Writing a text meant to be delivered as a speechPresentation Transcript
Writing a text meant to be delivered as a speech to a live audience Situational Writing Term 3 Week 3-4.2011 St. Hilda’s Secondary School SECONDARY THREE NORMAL ACADEMIC.2011 at St. Hilda’s Secondary School by Yeo Yam Hwee
HOW TO WRITE A SPEECH HOW TO WRITE A SPEECH HOW TO WRITE A SPEECH HOW TO WRITE A SPEECH HOW TO WRITE A SPEECH
A speech is
 a prepared text meant for oral presentation
 by an invited speaker
 for a target audience
 with specific purpose[s]
 at a designated location
 for a named occasion
 within a given time slot
 and may be repeated at another time and place as long as the purposes are still timely and relevant.
There are many skills involved in giving a public speech. Clearly a written script is usually needed for public speaking. This being the case, special care is needed for us to craft our speech so that we are comfortable with ourselves and confident of what we are going to say to the our target audience.
How to Write and Give A Speech
WHAT IS A SPEECH?
A message delivered to an audience with a given purpose.
It is typically structured in an organised - and often persuasive - manner .
ASK THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
1. What is your official role in the task?
2. Who are you speaking to?
3. What is the purpose of your speech?
4. What is the occasion?
5. What do you want to convey to your
6. How do you feel about the subject of
your speech? Why?
Introduction - get their attention and state your main idea/message
Body – include support and details for your theme
Conclusion – summarize your main point or put things in perspective
Tell your audience what your speech is about.
Make an impact by starting your speech with
- an anecdote
- a quote to capture the attention of your listeners.
- a thought-provoking question
- making a controversial statement related to the theme of your speech.
So how do I structure my speech?
Firstly, introduce yourself – people need to know how is talking to them
Then ask for their attention – you are trying to convince people of something. Be polite!
Then state your position. What do you believe?
Introduction: Get Their Attention
Nobody likes to be bored. So put yourself in your audience's shoes. Find an interesting way to start your speech and get their attention right from the beginning.
Elaborate on your points in three to four paragraphs, ideally link to one another while building on the subject.
Write clearly and succinctly. Do not be long-winded and ramble on or you will lose the attention of your audience.
Use appropriate adjectives and descriptive phrases to emphasise your points. This will also make your speech more interesting.
Related points in your speech should follow one another such that each point builds upon the previous one.
Use transition words to ensure that your points link smoothly.
Now make a point – then ELABORATE on it. Saying what you believe is not enough. You must say WHY you believe it and WHY other people should believe it.
Make as many points as you can. The more points you make the more convincing you become.
In a speech you should try to give COUNTER ARGUMENTS
How should I order my speech?
You need to grab your audience. Do this by:
Making your best argument first. This will get people’s attention.
Save your second best argument for last – people will remember this.
Give the rest of your arguments in order; second best to least best.
Sum up your points
Re-emphasise your message
Leave your audience with something memorable to think about so that your speech leaves a lasting impression on them.
Address your audience before you begin your speech.
Thank them for being there.
You may be impassioned in your speech but do not lose control of your emotions.
Bear in mind that a speech is meant to be spoken aloud! Always imagine that you are speaking to someone when you are writing a speech.
PHRASES TO USE
Thank you for being here today...
Thank you for your kind presence here today...
I would like to begin by saying...
1 would like to convey my...
I am delighted to be here today...
I am happy to be here today...
It is a pleasure to be here today...
It is an honour to be here today... Thank you for your kind attention...
Thank you for your time...
Make sure that your points are logical and make sense .
Convince your audience that you are well-informed and truthful so that they are more likely to believe you. Use your personal experiences as examples in your speech.
Appeal to the emotions of your audience. They often strengthen a speech.
Describe your ideas and thoughts clearly.
If you need to prove a point, use facts, statistics or expert opinions to support your points.
Be descriptive but not overly detailed. The information that you present should substantiate your viewpoint, not bog down your speech with unnecessary details.
Address your audience politely and respectfully. You should not use words or phrases that are casual or too colloquial.
