicable Keyboard is the primary navigational device for the blind Keyboard is the primary input device for the blind
    • 8. Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD) <ul><li>An approach for presenting guidelines into precise &amp; Web developer oriented format </li></ul><ul><li>Packaged according to the three components of Web applications </li></ul><ul><li>Presents Web acc. requirements as pr. goals &amp; sub goals that must be achieved during Web development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using constructs of NFR framework (Chung &amp; Nixon, 1995) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pr. goals represent high level acc.design objectives; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to make content, navigation &amp; user interface accessible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sub goals represent the requirements that must be met in Web design to meet each primary goal </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>text alternative for visual elements makes images &amp; video (content) accessible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shows relationships btn pr. goals &amp; sub goals with a justification </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies critical sub goals- those shared by all the pr.goals </li></ul>
    • 9. Figure 1: Primary goals of Web Accessibility for PWDs WDFAD User interface Accessibility Navigation Accessibility Content Accessibility
    • 10. Figure 2: The Relationship between Web accessibility Requirements and Components of Web Applications/WDFAD E F C-User interface accessibility primary goal A-Content Accessibility primary goal B-Navigational Accessibility primary goal G D
    • 11. Description and Discussion of WDFAD <ul><li>WDFAD is presented as a Venn diagram in figure 2 with three sets </li></ul><ul><li>Each set corresponds to a primary goal and contains the related sub goals for Web accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>|A|=8| </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B|=11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>|C|=13 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D,E,F are the shared sub goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>|D|= 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>|E|=1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>|F|=2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>|G|=5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D represents the critical sub goals </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of sub goals shows UI with the most &amp; content with the least </li></ul>
    • 12. Description and Discussion of WDFAD <ul><li>Can this be translated into design demands? </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 has refocused Web into a more interactive medium </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility too needs refocus - a not easy venture but efforts under way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0 draft has many guidelines and techniques on making interactive tasks accessible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We categorize members of D as the most critical sub goals due to their global effect among primary goals e.g. Alt text for visual elements </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation and UI share the most sub goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility or lack of it for navigation or UI affects more the other than it does to content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other important observation; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are more shared sub goals than individual goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>|D|+|E|+|F|+|G| &gt; ((A B U C) + (BA U C) + (CA U B )) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hence the three components have a lot in common that can be exploited to the benefit of the Web acc. process </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 13. Description and Discussion of WDFAD <ul><li>WDFAD could make Web access. guidelines easier to understand and apply by Web developers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise &amp; packaged according to universal concepts about Web applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preciseness is important because developers are used to communicating in formal instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiar tools can be easily understood &amp;assimilated given the demanding work life of developers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The global versus local classification modularizes the guidelines for easier understanding, application &amp; update </li></ul><ul><li>Existing guidelines could be simplified by adopting such a categorization e.g ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>global (content, navigation and user interface), global (content and navigation), global (content and user interface) and global (navigation and user interface). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or according to the types of disabilities that affect a person’s use of the Web. </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. Conclusion &amp; Future Work <ul><li>In this paper we have presented a Web Design Framework for Improved Accessibility for People with Disabilities (WDFAD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An approach for presenting guidelines into precise &amp; a Web developer familiar classification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is hoped that application of the WDFAD concept to Web access. guidelines could make them easier to understand and apply by Web developers </li></ul>
    • 15. <ul><li>Thank you for your time </li></ul><ul><li>Your Comments &amp; Questions are Welcome </li></ul>

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