Although a formal speech is generally serious in tone, you may add a little humour to your speech, depending on the purpose of the speech and your intended audience.
Presentation of the Speech
Remember that you're writing a speech, not an essay. People will hear the speech, not read it. The more conversational you can make it sound, the better. So follow the following ideas:
Voice: Write Like You Talk
Always read your speech aloud while you're writing it. You'll hear right away if you sound like a book or a real person talking!
Sentence Structure and Vocabulary
Use short sentences. It’s better to write two simple sentences than one long complicated sentence. It is easier on the listen to follow along.
Use contractions. Say "I'm" instead of "I am" "we're" instead of "we are."
Don't use big words that you wouldn't use when talking to someone.
What makes it great?
The repetition of a very powerful phrase.
Use repetition in your speeches.
Create a powerful phrase.
Repeat it again and again.
It makes a speech PURPOSEFUL and PERSUASIVE .
Now you are going to write a speech about the skate park
Ask the audience to listen to you
State your position
Make your best point
Elaborate on it
Make the rest of your points, elaborating on each
Save your second best point until last
Summarise your position
Give a conclusion
Thank the audience for their attention
Convince yourself in your speech
Choose A Theme
The key to writing good speeches lies in using a theme. If you always refer back to this theme, the audience will respond positively and remember your words. This means that inspirational quotes, anecdotes and jokes should be integrated into your speech in a way that makes sense.
What’s your message?
Write your main message in one sentence and in plain language.
Think about your main message and write your closing statement
One technique, which ties everything together, is to open and close with the same statement.
One Main Idea/Message
Why only one idea? Mainly because if you reinforce a single point instead of focusing on entirely different ideas, your audience will have a greater tendency to remember it. A speech does not lend itself to having many themes. Stick with one really good theme, and use each point you make, your theme reinforcers, to bring that idea home.
Remember, you only have two - three minutes for your speech!
SPEECH: NIGHT STUDY PROGRAMME AT SHSS POST-MORTEM 1189 Sec 4NA Preliminary P1 2009
You are advised to write between 250 and 350 words for this section. You should read the information carefully and plan your answer before writing.
You are giving a speech in the next hall assembly to persuade and convince your principal and teachers to implement a night study programme which will include allowing students to make use of the classrooms and related school facilities at night in preparation for major school or national examinations.
What is your ROLE ?
Who is the AUDIENCE of your writing task?
What is the PURPOSE of your writing task?
In what FORM is it going to be in?
FRAMEWORK for writing task in Section B: Situational Writing – R.A.P.F. = TONE WHAT TO WRITE HOW TO WRITE F ORM A UDIENCE P URPOSE R OLE T ONE
Identify the AUDIENCE for the speech
Classmates, teachers, schoolmates, principal?
Primary school pupils?
Pupils and teachers from another school or another country?
Know the purpose of your speech
To inform or report?
To express appreciation?
A combination of some of the above or all or more?
Plan your speech
Take into account the AUDIENCE and PURPOSE, and content that is required, and plan it with 3 or 4 content paragraphs and an introduction and conclusion.
Start off with a CONVENTIONAL GREETING
E.g. Good morning, teachers and friends…
Good afternoon, teachers and friends…
Good evening, teachers and friends…
These are safe openings and seriously, there is no need to take any chances in your examinations.
GETTING TO THE POINT
Depending on the scenario provided in the question, you could
Give an introduction to the speech followed by the purpose of the speech
State the purpose directly as an introduction in itself.
GETTING TO THE POINT
Ask a question which sets the audience thinking.
Make an interesting statement.
Ask a rhetorical question.
Tell a joke which helps to break the ice or introduce the topic.
Give a quotation from a famous people or book.
Go directly into stating the purpose of the speech
ELABORATE on points with relevant details
Comparisons / Analogies
Quotations of what others feel and think
ORGANIZE your speech
All speeches have a structure. In order to make any sense, you need to have that structure. Do not rely on PASSION or SENSE OF MISSION to speak to your audience. Sell your message to your listeners if you care at all about your message and your listeners.
PURPOSE REPETITION OF PURPOSE WRAPPING UP EXPLANATION / ARGUMENT ELABORATION / EVIDENCE THE SIMPLIFIED VERSION OF THE STRUCTURE OF YOUR SPEECH GREETINGS & INTRODUCTION
HOW DO R. A. P. F. FIT INTO THE HAMBURGER STRUCTURE WHAT IS MY ROLE AS THE SPEAKER? R WHO IS MY AUDIENCE? FORM = SPEECH - Take note: All speeches are formal. Even classroom speeches because it is usually an appointed leader speaking to his or her classmates. F A WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF MY SPEECH? P
WHAT YOU WRITE HOW YOU WRITE = TONE
Use a suitable mix of TENSES
Use the present tense to describe an existing situation or current statistics, etc.
Use the past tense for giving a personal recount or describing anything that occurred in the past.
Use future tense to express hopes or future actions.
Points of Reference
Use the FIRST, SECOND and THIRD person reference where applicable
Points of Reference
Today I (first person) am proud to introduce to you (second person) a local writer in Singapore. He (third person) is none other than…
THE DETAILS which YOU MUST write about…
You should include the following in your speech on the topic:
Why do you make the request for such a programme to be implemented?
In what ways could the school support the programme’s implementation?
What are some of the measures which the school can come up with to prevent misuse or abuse of such a programme?
Who are the students who will benefit from participation in the programme?
How will they benefit?
Which part of the year and for how long do you think such a programme should be conducted in order for it to be effective?
Prepare your speech which must cover these points in detail.
You may also include any other relevant ideas. Write in an appropriate tone using clear and accurate English, bearing in mind that your principal, teachers and schoolmates will be present to listen to you.
What Your Speech Should Look Like…
Good morning, Mr. Khoo, teachers and fellow Hildans. I am Colin Giam from Secondary 3D. I am honoured to be given this opportunity to address you because I have something important which I would like you to think and hopefully act together with me.
I am standing on the stage in the school hall today because I strongly believe in the need for our school to begin some form of a night study programme for students like you and me to make use of the classrooms and related school facilities at night so that we can more effectively prepare ourselves for any major school or national examinations such as the N and the O level examinations. The majority of our student population lives in housing estates. We do not have a conducive environment at night to revise our school work. If we could just be allowed to use some areas of the school at night, it would be a great help to us.
Continuing on with…
How would my request affect the school? I think in some ways but I would like to appeal to our teachers that studying at night here would be really effective. I know our teachers are really holding revision classes in small groups. If we have night study, I think you would all agree that time is likely to be even more effectively spent since we can concentrate better. So I am appealing to our teachers to consider conducting their revision classes at night instead of the current practice.
Continuing on and on…
I wish to say that when students return to study in school at night, we would only be making use of the canteen and the classrooms on the ground floor of the new block. I am proposing that students who sign up for the programme stay on from 7p.m. to 10p.m, nightly, excluding the weekends.
Further along the same train of thought…
I am also aware of the need for rules and regulations to be in place if the school management agrees to implement the night study programme. For a start, I would like to call upon all Hildans or better yet, our student leaders to help us come up with a feasible set of rules. This programme is meant for all of us so we should not allow any student to misuse or abuse it once it is implemented.
I feel strongly that the graduating students who are going to sit the forthcoming N and O level examinations should be given the priority to come back to school for night study. As such, I would strongly urge the school authority to allow us to study in school during the night time a month or two before major national examinations begin. This will greatly benefit our graduating classes. I also believe that the teachers will also be able to meet their students to help them revise for the examinations more effectively. So Hildans, I truly need you to support this night study programme. Not everybody needs to come back but for those who do, our school is the best place for it, don’t you think?
How to conclude your speech?
I want to thank Mr. Khoo, teachers and all fellow Hildans for listening to my request. I think I am speaking up for many, many of us here and I wish the school management would help us make this night study programme a reality. It is for the good of all the students and what is good for us will also be good for our school as a whole. I hope it would be soon that we hear a positive response from Mr. Khoo and our teachers to let us go ahead with the programme. With that, I thank you all.